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6 I have cut off the nations: their
towers are desolate; I made their streets waste, that none passeth by: their cities are destroyed, so that there is no man, that there is none inhabitant.
7 I said, Surely thou wilt fear me, thou wilt receive instruction; so their dwelling should not be cut off, howsoever I punished them: but they rose early, and corrupted all their doings.
8 Therefore wait ye upon me, saith the LORD, until the day that I rise up to the prey for my determination is to gather the nations, that I may assemble the kingdoms, to pour upon them mine indignation, even all my fierce anger for all the earth shall be devoured with the fire of my jealousy.
9 For then will I turn to the people a pure language, that they may all call upon the name of the LORD, to serve him with one consent.
10 From beyond the rivers of Ethiopia my suppliants, even the daughter of my dispersed, shall bring mine offering.
11 In that day shalt thou not be ashamed for all thy doings, wherein thou hast transgressed against me: for then I will take away out of the midst of thee them that rejoice in thy pride, and thou shalt no more be haughty because of my holy mountain.
12 I will also leave in the midst of thee an afflicted and poor people, and they shall trust in the name of the LORD.
13 The remnant of Israel shall not do iniquity, nor speak lies; neither shall a deceitful tongue be found in their mouth: for they shall feed and lie down, and none shall make them afraid.
14 Sing, O daughter of Zion; shout, O Israel; be glad and rejoice with all the heart, O daughter of Jerusalem.
15 The LORD hath taken away thy judgments, he hath cast out thine enemy: the king of Israel, even the LORD, is in the midst of thee: thou shalt not see evil any more.
16 In that day it shall be said to Jerusalem, Fear thou not: and to Zion, Let not thine hands be slack.
17 The LORD thy God in the midst of thee is mighty; he will save, he will rejoice over thee with joy; he will rest in his love, he will joy over thee with singing.
18 I will gather them that are sorrowful for the solemn assembly, wh are of thee, to whom the reproach of it was a burden.
19 Behold, at that time I will unde all that afflict thee: and I will save her that halteth, and gather her that was driven out; and I will get them praise and fame in every land wher they have been put to shame.
20 At that time will I bring you again, even in the time that I gather you: for I will make you a name and a praise among all people of the earth, when I turn back your captivity before your eyes, saith the LORD. (C)
(C) Promises of future restoration to Judah and Jerusalem, with exhortations to
gratitude and praise.—The picture bere drawn, by Zephaniah's inspired pencil, of the rulers and higher classes of the iuhs
NOTES-Chap. III. Con.
prey into their dens, and prowl for more. Ver. 5. Every morning - Heb. "Morning by morning."
Ver. 7. Punished-Heb. "Visited." Ver. 9. For then, &c.-Newcome, "Surely I will then pour out upon the people," &c. A pure language-Heb. "Lip." With one consent-Heb. "Shoulder;"" a metaphor taken (says Newcome) from the joint efforts of yoked beasts;" it is, however, equally applicable to the united efforts of labourers, carrying timber trees.
Ver. 11. In that day thou shalt not be ashamed, ke. -The Editor begs leave to suggest the propriety of this sentence being read interrogatively In that day shalt thou not be ashamed?" &c. See Ezrk. xvi. 61; xx. 43.
Ver. 16. Slack-that is, in God's service. Ver. 17. He will rest-Heb. "Be still," or seat, in his love.
Ver. 19. I will get them praise, &c.—Hed. *! will set them for a praise."Where they have be put to shame-Heb. "In every land of their shame."
bitants of Jerusalem, presents features of horror and disgust. Her princes roaring lions; her judges ravening wolves, so covetous of prey, that they stop not to devour what they obtain, but hide it in their dens, aud prowl again for more. Her prophets full of levity, and treacherous; and her priests polluting the sanctuary, and wresting the law of God! But the Lord will arise to judgment, and make a prey of them who have preyed upon his church. In the midst of this depraved and guilty ation, there is yet a poor and afflicted >eople;" and while the rich and great are
consigned to deserved destruction, God will bring his poor and humble suppliants, even from beyond the rivers of Ethiopia. To them he will give "a pure lip ;" humble and appropriate language. They shall take with them words, and turn unto the Lord, and say, "Receive us graciously, and love us freely." Humbled, but not depressed; contrite, but not desponding; they shall be received, not only with favour, but with rapture. God himself will "rejoice over them with singing," and will make them a name and a praise among all the nations of the earth.
