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Assyria, an ancient and immense empire, of which Nineveh was the capital. It was bounded on the north by Armenia, south by Susiana (or Persia), west by the Tigris, and east by Media.

Athens, a celebrated city of Greece, the capital of Attica, and the seat of learning, science, and the arts. Here Paul preached; Acts xvii. 16-22.

Baal-peor, a mountain to which Balak brought Balaam, that he might curse Israel; Numb. xxiii. 28. The name of this Idol (Baal) is also prefixed to several other places where he was worshipped.

Babel, and Babylon; the former name describes a tower built soon after the flood, Gen. x. 1-9. It originally formed the centre of the great city of Babylon. Dan. iv. 30.

Bashan, the country of Og, which lies between Gilead and the Jordan. Numb. xxxii. 33.

Beersheba, a city of Syria, in the south extremity of Canaan, about 20 miles from Hebron, where Abraham made a covenant with Abimelech. Gen. xxi. 22—34.

Berea, a city of Macedonia, in the neighbourhood of Athens. Acts xvii. 11.

Bethesda, a pool in the east of Jerusalem. See our Exposition of John v. 1-16. Bethsaida, the town of Peter, Andrew, and Philip, on the borders of the lake Gennesareth, where our Lord wrought many miracles. Luke x. 13.

Bethabara, a village beyond Jordan, where John baptized, and whither Jesus sometimes withdrew. John i. 28; x. 39, 40. Bethany, a village on Mount Olivet, where Lazarus dwelt. John xi. 28-44.

Bethel, the place where Jacob was favoured with a heavenly vision, supposed to be on the north border of Benjamin. Gen. xxviii. 19.

Bethlehem of Judah, the city of David and of Christ, formerly called Ephrath, or Ephrata. Micah v. 2; Matt. ii. 1, 6. It is about six miles south of Jerusalem: but there was another Bethlehem in the tribe of Zebulon; and the word Beth, which signifies a house or temple, is prefixed to many other names, as Beth-shemosh, or the city of the sun; which answers to the Greek Heliopolis.

Bochim, a place of weeping. Judges ii. 1-5.

Bosrah, a principal city of Edom, or Idumea, and probably a contraction from Beth-ashtoroth, the temple of Ashtoroth, or Astarte.

Cæsarea, a city in Palestine, formerly called Strato's Tower, but rebuilt by Herod the Great, and thus named in honour of Cæsar. It became the residence of the

Roman Proconsul, and the metropolis of Judea.

Cæsarea-Philippi, was first called Leshem, and afterwards Dan; Josh. xix. 47; Judges xviii. 29; and being afterwards rebuilt by Philip the Tetrarch, he called it Cæsarea in honour of Cæsar, with his own name subjoined.

Calvary, the same as Golgotha, is supposed to have been a hill, just without the city walls. Matt. xxvii. 33; Luke xxiii. 33.

Cana, a town of Galilee, where Jesus wrought his first miracle. Johu ii. 1-11.

Canaan, in its more contracted sense, as divided by Joshua, is calculated to have been not above 160 miles long by 50 broad; but in its more enlarged sense, it extended south to the desert of Kadesh, north to Lebanon, east to the Euphrates, and west to the Mediterranean. Gen. xv. 18; Deut. xi. 24, &c.

Capernaum, a town on the sea of Galilee, and chiefly inhabited by fishermen, &c. Matt. iv. 15, 16.

Cappadocia, a kingdom famous for horses and flocks. It is mentioned in connection with Pontus, Galatia, and Bythinia, to which it joined. Acts ii. 9; Peter i. 1.

Carmel, a mountain on the west side of the Holy Land, rendered famous in the history of Elijah. 1 Kings xviii. 19–46.

Chinnereth, Lake of, the same as Gennesareth, which see.

Cilicia, a country of Asia Minor, having mount Taurus on the north, and on the south the Cilisian Sea. Mentioned Acts vi. 9.

Colosse, a city of Phrygia, not far from Laodicea. Col. iv. 13.

