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ech. iv. 1, 3: put him to death. 54 Jesus therefore walked no more openly among the Jews; but went thence unto a country. near to the wilderness, into a city called Ephraim, and there continued with his disciples. 55 g And the Jews' passover was nigh at hand: and many went out of the country up to Jerusalem before the passover, to purify themselves. 56 h Then sought they for Jesus, and spake among themselves, as they stood in the temple, What think ye, that he will not come to the feast? 57 Now [ both] the chief priests and the Pharisees had given a commandment, that, if any man knew where he were, he should shew it, that they might take him.


XII. 1 Then Jesus six days before the passover came to a ch. xi. 1, 43. Bethany, a where Lazarus was [which had been dead], whom he raised from the dead. 2z There they made him a supper; and Martha served: but Lazarus was one of

f see 2 Chron.

xiii. 19.

g ch. ii, 13:

v. 1: vi. 4.

h ch. vii. 11.

u omitted by the most ancient authorities.

I omitted by several ancient authorities.
y read, Jesus.

render, So they made him a supper there.

plotted that they might slay Him (not,
how they might slay Him). 54.] Ob-
serve the word Jews here, used as desig-
nating the official body. He was still
among Jews at Ephraim. This city is
mentioned 2 Chron. xiii. 19 in connexion
with Bethel, as also by Josephus. It was
near to the wilderness, i. e. to the desert of
Judah. Its situation is at present un-
known. Robinson supposes it to be the
same with Ophrah (Josh. xviii. 23: 1 Sam.
xiii. 17: not Judg. vi. 11, 24; viii. 27)
and Ephron of the O. T. (2 Chron. xiii. 19),
and the modern et-Taiyibeh, twenty Roman
miles from Jerusalem.
55.] The
words, the country, do not mean that
country, spoken of in the last verse, but,
the country generally. They went up thus
early, that they might have time to purify
themselves from any Levitical uncleanness,
that they might be able to keep the Pass-
over; see Num. ix. 10: 2 Chron. xxx. 17:
Acts xxi. 24, 26; xxiv. 18.
57.] The
import of this verse depends on the inser-
tion or omission of the "both" before
"the chief priests." Without it, the verse
is merely an explanation of the people's
question, which was asked in consequence
of the order having been issued by the
chief priests &c.: with it, it would mean,
And besides, the chief priests' &c. ;
i. e. not only did the people question,

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but' &c. The former is in my view most probable; for the command having been given would satisfactorily account for the questioning, and not be stated merely as co-ordinate with it.

CHAP. XII. 1–36.] PROPHETIC ANTICIPATIONS OF THE LORD'S GLORIFICATION BY DEATH. 1-11.] The arrival, and anointing, at Bethany, according to the ordinary sense of the words, six days before the passover, was on the eighth of the month Nisan, if the passover was on the fourteenth. That day was a Sabbath; but this makes no difficulty, as we know not from what point our Lord came, or whether He arrived at the commencement of the Sabbath, i. e. sunset,—or a little after, on Friday evening, from Jericho. 2. they made him a supper] It is not said who. It was, from Matthew and Mark, in the house of Simon the leper. From Lazarus being there, and Martha serving, he may have been a near relative of theirs. See notes on Matthew. Lazarus is mentioned throughout the incident, as forming an element in the unfolding of the hatred of the Jews which issued in the Lord's death notice the climax, from mere connecting mention in ver. 1, then nearer connexion in ver. 2,to his being the cause of the Jews flocking to Bethany in ver. 9,—and the joint object

39. ch.

them that sat at the table with him. 3 Then took Mary b Luke x. 38, a pound of ointment of spikenard, very costly, and anointed xi.. the feet of Jesus, and wiped his feet with her hair and the house was filled with the odour of the ointment. 4 Then saith one of his disciples, Judas Iscariot, [a Simon's son,] which should betray him, 5 Why was not this ointment sold for three hundred pence, and given to the poor? 6 This he said, not that he cared for the poor; but because he was a thief, and ed had the bag, and bare c ch. xiii. 29, what was put therein. 7 Then said Jesus, Let her alone: against the day of my burying hath she kept this. 8 For the poor always ye have with you; but me ye have not always. 9 Much people of the Jews therefore knew that he was there and they came not for Jesus sake only, but that

a omit.

