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[of seventy weeks.

with many for one week and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate. (N)


IN the third year of Cyrus king of Persia a thing was revealed unto Daniel, whose name was called Belte


(N) Daniel's prophecy of the seventy weeks.-The Prophet's mind having been occupied in considering Jeremiah's prophecy of the 70 years' captivity, and finding them drawing to a close, he earnestly mplores pardon and restoration of his aptive countrymen, though he appears to ave been himself too old to participate in he national felicity. His prayers are heard in the very moment of their being resented, and the angel Gabriel is sent to issure him of their acceptance; and at the ame time to deliver, by his means, the ery interesting and important prophecies which form the four last verses of this hapter wherein the angel announces to he Prophet that the holy city should be ebuilt and peopled within seven weeks of ears, and should continue for seventy eeks, or 490 years; after which it should e utterly destroyed, for putting the Mes


siah to death. The commencement of this period is, by Prideaux and others, fixed to the time when the order was issued for rebuilding the temple, in the 7th year of the reign of Artaxerxes. "Seven weeks, or 49 years, was the city and temple in building; sixty-two weeks, or 434 years more, bring us to the public manifestation of the Messiah," by the preaching of John the Baptist; "and one week, or 7 years after this, will bring us to the time of our Saviour's passion, or the 33d year of the Christian era; in all 490 years, according to the prophecy. The latter part of the prediction relates to the subversion of the Jewish temple and polity, by the Romans, (A. D. 70,) and to the second coming of the Messiah." (Horne's Crit. Introd. iv. New Ed. p. 192.) Not to enlargé farther here, we shall give a few additional remarks in the close of this Prophet.


Ver. 26. But not for himself - Marg," And shall ave nothing;" Booth. "though he have no (fault);" r, “ And they (the Jews) shall be no more his peole." So Blayney and Faber. Wintle, " None shall e for him;" Stonard, "No one will be on his side." The expression is certainly elliptical, the Hebrew ading, literally, and (or but) nothing (or none) to , to which ambiguity may be traced all the verons above given. Our translators, following the ws, have here placed only a colon, but Dr. Boothoyd and others, (in our opinion very judiciously,) a l point; here ending the prophecy, so far as conras the Messiah.

Thid. And the people of the prince.-This certainly ight not to be applied to the Messiah, but to Titus ad his army; for the city was not destroyed by ristians, but by the Romans. The wrong pointgled to a faulty division of the verses, and conunded two parts of the prophecy, perfectly disct. The Romans destroyed both the city and the nctuary; and the end thereof was with a flood, tended with nothing but desolation and destruction, I the nation was destroyed, or scattered through

e earth.

Ver. 27. And he shall confirm the (Marg. "a") venant with many for one week-that is, of years. Gothroyd, in explanation of this, remarks, that the nans made a league with the Medes, Parthians, d others, that they might be at liberty, with all eir strength, to prosecute the war with the Jews. ey did so, and in the midst of this period, A. D. 70,

all Jewish sacrifices ceased for ever.

The reckoning days for years, and weeks of such years, is not peculiar to the Scriptures. Varro says, he was entered into the 12th week of his years; i, e. his 84th year. Quoted in Bp. Chandler's Def. p. 136.

Ver. 27. And for the overspreading, &c.-Marg. "And upon the battlements shall be the idols of the desolator." Wintle, "The abomination of desolation;" Stonard, “ Upon the border of abominations shall be the desolator, and that"

Ibid. Even until the consummation - Stonard, "Until he (the desolator) be consumed, and the determined judgment shall have been poured out upon the desolated. But Faber reads with our margin, "the desolator." For a fuller account of the fulfilment of this part of the prophecy, see our remarks on Matt. xxiv.