Corinth, a rich and noble city of Achaia Proper, where many Jews resided, and had a synagogue. Acts xviii. 8.

Crete, an island in the Mediterranean. Of the inhabitants, see Titus i. 12.

Cush, the ancient Hebrew name for Ethiopia.

Cyprus, a large island at the bottom of the Mediterranean, about 100 miles south of Cilicia.

Cyrene, a city of Lybia, in Africa. Acts ii. 10; xi. 21.

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Decapolis, ten cities and their respective districts, lying in Iturea and Peræa, which united for their mutual security and defence. Mark vii. 31.

Derbe, a city of Lycaonia, in Asia Minor. See Acts xiv. 6, 20.

Dothan, a town about 12 miles north from Shechem. See Gen. xxxvii. 17.

Dura, an extensive plain in the province of Babylon. Dan. iii. 1.

Egypt, an ancient kingdom of Africa, called also Mizraim, or the land of Ham, and famous (or rather infamous) for idolatry and oppression.

Elam, the ancient Hebrew name of Persia.

Emims, a race of giants. Deut. ii. 10, 11. Emmaus, a village about seven miles from Jerusalem. Luke xxiv. 13-35. It is said, that it afterwards grew into the city and colony of Nicopolis.

Endor, a city of Manasseh, within the bounds of Issachar, and noted for the witch whom King Saul consulted. 1 Sam. xxviii. 7.

En-gedi, a city in the desert of Judea, famous for its palm trees and vineyards. 1 Sam. xxiv. 2; 2 Chron. xx. 2; Sol. Song, i. 14. The term En, which signifies " a fountain," is prefixed to various other names of places.

Ephesus, a city of Asia Minor, famous for its image and temple of Diana. Acts xix.

Ethiopia, 1. An extensive country of Africa, anciently comprehending Abyssinia and Nubia. 2. The country on the east coast of the Red Sea, whence Moses had his wife. Numb. xii. 1.

Euphrates, the great river, which formed the eastern limit of the land of Israel, taking its rise in the north of mount Taurus.

Ezion-geber, a sea-port of Idumea, where Solomon fitted out his fleets; 1 Kings ix. 26-and near to which was lost the joint fleet of Jehoshaphat and Ahaziah. 2 Chron. xx. 35-37.

Fair Havens, a bay of Crete, near Lasea. Acts xxvii. 8.

Gadarenes. See Girgasites.

Galatia, a province of Asia Minor, so called (as is said) from the Gauls who settled there.

Galilee, the northern division of Canaan, containing the tribes of Issachar, Zebulon, &c.; bounded by Lebanon on the north, and Samaria on the south. It was divided into Lower and Upper, the latter being mountainous, and being peopled by various nations, was called Galilee of the Gentiles but Lower Galilee was far more populous and rich, and here our Lord so much resided, that he was called a Gali

lean, both Nazareth and Capernaum being in this district.

Gath, an ancient city of the Philistines, whose King afforded to David an asylum. 1 Sam. xxvii. 5, 6.

Gaza, another chief city of the Philistines, the scene of Sampson's chief exploits. Judges xvi.

Gehinnom, the valley of Hinnom, without Jerusalem, and probably including Kidron. It was infamous for the idolatrous rites of Moloch, particularly the part called Tophet, where the idol stood. It was considered as a type of hell, and from it was formed Gehenna, which is so rendered, Matt. v. 22, 29, 30, &c. &c.

Gennesareth (called also Chinnereth), the lake of Galilee, about 20 miles long and 6 broad, surrounded by pleasant towns. See Luke v. 1, &c.

Gerar, the royal city of Abimelech. Gen.

xx. 2.

Gerizim, a mountain near Shechem, on which the Samaritans built their temple. See John iv. 20.

Gethsemane, a garden at the foot of mount Olivet, in which were vineyards and wine-presses. Matt. xxvi. 36.

