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a

с

was

Eph. ii. 14, 16, 17. Col. i. 20. b Matt. xxviii. 18. 12. 1 Cor.

Rom.x.

feareth him, and worketh righteousness, is accepted with him; 36 the word which God sent unto the children of Israel, preaching peace by Jesus Christ: he is Lord a Isa, Ivil. 19. of a all. 37 b That word, I say, ye know, which published throughout all Judæa, and began from Galilee, after the baptism which John preached; 38 chow a God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost and with power: who went about doing good, and healing all that were oppressed of the devil: for God was with him. things which he did

f

39 And we are witnesses of all

Z not expressed in the original: better, he.

b

both

xv.

27. Eph.

i. 20, 22.

pet, ili 22. Luke iv. 14. ch. ii. 22: iv.

Rev. xvii. 14: xix. 16.

d Luke iv. 18.

27. Heb. i. 9. e John iii. 2.

fch. ii. 32.

a render, all men.
render, Ye know the matter.
c render, Jesus of Nazareth, how that God anointed him.

itself in such men comes from God's preventing grace, is not in question here, nor touched upon.

36.] The construction

of this and the following verse is very
difficult. I have treated in my Greek
Test., of the various ways in which it has
been taken, and endeavoured to establish
that one which I believe to be right. Set
plainly before the English reader it will
stand thus:-Of a truth I perceive, &c. . .
(and recognize this as) the word which
God sent to the children of Israel,
preaching peace (see reff.) through Jesus
Christ (then, for the first time, truly
perceiving this also, on the mention of
Jesus Christ, he adds the ascription to
Him of lordship over all men,) He is Lord
of ALL MEN; with a strong emphasis on
all.
by Jesus Christ belongs to
preaching, not to peace.
37. the
matter] Not the thing, but the thing said,
the material' of the proclamation, in this
case equivalent to the history.'
began from Galilee] It was from Galilee
first that the fame of Jesus went abroad,
as Luke himself relates, Luke iv. 14, 37,
44; vii. 17; ix. 6. (xxiii. 5.) Galilee also
was the nearest to Cæsarea, and may have
been for this reason expressly mentioned.

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after the baptism which John preached] So also St. Peter dates the ministry of our Lord in ch. i. 22. (See note there.) 38. Jesus of Nazareth] The personal subject of the matter which was published: Ye know the subject which was preached . . . . . viz. Jesus of Nazareth.' how that God anointed him] Not as A. V., "how God anointed Jesus of Nazareth :" see the last note.The fact of the anointing with the Holy Spirit, in His baptism by John, was the historical opening of the ministry of Jesus: this anointing however was not His first

unction with the Spirit, but only symbolic
of that which He had in His incarnation :
which unction abode upon Him, John i.
32, 33, and is alleged here as the continuing
anointing which was upon Him from God.
-Stier well remarks, how entirely all per-
sonal address to the hearers and all doc-
trinal announcements are thrown into the
background in this speech, and the Person
and Work and Office of Christ put for-
word as the sole subject of apostolic preach-
ing.
oppressed] literally, subdued,
so that he is their master,- and his power
is used for their oppression. Here, it al-
ludes to physical oppression by disease (see
Luke xiii. 16) and possession: in 2 Tim. ii.
26, a very similiar description is given of
those who are spiritually bound by the
devil. God was with him] So Nico-
demus had spoken, John iii. 2; and pro-
bably Peter here used the words as well
known and indicative of the presence of
divine power and co-operation (see Judg.
vi. 16) beginning as he does with the
outer and lower circle of the things re-
garding Christ, as they would be matter of
observation and inference to his hearers,
and gradually ascending to those higher
truths regarding His Person and Office,
which were matter of apostolic testimony
and demonstration from Scripture,-His
resurrection (ver. 40), His being appointed
Judge of living and dead (ver. 42), and
the predestined Author of salvation to all
who believe on Him (ver. 43).