HAGGAI, the first of those three Prophets who were sent to the Jews after their ren from the Babylonian captivity (the others being Zechariah and Malachi), lived ut 520 years before the Christian æra. The occasion of his prophecy was, the stope which was put to the building of the temple, after the foundation of it had been , owing to the opposition of the Persian governors, and the Samaritans. The zeal of people being thus checked, they applied themselves to the building of their own es, and neglected the house of God; till moved, at length, by the exhortations of 'rophets, they resumed the work, and completed it in a few years. The style of this het is, for the most part, plain and prosaic; interspersed, however, with some ges of a highly poetic character.
the second year of Darius the ng, in the six month, in the first f the month, came the word of ORD by Haggai the prophet unto babel the son of Shealtiel, goverf Judah, and to Joshua the Josedech the high priest, say
hus speaketh the LORD of hosts, This people say, the time is
not come, the time that the LORD'S house should be built.
3 Then came the word of the LORD by Haggai the prophet, saying,
4 Is it time for you, O ye to dwell in your cieled houses, and this house lie waste?
5 Now therefore, thus saith the LORD of hosts; Consider your ways.
6 Ye have sown much, and bring in little; ye eat, but ye have not enough;
I. Ver. 1. By Haggai-Heb. "By the hand
eled houses- such, it appears, were a
Its foundation had been laid nearly fifteen years be1ore. Ezra iii. 8.
Ver. 5. Consider-Heb. "Set your heart upon." So ver. 7.
Ver. 6. A bag with holes -Heb." Pierced through." Ver.9. Blow upon it-Heb. " Snuff at it," as animals when they refuse their provender. Newcome. Ver. 10. Therefore, &c,-See Deut. xxviii. 23, 24.
ye drink, but ye are not filled with drink; ye clothe you, but there is none warm; and he that earneth wages earneth wages to put it into a bag with holes.
7 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; Consider your ways.
8 Go up to the mountain, and bring wood, and build the house; and I will take pleasure in it, and I will be glorified, saith the LORD.
9 Ye looked for much, and, lo, it came to little; and when ye brought it home, I did blow upon it. Why? saith the LORD of hosts. Because of mine house that is waste, and ye run every man unto his own house.
10 Therefore the heaven over you is stayed from dew, and the earth is stayed from her fruit.
11 And I called for a drought upon the land, and upon the mountains, and upon the corn, and upon the new wine, and upon the oil, and upon that which the ground bringeth forth, and upon men, and upon cattle, and upon all the labour of the hands.
12 Then Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and Joshua the son of Josedech, the high priest, with all the remnant of the people, obeyed the voice of the LORD their God, and the words of Haggai the prophet, as the LORD their God had sent him, and the people did fear before the LoRd.
13 Then spake Haggai the LORD's messenger in the LORD's message unto the people, saying, I am with you, saith the LORD.
14 And the LORD stirred up the spirit of Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, and the spirit
[build the temple, of Joshua the son of Josedech, the high priest, and the spirit of all the remnant of the people; and they came and did work in the house of the LORD of hosts their God,
15 In the four and twentieth day of the sixth month, in the second year of Darius the king. (A)
N the seventh month, in the one
and twentieth day of the month came the word of the LORD by the prophet Haggai, saying,
2 Speak now to Zerubbabel the se of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, and to Joshua the son of Josedech, the high priest, and to the residue of the people, saying,
3 Who is left among you the saw this house in her first glory! and how do ye see it now? is it so in your eyes in comparison of it s nothing?
4 Yet now be strong, O Zerb babel, saith the LORD; and be strong O Joshua, son of Josedech the b priest; and be strong, all ye per of the land, saith the LORD, work: for I am with you, saith the LORD of hosts:
5 According to the word that covenanted with you when ye came out of Egypt, so my spirit remaineth among you fear ye not.