Crender, because.

e render, took away.


read, with most of the ancient authorities, Let her alone, that she may keep it until the day of my burying. g render, on account of Jesus.

b render, was about to. d render, kept.

with Jesus of the enmity of the chief
priests, in ver. 10. 3.] On spike-
nard, see note on Mark. anointed the
feet of Jesus] His head, according to
Matthew and Mark. See note on Luke
vii. 38. 4.] For Judas, we have
"His disciples,' Matthew, "some,"
merely, Mark. See note on Matthew, ver.
8. The clause, which was about to
betray him, is not inserted, nor are any
such notices in St. John, without signifi-
cance. It has a material connexion with
the narrative in hand. Only one with
thoughts alien from Jesus could have
originated such a murmur. And on the
other hand, it may well be, as some have
supposed, that by the rebuke of the Lord
on this occasion, the traitorous scheme of
Judas, long hidden in his inmost soul,
may have been stimulated to immediate
5. three hundred pence]
Common (with the slight difference of the
insertion of "more than") to our narra-
tive, and Mark. The sum is about 97. 16s.
of our money.
6.] The word ren-
dered bag originally signified a box in
which to keep the reeds, or tongues, of
wind instruments:-thus, generally, any
kind of pouch, or money-chest.
took away] The word may have the sense
given in the A. V., "bare," "carried :"
but it seems hardly possible, with St. John's
use of the same word in the original in ch.

xx. 15 before us (" if thou have borne him hence"), altogether to deny that the sense of carrying off, i. e. purloining, may be here intended. Of this sense we have examples; see my Gr. Test. And so this place was interpreted by Origen, Theophylact, and others. 7.] See note on Matt. xxvi. 12. To suppose that the ointment was a remnant from that used at the burial of Lazarus, is not only fanciful, but at variance with the character of the deed as apparent in the narrative. The common reading, "against the day of my burying she hath kept this," seems to be an adaptation to Mark xiv. 8, in order to escape from the difficulty of understanding how she could keep for His burial, what she poured out now. Meyer understands the words to apply to the remnant: but Luthardt rightly observes, that the history clearly excludes the idea of a remnant. I understand the words, which, like all our Lord's anticipatory expressions, have something enigmatical in them, of her whole act, regarded as a thing past, but spoken of in the abstract, as to be allowed or disallowed: Let her keep it for the day of my burial: not meaning a future day or act, but the present one, as involving that future one. 8.] See note on Mark, vv. 7, 8. 9 ff. Remember here, as elsewhere in John, the Jews are not the people, but the rulers, and persons of

d ch. xi. 43, 44.

they might see Lazarus also, whom he had raised from
the dead. e
10 But the chief priests consulted that they
might put Lazarus also to death; 11 because that by
reason of him many of the Jews went away, and believed
on Jesus.

12 On the next day much people that were come to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem, 13 took i branches of palm trees, and went forth to PSA, exvill. meet him, and cried, "Hosanna, Blessed is the King of

25, 23.


Israel that cometh in the name of the Lord. 14 And Jesus, 1 when he had found a young ass, sat thereon; as it is written, 15 8 Fear not, daughter of Sion: behold, thy King cometh, sitting on an ass's colt. 16 These things understood not his disciples at the first: but when Jesus was glorified, then remembered they that these things were written of him, and that they had done these things unto him. 17 The people therefore that was with him when he called Lazarus out of his grave, and raised him from

e Luke xvi.
fch. xi. 45.
ver. 18.

gZECH. ix. 9. h Luke xviii.


i ch. vii. 39.

k ch. xiv. 26.

h render, were going away and believing.


render, the branches of the palm trees.

k render, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord, the King of Israel.

render, having found.

repute the representatives of the Jewish
opposition to Jesus. 10.] consulted,
not, came to a (formal) resolution,' but
were in the mind,-had an intention:
see Acts v. 33; xv. 37. The chief
priests, named here and in ch. xi. 57, were
of the sect of the Sadducees; and there-
fore disbelieved the fact of the raising of
Lazarus; only viewing him as one whom
it would be desirable to put out of the
way, as an object of popular attention in
connexion with Jesus.
going away (to Bethany)]. The word
contains in it the sense of mere falling
away, viz. from under the hand and power
of the chief priests.

11. were

12-19.] The triumphal entry into Jerusalem. Matt. xxi. 1-17. Mark xi. 1— 11. Luke xix. 29-44. On the chronology, see note on Matt. xxi. 1. 12.] On the next day, i. e. on the Sunday; -see on ver. 1. when they heard] From the multitude who had returned from Bethany, ver. 9. The order of the narrative seems to require that these people should have visited Bethany late on the Sabbath, after sunset, and the anointing. 13. the branches of the palm

m render, multitude.