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:

39.

And we...] Answering to ye know, ver. 37. You know the history as matter of universal rumour: and we are witnesses of the facts.' By this we, St. Peter at once takes away the ground from the exagge rated reverence for himself individually, shewn by Cornelius, ver. 25: and puts himself and the rest of the Apostles in the

gch. v. 30.

h ch. ii. 24.

i John xiv. 17.

31.

k Luke xxiv.

in the land of the Jews, and in Jerusalem; whom they

22. ch. xiii. slew and hanged on a tree. 40 Himh God raised up the third day, and d shewed him openly; 41 i not to all the 1 Matt. xxviii. people, but unto witnesses chosen before of God, even to

30, 43. John xxi. 13.

19, 20. ch.

i. 8. m John v. 22,

27. ch. xvii. 31.

n Rom. xiv. 9.

v. 10. 2 Tim.

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1.

us,

k who did eat and drink with him after he rose from the dead. 42 And he commanded us to preach unto the

10. 2 Cor people, and to testify m that it is he which was ordained 1Pet. of God [to be] the Judge of quick and dead. " 43 To him give all the prophets witness, that through his name

iv. 5.

o Isa. liii. 11.

Jer. xxxi. 34.

Dan. ix. 24.
Mic. vii. 18.

Zech. xiii. 1.
Mal. iv. 2.

ch. xxvi. 22.

p ch. xv. 9:

P whosoever believeth in him shall receive remission of 44 While Peter yet spake these words, the Holy

sins.

xxvi. 18. Rom. x. 11. Gal. iii. 22.

q ch. iv 31: viii. 15, 16, 17: xi. 15.

d literally, permitted him to become manifest.

e render, is.

strictly subordinate place of witnesses for Another. whom they slew] St. Peter omits all mention of the actors in the murder, speaking as he did to Gentiles: a striking contrast to ch. ii. 23; iii. 14; iv. 10; v. 30,-when he was working conviction in the minds of those actors themselves. hanged on a tree] So also ch. v. 30, where see note. 41.] Bengel would understand this eating and drinking with Him of previous intercourse during His ministry, and would put "not to ". as far as "with him" in a parenthesis,finding a difficulty in their having eaten and drunk with Him after His Resurrection. But this is most improbable from the construction of the sentence, besides that the fact of their having eaten and drunk with Him after His Resurrection gives most important testimony to the reality and identity of His risen Body. And there is no real difficulty in it: Luke xxiv. 41, 43 and John xxi. 12 give us instances; and, even if the drinking with Him, is to be pressed, it is no contradiction to Luke xxii. 18, which only refers to one particular kind of drinking. 42. unto the people] Here, as elsewhere (ver. 2; John xi. 50 al. fr.), the Jewish people: that was all which in the apostolic mind, up to this time, the command had absolutely enjoined. The further unfoldings of the Gospel had all been brought about over and above this first injunction. Ch. i. 8 is no obstacle to this interpretation; for although literally fulfilled by the leadings of Providence, as related in this book, they did not so understand it when spoken.

which is ordained of God] Had not Peter in his mind the Lord's own solemn words, John xvii. 6? Judge of quick and dead] See also St. Paul, ch. xvii.

fomit.

31, preaching to Gentiles, brings forward the appointment of a Judge over all men as the central point of his teaching. This expression gives at once a universality to the office and mission of Christ, which prepares the way for the great truth declared in the next verse.-It is impossible that the living and dead here can mean (as the Augsburg Catechism, and Olshausen) the righteous and sinners :—a canon of interpretation which should constantly be borne in mind is, that a figurative sense of words is never admissible, EXCEPT WHEN REQUIRED BY THE CONTEXT. Thus, in the passage of John v. 25 (where see notes), the sense of "the dead" is determined to be figurative by the addition of “and now is" after the hour being mentioned, no such addition occurring in ver. 28, where the literally dead, "all that are in the graves," are mentioned. 43.] All