In our Introduction to this book, we promised to consult Dr. Stonard's elaborate work on this subject, published last year (1825). We have done so; and have quoted some of his observations; but we are sorry to be obliged to confess, that we are by no means satisfied with the novel parts of his hypothesis; particularly, not with his making Christ's ministry to commence at 12 years old; nor with his translating "Messiah the leader,” and making him the leader (or prince) of the Roman armies; nor with several parts of his translation, which we have quoted without adopting: it is but justice to add, however, that it is a work of great erudition and the purest intentions, and well worthy the perusal of Biblical students.

Daniel mourns]


shazzar; and the thing was true, but the time appointed was long: and he understood the thing, and had understanding of the vision.

2 In those days I Daniel was mourn ing three full weeks.

3 I ate no pleasant bread, neither

[and humbles himself.

came flesh nor wine in my mouth, neither did I anoint myself at all, till three whole weeks were fulfilled.

4 And in the four and twentieth day of the first month, as I was by the side of the great river, which is Hiddekel ;

5 Then I lifted up mine eyes, and looked, and behold a certain man

EXPOSITION-Chap. IX. Continued.

In the first verse of the prophecy (ver. 24), Dr. Boothroyd (who, in this place, adheres very closely to our authorized version) interprets the several expressions, "to finish transgression, and make an end of sin," &c. in reference to the work of the Messiah. "All these (says Dr. B.) refer to the sufferings, doctrine, and righteousness of our Lord, who died for our sins, and made peace by the blood of his cross; so that through him, sin is pardoned, righteousness obtained, and reconciliation ef. fected." The word rendered "to make an end" of sins, means literally, as in the margin, to seal them up as in a bag: so Job speaks of his sins as "sealed up in a bag, to be brought in evidence against him" (Job xiv. 17); here they are sealed up for another purpose, to be cast into oblivion, yea, into "the depths of the sea,' that they may be found no more for ever. (See Isa. xxxviii. 17; Jer. 1. 20; Micah vii. 19.) In the latter part of this verse, the same word is used in reference to "vision and prophecy," and means, we apprehend, to close them, so far as concerns the Jewish dispensation. We have already remarked, that Daniel's prophecies are considered as prosaic; yet, as Dr. Boothroyd has remarked one exception, (chap. ii. 20-23,) and Bp. Jebb another, (chap. vii. 26,) so we beg to propose this as a third, and venture to render this verse as a Hebrew triplet, or trimetre, thus

"To finish the transgression, and to seal up the sins;

"To make atonement for iniquity, and bring in everlasting righteousness; "To seal up vision and prophecy, and to anoint the Most Holy."

In the last line, we confess that we prefer applying the whole to the Messiah. He sealed up the vision and prophecy," because in him the prophecies, as well as promises," are all yea and amen;" and to

him give all the prophets witness." (Acts x. 43.) He was also "the LORD our Righteousness," and therefore the Most

Holy One. As to anointing "the most holy place," the temple here referred to was to be destroyed, instead of being onsecrated. But Messias means, literally, "the anointed;" and he was so, not only in his prophetic and priestly offices, but also in his kingly office, to which his resur rection was the necessary introduction. (See Psalm ii. 2, 6; lxviii. 18; compared with Acts iv. 27; x. 38; Ephes. iv. 8.)

We cannot enter thus minutely into all the parts of this important prophecy; but there is one passage of pre-eminent inportance: "Messiah shall be cut off, but not for himself." We have, in the Notes below, subjoined both the literal reading, and the various translations given of this clause; and after much reflection, we humbly conceive the passage to be nearly pa rallel with Isaiah,' (chap. liii. 8,) in one of the following interpretations, all which harmonize with each other, and with the evangelical Prophet, as Isaiah is frequently called. Dauiel says of the Messiah, "He shall be cut off;" Isaiah adds, "from the land of the living." If the latter clause in Daniel be rendered as by Wintle and Stenard, "None shall be for him," it will perfectly correspond with Isaiah's question, "Who shall declare his generation?" of speak to his character? (see our Note there,) and with the fact that" all his disciples forsook him, and fled;" or, 2dly, If our common translation be preferred, (as we are inclined to prefer it,) "Not for himself," it is perfectly in harmony with the following clause in Isaiah, "For the transgres sion of my people was he stricken." Or, 3dly, Should we adopt Dr. Boothroyd's rendering, "He had no fault," Isaiah will give us an expression perfectly parallel; « He had done no violence, neither was deceit found in his mouth." Either way, Isaiah is the best commentator on Daniel, and both bear a noble testimony to the atonement offered by Messiah.