Gibeon, a city of Canaan. The Gibeonites deceived Joshua into a league with them, by which means their lives were spared, but they were made slaves for the tabernacle service. Josh, ix.

Gilead, mountain of, whence came the celebrated balm of Gilead. Jer. viii. 22 This hill lay east of the sea of Galilee, being part of the chain of mountains which extend southward from Lebanon into Judea, including the Trachonitis.

Gilgal, the place where circumcision was renewed in Canaan. Josh. v. 2, 9.

Girgasites, the inhabitants of Girgesa, a town on the east of Genesareth, near to Gadara. See Note on Matt. viii. 28.

Gomorrha, one of the five cities destroyed by fire from heaven. Gen. xix. 2. Goshen, a city and district in Egypt, where Jacob dwelt. Gen. xlv. 10; xlvi. 34.

Greece, in Hebrew Javan, from a son of Japheth. Gen. x. 2, 4. It is used in Daniel for Macedonia, as well as Greece Proper.

Haran, or Charran, in the north-west of Mesopotamia, the city where Terah died. Gen. xi. 27, 32.

Hebron, a very ancient city, formerly called Kirjath-Arba, or the city of Arba, where several of the Patriarchs and their wives were buried. Gen. xiii. 18; xxiii. 2.

Hermon, a high mountain in the northern extremity of Israel, its summit always covered with snow. Deut. iii. 9.

Hinnom. See Gehinnom.

Hor, a mountain on the borders of Hebron, where Aäron died.


Horeb, a part of mount Sinai. Deut. ix. 8, 9.

Jabesh Gilead, a city of Gilead, to the east of the Jordan, which was besieged by the Ammonites in the reign of Saul, and relieved by him. 1 Sam. xi. 1-11. In recollection of this, when Saul was slain, and his body affixed to the walls of Bethshan, some of the inhabitants of this town went and took down the body, and gave it honourable interment. 1 Sam. xxxi.


Iconium, the chief city of Lycaonia. See Acts xiv. 1-6.

Idumea, anciently called Edom, included the south of Judea, from the sea of Sodom to the Red sea. In process of time, the Idumeans advanced northward into Judea, nearly as far as Hebron. Under the Maccabees they were conquered, and forced to submit to circumcision.

Jebus, the ancient name of Jerusalem, which see. Its inhabitants were then called Jebusites.

Jericho, the first city which Joshua took after he had crossed the Jordan. Josh. vi. 1, &c. It was famous for the number of palm trees there growing. See Deut. xxxiv. 3.

Jerusalem, the capital of Judea, where Solomon's temple was situated. The city was built on two hills, mounts Sion and Acra, with a deep valley between. The city of David, or the upper city, on Mount Sion; the lower city, on Mount Acra, and the temple occupied part of a third mount, Moriah. The upper and lower towns were separated by a high wall through the valley, and the whole encircled by a strong wall. In Herod's time, the Romaus bad a castle on the west, called Antonia, which overlooked the courts of the temple, and where they kept a garrison. "Jerusalem" is commonly explained to mean "the City of Peace." The Greeks called it Hierosolyma, or "the Holy Salem." See a ground plan of this city, in a corner of our Map of İsrael.

Jezreel, a city of Issachar, where Ahab had a palace, and Naboth a vineyard. 1 Kings xxi. 1, &c.

Illyricum, a province lying north and north-west of Macedonia, on the east coast of the Adriatic Guif. Paul visited this country, and sent thither Titus. Rom. xv. 19; 2 Tim. iv. 10.

India, is in Scripture only mentioned in Esther i. 1; viii. 9.

Joppa, a sea-port in the Mediterranean, south of Cæsarea, and not far from Lydda, where Peter raised Tabitha to life. Acts Ex. 36-43.

Jordan, the principal river of Judea,whose banks being covered with a forest of reeds

and shrubs, afforded shelter to wild beasts, who were, however, driven therefrom when the river overflowed its banks, sometimes to the extent of nearly a mile on each side. Jer. xlix. 19.

