Darwinian Creativity and Memetics
Routledge, 11/09/2014 - 240 من الصفحات
Maria Kronfeldner examines how Darwinism has been used to explain novelty and change in culture through the Darwinian approach to creativity and the theory of memes. The first claims that creativity is based on a Darwinian process of blind variation and selection, while the latter claims that culture is based on and explained by units - memes - that are similar to genes. Both theories try to describe and explain mind and culture by applying Darwinism by way of analogies. Kronfeldner shows that the analogies involved in these theories lead to claims that give either wrong or at least no new descriptions or explanations of the phenomena at issue. Whereas the two approaches are usually defended or criticized on the basis that they are dangerous for our vision of ourselves, this book takes a different perspective: it questions the acuteness of these approaches. Darwinian theory is not like a dangerous wolf, hunting for our self image. Far from it, in the case of the two analogical applications addressed in this book, Darwinian theory is shown to behave more like a disoriented sheep in wolf's clothing.
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According adaptedness adaptive adaptive bias approach to creativity artefacts behaviour bias biological evolution Blackmore blind variation blind watchmakers blind-variation analogy brain patterns Campbell causal chance-configuration Chapter compatibility argument concept of culture copy fidelity coupling critique cultural change cultural items Darwin industry Darwinian approach Darwinism Dawkins Dawkins’s Dennett developmental constraints diffusion dual inheritance theories egoism analogy entities evidence evolutionary explain explanatory factors fitness of memes gene selectionism genes and memes genetic algorithms guided variation heuristically trivial hidden chaos historiometric holism ibid ideas ideational units important independent individuals inference instance intentional stance involved issue kind Lamarck lineage condition means memeticists memetics mutation narrow sense novelty ontological analogy organisms origination analogy perspective phenotypic effects physical substrates previously acquired knowledge properties random respect role selection process selective environment selfish selfish genes similar Simonton social learning social transmission specific spread Sterelny tautology theory tion transmitted trial-and-error trials triggering undirected variation undirectedness units of selection