6 For thus saith the LORD of hosts: Yet once, it is a little while, and I will shake the heavens, and the earth. and the sea, and the dry land;
7 And I will shake all nations, and the desire of all nations shall come:
(A) Haggai excites and encourages the Jews to build the house of God.-The Prophet reproves them for their delay, and want of zeal in erecting the house of God, while they were diligent and active in erecting elegant and commodious dwell
ings for themselves; and admonishes them that the late unproductive seasons with which they had been visited, had been st to punish their negligence in that respe This produced the desired effect, especial v upon the governor and high priest, and the work was resumed with renewed vigour.
CHAP. II. Ver. 6. Yet once, it is a little whileNewcome, "Yet once (more, in) a short (time)." -I will shake the heavens, &c. This refers to
the numerous revolutions, civil and religions, whah preceded the appearance of our Lord. Ver. 7. The desire of all nations.-Most Cr
and reproved for]
[their indifference. and I will fill this house with glory, so is every work of their hands; and saith the LORD of hosts. that which they offer there is unclean. 15 And now, I pray you, consider from this day and upward, from before a stone was laid upon a stone in the temple of the LORD:
8 The silver is mine, and the gold is mine, saith the LORD of hosts.
9 The glory of this latter house shall be greater than of the former, saith the LORD of hosts: and in this place will I give peace, saith the LORD of hosts.
10 In the four and twentieth day of the ninth month, in the second year of Darius, came the word of the LORD by Haggai the prophet, saying, 11 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; Ask now the priests concerning the law, saying,
12 If one bear holy flesh in the skirt of his garment, and with his skirt do touch bread, or pottage, or wine, or oil, or any meat, shall it be holy? And the priests answered and said, No.
13 Then said Haggai, If one that is unclean by a dead body touch any of these, shall it be unclean? And the priests answered and said, It shall be unclean.
14 Then answered Haggai, and said, So is this people, and so is this nation before me, saith the LORD; and
16 Since those days were, when one came to an heap of twenty measures, there were but ten: when one came to the press-fat for to draw out fifty vessels out of the press, there were but twenty.
17 I smote you with blasting and with mildew and with hail in all the labours of your hands: yet ye turned not to me, saith the LORD.
18 Consider now from this day and upward, from the four and twentieth day of the ninth month, even from the day that the foundation of the LORD'S temple was laid, consider it.
19 Is the seed yet in the barn? yea, as yet the vine, and the fig tree, and the pomegranate, and the olive tree, hath not brought forth: from this day will I bless you.
20 And again the word of the LORD came unto Haggai in the four and twentieth day of the month, saying,
tian commentators apply this to the Messiah; but against this a critical objection has been raised, from the verb being plural, whereas the noun is singular. For answer to this, it is sufficient to refer to the late Professor Dathe, as quoted by Dr. Pye Smith, Messiah, vol. i. p.325. Abp. Newcome, however, thinks the noun also was originally plural, with a vau inserted, which is now supplied by a Masoretic point. Nor is the noun being plural an objection of any weight, as applied to an individual, since the Hebrews often use plural nouns by way of excellence, and this, in particular, is so used in reference to Messiah, Cant. v. 16. See Bp. Newcome. Compare also, in the Hebrew, Dan. xi. 37, 43. But to obviate all objections, Bp. Chandler reads, " And he shall come, even the desire of all nations." He supposes that the vau prefixed to the verb, should be prefixed to the noun immediately following; an error easily accounted for, as originally the words were not divided See Note in our Introduction to vol. i. P. 8. For Bp. Chandler's remarks, see his Defence of Christianity, p. 86-94.
Ver. 8. The silver is mine, &c. - - Many Jewish -commentators, and some others, consider this clause as explaining ver. 7, "The silver and the gold, say they, are the desirable things of all nations;" but, after all, in silver and gold, the second temple was comparatively poor, nor does this agree with the solemnity of the introduction; it needed not, surely, to shake all nations, and even heaven and earth, to produce those presents which had been already made by Cyrus and his successors; besides the mention of these things seems rather with a view to undervalue, than to extol them. Compare Ps. 1. 9-12.