Italy, a well-known country of Europe, of which Rome is the capital.

Iturea, a country east of Jordan, sup posed to derive its name from Jetur, a son of Ishmael. Gen. xxv. 15. It included the kingdom of Bashan. Tiberias gave it to Philip the Tetrarch. Luke iii. 1.

Judea, or the land of Israel, has been divided into four parts:-1. The western province, along the borders of the Mediterranean, inhabited by the Philistines. 2. The mountainous district, called the Hill Country. Josh. xxi. 11; Luke i. 39. 3. The wilderness of Judea, along the shore of the Dead Sea. 4. The valley west of Jerusalem. In our Lord's time, Judea extended from the Mediterranean west, to the Dead Sea east; bounded on the north by Samaria, and on the south by Edom, or the Desart.

Kadesh, the name of a wilderness, supposed to be the same as the wilderness of Paran, and the Desart of Zin. Also a city, situated on the borders of this wilderness, west of Edom. Numb. xx. 14—16.

Kadesh Barnea, a city of Moab, bordering on the south of Judah. Num, xx. 1.

Kedar, a region so called in the desart of the Hagarens. Gen. xxv. 18; 1 Chron.

i. 29.

Kidron (Kedron, or Cedron), the name of a valley, and of a stream flowing through it, between Jerusalem and the mount of Olives. 2 Sam. xv. 23; 2 Kings xxiii. 4; John xviii. 1.

Kirjath Arba. See Hebron.

Kirjath Jearim, a city of the Gibeonites, which fell to the lot of Judah. It was about nine miles west from Jerusalem, on the road to Lydda. Here the ark remained above 20 years, till David brought it up to Zion. 1 Sam. vii.; 1 Chron. xiii.

Kishon, a river, or torrent rather, which taking its rise from the plain of Jezreel, passed on the north of mount Carmel, and discharged its waters into the Mediterranean. Judges iv. 7, 13.

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ning nearly parallel to each other. The valleys between are very fertile, and the sides of the mountains are covered with trees, formerly chiefly cedars, of which some few still remain of a large size; but the highest ridges are covered with snow throughout the year. Several large rivers flow from these mountains, and among the rest, the Jordan. This country formed the northern boundary of the Holy Land.

Luz, a city of the Canaanites, called by Jacob, Bethel. Gen. xxviii. 19.

Lybia, a part of Africa, west of Egypt, bounded by the Mediterranean on the north, and by the Sandy Desart south. The Lybians, or Lubims, were celebrated for their horses and chariots. 2 Chron. xvi. 8. Acts ii. 10.

Lycaonia, a province of Asia Minor; its chief cities, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe. Acts xiv. 1, 6.

Lydda, a city of Judah, about a day's journey west from Jerusalem, on the road to Joppa. Acts ix, 33.

Lydia, a province of Asia Minor. Ezek.

xxx. 5.

Lystra, a city of Lycaonia, rendered memorable by a miracle there wrought by Paul and Barnabas. Acts xiv. 8-18.

Macedonia, a kingdom of Greece, anciently called Emathia; rendered famous by Alexander the Great, who derived it from his father, Philip, King of Macedon. It was bounded on the north by Thrace, south by Thessaly, east by the Egean, and west by the lonian and Adriatic Seas. Thessalonica, in Paul's time, was the metropolis, whither he was invited by a vision. Acts xvi. 9.

Machpelah, the cave which Abraham bought for a family burying-place. Gen. xxiii. 9.

Magdala, a town of Galilee, from which it is supposed that Mary Magdalen derived her surname. Matt. xv. 39.

Mahanaim, a city between mount Gilead and the Jabbok, where Jacob had a divine vision. Gen. xxxii. 3.

Mamre, a plain near Hebron, where Abraham dwelt. Gen. xiii. 18; xxxv. 27. Mara. See Exod. xv. 23-25.

Media, a province of Asia, the kingdom of Darius, but united with Persia by Cyrus, his successor. Its capital was Ecbatana.