CHAP. X. Ver. 1. The time appointed was long.The text is ambiguous, and might be rendered, "the warfare is great." Boothroyd. See Note on Job vii. 1. Ver. 2. Three full weeks Heb. "Three weeks of days." So ver. 3. Dr. Stonard (p. 125) thinks the

term is here used in distinction from the weeks of years in the preceding chapter. Ver. 3. No pleasant bread-Heb. “Bread of delight," or delicate food. Ver. 4. Hiddekel


Syriac, "The Euphrates;"

Michael's contest with]


clothed in linen, whose loins were girded with fine gold of Uphaz :

6 His body also was like the beryl, and his face as the appearance of lightning, and his eyes as lamps of fire, and his arms and his feet like in colour to polished brass, and the voice of his words like the voice of a multitude.

7 And I Daniel alone saw the vision: for the men that were with me saw not the vision; but a great quaking fell upon them, so that they fled to hide themselves.

8 Therefore I was left alone, and saw this great vision, and there remained no strength in me: for my comeliness was turned in me into corruption, and I retained no strength..

9 Yet heard I the voice of his words: and when I heard the voice of his words, then was I in a deep sleep on my face, and my face toward the ground.

10 And, behold, an hand touched me, which set me upon my knees and upon the palms of my hands.

11 And he said unto me, O Daniel, a man greatly beloved, understand the words that I speak unto thee, and stand upright: for unto thee am I now sent. And when he had spoken this word unto me, I stood trembling.

12 Then said he unto me, Fear not, Daniel for from the first day that thou didst set thine heart to understand, and to chasten thyself before thy God, thy words were heard, and I am come for thy words.

13 But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and twenty days; but, lo, Michael, one of the


[the prince of Persia.

chief princes, came to help me; and I remained there with the kings of Persia.

14 Now I am come to make thee understand what shall befall thy people in the latter days: for yet the vision is for many days.

15 And when he had spoken such words unto me, I set my face toward the ground, and I became dumb.

16 And, behold, one like the similitude of the sons of men touched my lips then I opened my mouth, and spake, and said unto him that stood before me, O my lord, by the vision my sorrows are turned upon me, and I have retained no strength.

17 For how can the servant of this my lord talk with this my lord? for as for me, straightway there remained no strength in me, neither is there breath left in me.

18 Then there came again and touched me one like the appearance of a man, and he strengthened me.

19 And said, O man greatly beloved, fear not: peace be unto thee, be strong, yea, be strong. And when he had spoken unto me, I was strengthened, and said, Let my lord speak; for thou hast strengthened me.

20 Then said he, Knowest thou wherefore I come unto thee? and now will I return to fight with the prince of Persia: and when I am gone forth, lo, the prince of Grecia shall come.

21 But I will shew thee that which is noted in the scripture of truth: and there is none that holdeth with me in these things, but Michael your prince. (0)


(0) Daniel's self-humiliation, and last prophetic vision. The carly part of this

chapter gives a pleasing view of Daniel, as a Jewish saint and patriot. Hearing, probably, of the difficulties his brethren in


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Ver. 7. The men.-So Acts ix. 7. Ver. 9. In a deep sleep.-See Note on ch. viii. 18. Ver. 10. He set-Heb. "Moved." Ver. 11. Greatly beloved.-See chap. ix. 23. Ver. 13. The prince, &c. opposed me-Heb. "Stood before me;" i.e. to stop my way.-Michael, one of

the chief (or first) princes.-See Jude 9; Rev. xii. 7. Ver. 20. To fight-Wintle, " Conteud;" the contests of spiritual beings must be intellectual, not carnal, like those of Milton's angels.-The prince of Greece-another bostile demon.