Ver. 9. The glory of this latter house shall be greater than the former-in gold and silver, in mag.
nitude, or architectural splendour, this certainly was not the case; and it was totally void of the cherubim, the urim and thummim, and the shechinah: the only way, therefore, in which the latter could exceed the former, must be in the presence of some august personage, and this could be no other than the Messiah.
But a query has been here raised, whether the temple in our Lord's time can be called the second temple, having, according to Josephus, been again rebuilt by Herod. On this Dr. Boothroyd says, "It may, I think, be doubted whether the whole was rebuilt by Herod. It is probable that what Herod did, was repairing certain parts, erecting others, and making the whole as perfect and complete as possible; and though ever so much improved, yet it would be regarded as the same house. I know that Josephus says, that Herod took away the old foundations, and laid others; but I think this must be confined to such parts as were decayed; or else how could the divine service have been observed? Rabbi Joseph, Maimonides, and other Jewish authors, always speak of this as a second temple." See the authors distinctly cited by Abp. Newcome.
After all, perhaps the words might be translated, "The latter glory of this honse shall be greater than the former." So Mr. Parkhurst, who refers to the Hebrew of Jer. ii. 34, for a similar construction. Heb. Lex. in Chamed, 3d Edit, and so Dr. Blayney. Dr. Pye Smith renders it, "Great shall be the glory of this house, the latter above the former." Messiah, vol. i. p. 325.
Ibid. In this place I will give peace.-Peace, with the Hebrews, included every blessing, and it might here have reference personally to him who is our peace. See Eph. ii. 14, 15.
(B) The future glory of the church to exceed its former glory.-When this prophecy was uttered (about four years before the temple was finished, and about 520 B. C.), it appears that some aged men among the Jews were greatly dispirited, on account of this second temple being, in its appearance, 30 much inferior to the former. (See Ezra iii. 12.) To animate and encourage them in the work, the Prophet solemnly assures them that the glory of this second temple (or the second glory of this temple) should exceed the former, through its being honoured with the presence of the Messiah, whose presence alone was more than a counterbalance to every supposable deficiency. And he, who was exhibited in the types and prophecies as the glory of the old dispensation, should now be exhibited as the glory of the new dispensation, in his miracles and discourses, life, death, and resurrection.
The latter part of the chapter adverts to subjects more temporary and peculiar, not
only to the Jews, but to that generation Two questions are put to the priests, tive to ceremonial pollution, and from these an inference is drawn, that if such apparently trivial circumstances rendered them ceremonially unclean, much more woul their neglect of God's house and worshi? render them so morally, and subject them to the divine displeasure. This is men tioned to account for their late unfruitfal seasons, and ill success in agricultural pur›
The last four verses appear of doubtful interpretation. Who is intended by Zerb babel? Surely it did not require again to shake heaven and earth, to promote man who was already in possession of the government. The next Prophet will ex hibit this Zerubbabel as a type of Christ (Zech. iv. 7), and the genealogies of the New Testament inform us, that he was the lineal ancestor of our Lord (Matt. ii. 1; Luke iii. 27); whom Isaiah introduces as God's elect (servant), in whom his soul delighteth! (Isa. xlii. 1.)
NOTES-Chap. II. Con.
Ver.23. As a signet.-See Sol. Song, viii. 6. These words may refer partially to Zerubbabel, in the first
instance, and subsequently and principally to ba great antitype.
THE design of the first part of Zechariah's prophecy, like that of his contemporary Haggai, was to encourage the Jews to go on with rebuilding the temple, by giving them assurance of God's aid and protection. From this he proceeds to foretel the glory of the Christian church (the true temple of God), under its great High Priest and Governor Jesus Christ, of whom Zerubbabel and Joshua were figures. The first six chapters consist chiefly of prophetic visions, in the manner of Ezekiel, Daniel, and the Revelation of St. John. On these chapters, in addition to the writers consulted on the other Minor Prophets, we are happy to avail ourselves of the recent learned labours of Dr. Stonard; and where we cannot exactly adopt his interpretations, we must still admire his ingenuity, and commend his serious piety. The following chapters treat of the