the prophets, generically: not that every one positively asserted this, but that the whole bulk of prophetic testimony announced it. To press such expressions to literal exactness is mere trifling. See ch. iii. 21, 24. shall receive remission of sins] The legal sacrifices, as well as the declarations of the prophets, all pointed to the remission of sins by faith in Him. And the universality of this proclamation, applying to whosoever believeth in him, is set forth by the prophets in many places, and was recognized even by the Jews themselves in their expositions of Scripture, though not in their practice. Peter had spoken up to this point: and was probably proceeding (compare his own account of his speech, "as I began to speak," ch. xi. 15) to include his present hearers and all nations in the number to whom this blessing was laid open,—or per

44.]

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Gal. iii. 14.

Ghost fell on all them which heard the word. 45 And r ver. 23. they of the circumcision which believed were astonished, as many as came with Peter, because that on the Gentiles sch. xi. 18. also was poured out the gift of the Holy Ghost. 46 For they heard them speak with tongues, and magnify God. Then answered Peter, 47 Can any man forbid 8 water, that these should not be baptized, which have received the Holy Ghost as well as we? t 48 u And he commanded them to be baptized in the name of the Lord. Then prayed they him to tarry certain days.

tch. xi. 17:

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XV. 8, 9.
Rom. x. 12.

Cor. 1. 17.

x ch. ii. 38: viii. 16.

XI. 1 And the apostles and brethren that were in Judæa heard that the Gentiles had also received the word of God. 2 And when Peter was come up to Jerusalem, a they that acht. 12 were of the circumcision contended with him, 3 saying,

g render, the water.

haps beyond this point his own mind may as yet have been not sufficiently enlightened to set forth the full liberty of the Gospel of Christ,-when the fire of the Lord fell, approving the sacrifice of the Gentiles (see Rom. xv. 16): conferring on them the substance before the symbol,the baptism with the Holy Ghost before the baptism with water: and teaching us, that as the Holy Spirit dispensed once and for all with the necessity of circumcision in the flesh, so can He also, when it pleases him, with the necessity of water-baptism: and warning the Christian church not to put baptism itself in the place which circumcision once held. See further in note on Peter's important words, ch. xi. 16.— The outpouring of the Spirit on the Gentiles was strictly analogous to that in the day of Pentecost; Peter himself describes it by adding (ch. xi. 15), as on us at the beginning. Whether there was any visible appearance in this case, cannot be determined: perhaps from ver. 46 it would ap pear not. 45.] We do not read that Peter himself was astonished. He had been specially prepared by the vision: they had not.-The speaking with tongues here is identified with the speaking with other tongues of ch. ii. 4, by the assertion of ch. xi. 15, just cited;-and this again with the speaking with tongues of ch. xix. 6: so that the gift was one and the same throughout. On the whole subject, see note, ch. ii. 4. 47.] One great end of the unexpected effusion of the Holy Spirit was, entirely to preclude the question which otherwise could not but have arisen, Must not these men be circumcised before VOL. I.

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baptism?'

Gal. ii. 12.

the water... the Holy Ghost] The Two great PARTS of full and complete baptism: the latter infinitely greater than, but not superseding the necessity of, the former. The article should here certainly be expressed: Can any forbid THE WATER to these who have received THE SPIRIT ? -The expression forbid, used with the water, is interesting, as shewing that the practice was to bring the water to the candidates, not the candidates to the water. This, which would be implied by the word under any circumstances, is rendered certain, when we remember that they were assembled in the house. 48. he com

manded them to be baptized] As the Lord Himself when on earth did not baptize (John iv. 2), so did not ordinarily the Apostles (see 1 Cor. i. 13-16, and note). Perhaps the same reason may have operated in both cases,-lest those baptized by our Lord, or by the chief Apostles, should arrogate to themselves pre-eminence on that account. Also, which is implied in 1 Cor. i. 17, as compared with Acts vi. 2, the ministry of the Word was esteemed by them their higher and paramount duty and office, whereas the subordinate ministration of the ordinances was committed to those who served tables.