Judith i. 1.

Mediterranean, the great sea west of Palestine and Syria.

Melita, now Malta, the island on which Paul was shipwrecked, Acts xxviii. 1—10; where see our Exposition. It is now in possession of the English, and a Missionary station for the Levant.

Mesopotamia, a country of Asia, between the Tigris and Euphrates, as its name im

plies; and sometimes called Padan-aram, whereJacob dwelt with Laban. Gen.xxvii.

Midian, a country on the eastern shore of the Red Sea, to which Moses fled, and where he lived with Jethro, his father-inlaw, till he was sent back to deliver Israel. Exodus ii. 15, &c.

Miletus, a sea-port of Caria, in Asia Minor, whence St. Paul sent for the elders of the church of Ephesus to meet him. Acts xx. 18, 35. But Paul mentions another Miletus, in Crete. 2 Tim. iv. 10.

Millo, a building erected upon a part of the valley between Zion and Acra, which had been filled up by David and Solomon. 1 Kings xi. 27.

Mitylene, a celebrated city of the island Lesbos, visited by St. Paul. Acts xx. 14.

Mizar, a little hill to which David fled from Hermon. See Ps. xlii. 6.

Mizpeh, a city of Judah; Josh. xv. 38: but there were four other cities of the same


Moabites, the descendants of Moab, the son of Lot, whose residence was beyond Jordan and the Dead Sea, on both sides the brook Arnon. Its capital was Ar, or Arepolis, i. e. the city of Ar.

Moriah, the mountain on which Abra ham offered up his son, and on which Solomon built his temple. Gen. xxii. 2; 2 Chron. iii. 1.

Mysia, a province of Asia Minor, bounded north by Bithynia, south by the river Hemus, on the east by Phrygia, and on the west by Troas. It was visited by Paul. Acts xvi. 7, 8.

Nain, a city at the foot of Mount Hermon (about six miles from Tabor), where our Lord restored to life the widow's Luke vii. 11.


Nazareth, a town of Galilee, where out Lord was brought up and long resided Matt. ii. 23; Luke iv. 16. It was about six miles west from Tabor.

Neapolis, a city of Thrace. Acts xvi. 11. Also a new name given to Shechem when rebuilt. See Shechem.

Nebo, a mountain of Moab, opposite Jericho, which Moses ascended to view the promised land, and there died. Deut. xxxii. 49; xxxiv. 1. Also the name of a city in Moab, and another in Judah.

Nicopolis, a city of Thrace, where Paul directed Titus to meet him. Titus iii. 12

Nile (in Heb. Sihor), a well known river of Egypt, famous for fructifying the laod by its overflowing. Isa. xxiii. 3. On its brink Moses was preserved in an ark of rushes. Exod. ii. 1-6.

Nineveh, a city built by Ashur, on the east side of the Tigris; Gen. x. 11, 12; and which afterwards became one of the most populous and extensive in the world


Jonah i. 28. It was called by Pagan writers Ninus.

No, or No Ammon, the second city in Egypt, and generally supposed to be the same which the Greeks called Thebes. It was built on the east bank of the Nile, in Upper Egypt. Jer. xlvi. 25.

Nob, a city of Benjamin and of the priests, whither David fled to Abimelech. 1 Sam. xxi. 1, &c.

Noph, an ancient city of Egypt, called by the Greeks Memphis, and for a long time the royal seat of the Pharoahs, and the capital of that kingdom. It was situated on the west side of the Nile, about 15 miles above the Delta.

Olivet, or the mount of Olives, so called from its numerous olive trees, was about one mile from Jerusalein; and from hence our Lord ascended into heaven. Acts i. 12. On, a city of Egypt (supposed to be in Goshen), called by the Greeks Heliopolis, or the City of the Sun, which was probably the object of their worship.

Ophir, a place to which Solomon sent ships on a three years' voyage for gold, &c. 1 Kings ix. 28. See our Note there.