Ver. 21. That holdeth with me Heb. "That strengtheneth himself with me ;"' i. e. that cordially unites with me.The Scripture of truth.-Not the revealed word, but his secret record, and immutable decree. See Ps. lvi. 8; Isa. lxv. 6; Mal. iii. 16.

The overthrow]



[of Persia for his kingdom shall be plucked up,

ALSO I in the first year of Darius even for others beside those.

the Mede, even I, stood to confirm and to strengthen him.

2 And now will I shew thee the truth. Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia; and the fourth shall be far richer than they all: and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia.

3 And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will.

4 And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled;

5 And the king of the south shall be strong, and one of his princes; and he shall be strong above him, and have dominion; his dominion shall be a great dominion.

6 And in the end of years they shall join themselves together; for the king's daughter of the south shall come to the king of the north to make an agree ment: but she shall not retain the power of the arm; neither shall he stand, nor his arm: but she shall be given up, and they that brought her, and he that begat her, and he that strengthened her in these times.

7 But out of a branch of her roots shall one stand up in his estate, which

EXPOSITION-Chap. X. Continued.

Judea met with, in attempting to rebuild the house of their God, and the city of their fathers; and having understood, by divine revelation, that these troubles were to be of long continuance, he applies himself to prayer and fasting for "three full weeks;" not fasting, absolutely, for being now upwards of 90 years of age, such an attempt would be a species of suicide; but he ate "no pleasant bread;" indulged in none of the delicacies to which his age and rank entitled him, but spent the time in humiliation before God, and in earnest prayer for himself and his country. And here we have a glance into the world of spirits, from which the vail of flesh separates us, and into which, by faith only, can we obtain a view, until this vail is rent in twain, and buried in the earth. Ah! little do we know of the scenes passing" above, beneath, around us.' While Daniel is on his knees on earth, there is war in heaven, Michael and his angels fighting against the devil and his angels, till the latter shall be cast down and confined in hell for ever. The first contention we read of between the two worlds of spirits since the fall regarded" the body of Moses :" (Jude 9.) but the nature of their dispute, we cannot dare even to conjecture. In going through the Old Testament, we have had several glimp

ses of this spiritual warfare. Job was long a sufferer by it. Satan has his prophets and angels, as well as the Almighty, and we find them often clashing and disputing in the history of the prophets. See 2 Kings xxii. 15-23; also here (in Daniel), and in Zech. i. iii. and vi.

To us it appears to be the doctrine of the Bible, and we shall therefore not shrink from it, that God employs evil men and demons, as well as saints and angels, in the government of the moral world; and that under the same control as he employs storms and hurricanes, as well as genial showers and sunshine, in the government of the world natural. It seems very unnatural (as Mr. Wintle suggests) to understand by the prince of Persia, either Cyrus, or Cambyses, as opposing the building of the temple, who had so freely given leave for its erection, nor are there facts to support such an idea. The most sober and judicious commentators, as Grotins, Newcome and Lowth, as well as Wintle and Boothroyd, incline therefore to understand by this prince of Persia," a being of celestial rank, but of malignant intentions; for (as Dr. Watts remarks) he could not be a good angel, who would withstand either the angel Gabriel, or any of the holy angels.


CHAP. XI. Ver. 1. To confirm and to strengthen him-that is, Darius. See chap. ix. 1.

Ver. 4. His kingdom shall be plucked-Wintle, "Torn up." This was remarkably fulfilled in the destruction of his family and the distribution of his empire among strangers.

Ver. 6. Shall join themselves together-Heb. "Associate themselves." See Exposition.To make an agreement-Heb. "To set things to rights."