CHAP. XI. 1-18.] PETER JUSTIFIES, BEFORE THE CHURCH IN JERUSALEM, HIS HAVING CONSORTED WITH MEN UNCIRCUMCISED.

1. in Judæa] perhaps more strictly, throughout Judæa. that the Gentiles . . . also...] They seem to have heard the fact, without any circumstantial detail (but see on the words the angel" below, ver. 13); and, from 3 B

66

b ch. x. 28.

c Gal. ii. 12.

d Luke i. 3.

b Thou wentest in to men uncircumcised, and didst eat

with them. 4 But Peter

beginning, and expounded it

rehearsed the matter from the

d

by order unto them, saying,

k

e ch. x. 9, &c. 5 e I was in the city of Joppa praying: and in a trance I saw a vision, A certain vessel descend, as it had been a great sheet, let down from heaven by four i corners; and it came even to me: upon the which when I had fastened mine eyes, I considered, and saw fourfooted beasts of the earth, 1 and wild beasts, 1 and creeping things, 1 and fowls of the air. 7 And I heard a voice saying unto me, Arise, Peter; slay and eat. 8 But I said, Not so, Lord for nothing common or unclean hath at any time entered into my mouth. 9 But the voice answered me again from heaven, m What God hath cleansed," that call not thou common. 10 And this was done three times: and all were drawn up again into heaven. 11 And, behold, immediately there were three men already come unto the house where I was, sent from Cæsarea unto me. 12 And

ch. x. 19: XV.

7.

g ch. x. 23.

h ch. x. 30.

f John xvi. 18. the spirit bade me go with them [, nothing doubting]. Moreover these six brethren accompanied me, and we entered into the man's house: 13 h and he shewed us how he had seen P an angel in his house, which stood and said unto him, Send men to Joppa, and call for Simon, whose surname is Peter; 14 who shall tell thee words, whereby thou and all thy house shall be saved. 15 And as I began to speak, the Holy Ghost fell on them, as on us at the beginning. 16 Then remembered I the word of the Lord,

i cho ii. 4.

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h render, begun and rehearsed unto them in order.

i render, ropes: see ch. x. 11.

1

render, and the.

n render, those.

P render, the.

nence.

k render, saw the.

m render, What things.

• omitted by some of our ancient MSS.

the charge in ver. 3,-from some reporter
who gave the objectionable part of it, as is
not uncommon in such cases, all promi-
5.] it came even to me is a
fresh detail. 12. these six brethren]
They had accompanied him to Jerusalem,
and were there to substantiate the facts,
as far as they had witnessed them.
13. the angel] The use of the definite
article almost looks as if the history of
Cornelius's vision were known to the
hearers. The difference between the vision
of Cornelius and that of Peter is here again
strikingly marked. While the latter is
merely "praying in the city of Joppa," no

place nor circumstance being named, the former sees the angel standing in his house.' - Notice also that Peter never names Cornelius in his speech-because he, his character and person, was absorbed in the category to which he belonged,- that of " men uncircumcised." 14. whereby thou and all thy house shall be saved] This is implied in the angel's speech: especially if the prayer of Cornelius had been for such a boon, of which there can be little doubt. 15. as I began to speak ....] See note on ch. x. 44, as also for the rest of the verse. 16.] Ch. i. 5. This prophecy of the Lord was spoken to his

xix. 4.