Padan-aram. See Mesopotamia. Palestine, the land of Judea, so called from the Philistines, who occupied its western border. Exod. xv. 14; Isa. xiv. 29, 31.

Pamphylia, a province of Asia Minor, including part of mount Taurus, Perga, and Attalia. Acts ii. 10; xiii. 13.

Paphos, the metropolis of Cyprus, where resided the Roman Proconsul. Acts xiii. 6. Paran, the wilderness where Ishmael dwelt, lying between the wilderness of Shur and the land of Edom. Gen. xxi. 21. Also a city in its borders. Deut. i. 1, &c. Parthia, a part of Persia, between the Indus and the Tigris. See Acts ii. 9.

Patmos, an island of the Mediterranean Sea, to which St. John was banished. See Rev. i. 9, and Note.

Peniel, a place supposed to be near the river Jabbok, in Gilead. Gen. xxxii 24-31. Pentapolis, the five cities of the plain. See Sodom.

Perga, a city of Pamphylia, whither Paul sailed from Paphos. Acts xiii. 13. Pergamos, a famous city, in which was planted one of the seven Asiatic churches. Rev. ii. 12.

Perizzites, wandering inhabitants of Canaan, as their name implies, probably like our Gypsies. Gen. xiii. 7.

Persia, a mighty and extensive empire, which came to its height of power and splendour under Darius and Cyrus. See Dan, vi. 1-3.

Philadelphia, a city of Lydia, in Asia

Minor, and the seat of another of the seven Asiatic churches. See Rev. iii. 7—13, with our Exposition.

Philippi, a city of Macedonia, so called from Philip, King of Macedon. Here the jailor and his household were converted. Acts xvi. 25-34.

Philistia, the country of the Philistines, who occupied five cities, and a considerable tract of land on the borders of the Mediterranean. See Palestine. The Philistines are also called Caphtorim. Deut. ii. 23. Phoenice, a haven lying to the southwest of Crete. Acts xxvii. 12.

Phoenicia, a part of Asia, having Syria north and east, Judea and Palestine on the south, and the Mediterranean Sea west. Tyre and Sidon were its chief cities.

Phrygia, a district of Asia Minor, divided into two parts. The former included Laodicea and Hieropolis; but the latter is supposed to be intended. Acts xiv. 24.

Pisgah, the summit of the mount Abarim, from which Moses had a view of the promised land. See Abarim.

Pisidia, a province in Asia Minor, whereof the chief city is Antioch. Acts xiii. 14. Pontus, an extensive province of Asia Minor, the native country of Aquilla. See Acts xviii. 2.

Ptolemais, anciently called Accho, was a maritime city of Judea, near Mount Carmel, and received its name from one of the Ptolemies. Acts xxi. 27.

Rabbah, the metropolis of the Ammonites, but taken from them by Joab. 2 Sam. xi. 1. It was, after the return from the Babylonish captivity, called Philadelphia, after Ptolemy Philadelphus, but is not the city of that name above-mentioned.

Rahab, a name repeatedly applied to Egypt. Ps. lxxxvii. 4; lxxxix. Il. See Note on Isa. li. 9.

Ramah, a city of Benjamin, not far from Gibeon. Josh. xv. 25. There was another Ramah in Mount Ephraim, called also Ramathaim, where Samuel dwelt, 1 Sam. i. 1, 19; and a third city of that name in Naphtali.

Rameses, a city built by the Israelites, during their slavery in Egypt. Exod i. 11. Also a district so called in the time of Joseph, whereon probably the city was afterwards built. See Gen. xlvii. 11.

Red Sea, in Hebrew," the reedy sea," from the abundance of sea weeds in it. See our Note on Exod. xiii. 18.

Rephaim, a valley in the road from Jerusalem to Bethlehem; probably so called from the Rephaim (or giants) having formerly dwelt there. Josh. xv. 8.

Rhodes, an island in the Mediterranean, ranking next in importance to Cyprus and Lesbos; but chiefly remarkable for a brazen

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