Nor his arm--Wintle, " Nor the offspring." There is an intimate relation between the Hebrew words for arm and offspring, arising from the Patriarchal idea that a man's strength arises from his family. See Ps. cxxvii. 5.He that begat her-Mart. "Whe she brought forth;" Wintle," Her son." See Exp

Ver.7. In his estate- Marg. "Place," Wile, "There shall stand up a shoot from her roots, her brother.-Fortress-Wintle, "Fortifications"

By the king]


shall come with an army, and shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north, and shall deal against them, and shall prevail :

8 And shall also carry captives into Egypt their gods, with their princes, and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold; and he shall continue more years than the king of the north. 9 So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land.

10 But his sons shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces; and one shall certainly come, and overflow, and pass through: then shall he return, and be stirred up, even to his fortress.

11 And the king of the south shall be moved with choler, and shall come forth and fight with him, even with the king of the north and he shall set forth a great multitude; but the multitude shall be given into his hand.

12 And when he hath taken away the multitude, his heart shall be lifted up; and he shall cast down many ten thousands: but he shall not be strengthened by it.

13 For the king of the north shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come after certain years with a great army and with much riches.

[of Greece. 14 And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south also the robbers of thy people shall exalt themselves to establish the vision; but they shall fall.

15 So the king of the north shall come, and cast up a mount, and take the most fenced cities: and the arms of the south shall not withstand, neither his chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to withstand.

16 But he that cometh against him shall do according to his own will, and none shall stand before him: and he shall stand in the glorious land, which by his hand shall be consumed.

17 He shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom, and upright ones with him; thus shall he do: and he shall give him the daughter of women, corrupting her but she shall not stand on his side, neither be for him.

18 After this shall he turn his face unto the isles, and shall take many but a prince for his own behalf shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach he shall cause it to turn upon him.

19 Then he shall turn his face toward the fort of his own land: but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found. (P)



(P) Ver. 1-19. The overthrow of Peria by the king of Greece; and various con

flicts between the kings of the north and south. -Among the kings yet to stana up, Cyrus could not be included, because he was then


Ver. 8. Their precious vessels-Heb. "Vessels of desire."Their gods,- See Isa. xlvi. 1, 2.

Ver. 10. One shall certainly come and overflow.— This is pointed and remarkable; Seleucus Ceraunus assembled a multitude of forces, but for want of money (the sinews of war) could not proceed, but was poisoned by two of his generals; but his brother Antiochus did come and overflow, and pass through, XcThen shall he return, &c.-Marg. "Then shall he be stirred up again," and proceed even "to his fortress," or fortified towns.

Ver. 12. Many ten thousands," Many "is an nanecessary supplement. Wintle reads, "Though he shall lay prostrate (or cast down) ten thousands, be shall not prevail."

Ver. 13. After certain years-Heb. " At the end of times of years;" i. e. at the appointed time. Ver. 14. The robbers, &c. Wintle, "The perverse sons (or children) of thy people.""

Ver. 15. The most fenced cities-Heb. "The cities of munitions."

Ver. 16. He that cometh-that is, Antiochus. The glorious land-Wintle, "The land of glory." Margin, "Goodly land." See Deut. iii. 25 Shail be consumed-Wintle, more literally, "finished;" i. e. completely subdued “under his power." So Boothroyd.

Ver. 17. Upright ones with him-Wintle, "Proposals of alliance with him;" but the Heb. is "Uprightnesses," which we should render "fair proposals;" i. e. of alliance. See Expos.

Ver. 18. To the isles-Wintle," Maritime towns," viz. of Greece. But a prince Boothroyd, “ A commander shall cause the reproach offered to him to cease, and bring disgrace upon himself;" i. c. he was completely defeated by the Romans, and fled back. to his own land; where, laying heavy exactions. upon it to pay the impositions of the Romans, he was slain by his own people at Elymais.

Ver. 19. Toward the fort Wintle, "The fortresses; i. e. the fortified parts of his own land.

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