John i. 26, 33. ch. i. 5: 1 Isa. xliv. 3. Joel ii. 28: iii. 18. m ch. xv. 8, 9.

how that he said, * John indeed baptized with water; but Matt. ill. 11. 1ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost. 17 m Foras-, much then as God gave them the like gift as he did unto us, who believed on the Lord Jesus Christ; "what was I, n ch. 1. 47. that I could withstand God? 18 When they heard these things, they held their peace, and glorified God, saying, • Then hath God also to the Gentiles granted repentance Rom. x. 12, unto life. 19 Pr Now they which were scattered abroad P ch. viii. 1. upon the persecution that arose about Stephen travelled as far as Phenicé, and Cyprus, and Antioch, preaching the 4 render, when believing: see note. rrender, So then.

assembled followers, and promised to them that baptism which was the completion and aim of the inferior baptism by water administered to them by John. Now, God had Himself, by pouring out on the Gentiles the Holy Spirit, included them in the number of these persons addressed as "ye" in the prophecy, and pronounced them to be members of the church of believers in Christ, and partakers of the Holy Ghost, the end of baptism. This (in all its blessed consequences, the gift of "repentance unto life," see on ver. 18) was (ver. 17) the like (literally, equal) gift bestowed on them and, this having been bestowed,— to refuse the symbolic and subordinate ordinance, or to regard them any longer as strangers from the covenant of promise would have been, so far as in him lay, to withstand (hinder) God. 17.] when

believing belongs to both them and us; setting forth the strict analogy between the cases, and the community of the faith to both.

19-30.] THE GOSPEL PREACHED ALSO IN ANTIOCH TO GENTILES. BARNABAS, BEING THEREUPON SENT BY THE APOSTLES FROM JERUSALEM, FETCHES SAUL FROM TARSUS TO ANTIOCH. THEY CONTINUE THERE A YEAR, AND, ON OCCASION OF A FAMINE, CARRY UP ALMS TO THE BRETHREN AT JERUSALEM. Our present section takes up the narrative at ch. viii. 2, 4. In vv. 19-21 it traverses rapidly the time occupied by ch. ix. 1-30, and that (undefined) of Saul's stay at Tarsus, and brings it down to the famine under Claudius. 19. So then] A resumption

of what had been dropt before, see ch. viii. 4, continued from ver. 2: not however without reference to some narrative about to follow which is brought out by a But -see ch. viii. 5, also ch. ix. 31, 32; xxviii. 5, 6,-and implying, whether by way of

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13: xv. 9, 16.

Phenicé]

distinction or exception, a contrast to what is stated in this verse. properly, the strip of coast, about 120 miles long, extending from the river Eleutherus (near Aradus), to a little south of Tyre, and belonging at this time to the province of Syria: see ch. xv. 3; xxi. 2. Its principal cities were Tripolis, Byblos, Sidon, Tyre, and Berytos. It is a fertile territory, beginning with the uplands at the foot of Lebanon, and sloping to the sea, and held a distinguished position for commerce from the very earliest times. Cyprus] Cyprus was intimately connected by commerce with Phonice, and contained many Jews. See on its state at this time, note on ch. xiii. 7. Antioch] A city in the history of Christianity only second in importance to Jerusalem. It was situated on the river Orontes, in a large, fruitful, and well-watered plain, 120 stadia from the sea and its port Seleucia. It was founded by Seleucus Nicator, who called it after his father Antiochus. It soon became a great and populous city, and was the residence of the Seleucid kings of Syria (1 Macc. iii. 37; vii. 2; xi. 13, 44; 2 Macc. v. 21), and of the Roman proconsuls of Syria. Josephus (B. J. iii. 2. 4) says that, for greatness and prosperity, it was the third city of the Roman world. Seleucus the founder had settled there many Jews who had their own governor, or Ethnarch. The intimate connexion of Antioch with the history of the church will be seen as we proceed. A reference to the principal passages will here be enough: see vv. 22, 26, 27; ch. xiii. 1; xv. 23, 35 ff.; xviii. 22. It became afterwards one of the five great centres of the Christian church, with Jerusalem, Rome, Alexandria and Constantinople. Of its present state (Antakia, a town not onethird of its ancient size) a view is given in Conybeare and Howson, where also, edn. 2.

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