trees] The articles shew that the palm trees were on the spot or perhaps that the custom was usual at such festivities. 14-16.] The Evangelist seems to suppose his readers already acquainted with the circumstances of the triumphal entry, and therefore relates it thus compendiously. The having found does not involve any discrepancy with the three Evangelists, but is a compendious term, implying their details. 15.] The prophecy is more fully cited by St. Matthew. 16.] Important, as shewing that this, and probably other prophetic citations under similar circumstances, were the effect of the light poured into the minds of the Apostles by the Holy Spirit after the Ascension. they had done these things unto him] viz. the going out to meet Him, strewing clothes and branches in the way, and shouting ‘Hosanna' before Him: also perhaps, the setting Him on the ass, implied in the concise narrative. Notice the thrice-repeated these things each time signifying "this which was written by the prophet,” “the above citation." 17.] The testimony which they bore is given in Luke xix. 37,


the dead, bare record. 18 For this cause the nn people 1 ver. 11. also met him, for that they heard that he had done this miracle. 19 The Pharisees therefore said among themselves, Perceive ye how ye prevail nothing? behold, the mch. xl. 47, 48. world is gone after him.


01 Kings viii.

viii. 27.

20 P And there were certain Greeks among them that "Acts xvii. 4. came up to worship at the feast: 21 the same came there- 41,42, Acts fore to Philip, P which was 9 of Bethsaida of Galilee, and pch. i. 44. desired him, saying, Sir, we would see Jesus. 22 Philip cometh and telleth Andrew: and again Andrew and Philip tell Jesus. 23 s And Jesus answered them, saying, The ch. xiii. 32: hour is come, that the Son of man should be glorified. 24 Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a t corn of wheat r1 Cor. xv. 36.

xvii. 1.


П render, witness.

• render, gone away.

q render, from.

r read, Andrew and Philip come, and tell Jesus.
8 render, But.


38. 18.] I see no necessity for sup. posing this multitude distinct from that in the last verse. We have had no account of any multitude coming from Bethany with Him, nor does this narrative imply it and surely the multitude in the two verses must mean the same persons. The also here does not imply another multitude, but And on this account the multitude also went out to meet Him: i. e. their coming out to meet Him and their testimony on the Mount of Olives, had one and the same cause,-the raising of Lazarus.

19.] The term gone away can hardly be altogether without allusion to the fact, or likelihood, of apostasy from Judaism. It is used to signify entire devotion to Him whithersoever He might lead them: and thus implies escape and alienation from themselves.

20-36.] FUTURE SPREAD OF THE KINGDOM OF GOD AMONG GENTILES FROM THE DEATH OF JESUS. Some Greeks desire to see Jesus. His discourse thereupon. 20.] These Greeks were not Grecian Jews,-who would not have been so called: but Gentiles, 'proselytes of the gate,' who were in the habit of coming up to the feast; see ch. vii. 35, and note: also Acts viii. 27. 21.] For what reason Philip was selected, it is impossible to say. The form of his name is Greek, and may imply some connexion with Grecian Jews, who may have been friends or relatives of these Greeks. If they were from the neighbourhood of Bethsaida, they would indeed have

nn render, multitude.

P render, Now.

t render, grain.


been familiar with the person of Jesus :but what they here requested was evidently a private interview. 22.] Andrew (ch. i. 45) was of the same city as Philip: and this reason of Philip conferring with him is perhaps implied in the words which was from Bethsaida of Galilee. Bengel remarks on this touch of nature: "when associated with his companion, he makes bold, and does it." 23.] Did these Greeks see (i. e. speak with) Jesus or not? Certainly not, if I understand His discourse rightly. But they may have been present at, and have understood it. The substance of His answer (made to Philip and Andrew, not to the Greeks) is, that the time was now come for His glorification, which should draw all nations to Him:-but that glorification must be accomplished by His Death. The very appearance of these Greeks is to Him a token that His glorification is at hand. Stier strikingly says, "These men from the West at the end of the Life of Jesus, set forth the same as the Magi from the East at its beginning;--but they come to the Cross of the King, as those to His cradle." The rejection of the Jews for their unbelief is the secondary subject, and is commented on by the Evangelist, vv. 37-43. 24.] Meyer thinks, that our Lord begins His declaration with the double asseveration verily, verily, on account of the slowness of the mind of the disciples to receive the announcements of His Death. But St. John always uses "verily, verily." The grain of wheat

fall into the ground and die, it abideth a alone: but if it

s Matt. x. 39: die, it bringeth forth much fruit. 25 s He that loveth his

xvi. 25.


X life shall lose it; and he that hateth his life in this world shall keep it unto life eternal. 26 If any man serve me, let him follow me; and where I am, there shall also servant be if any man serve me, him will ▾ my my Father honour. 27 u Now is my soul troubled; and what

Matt. xxvi.


Lake x 150 shall I say? Father, save me from this hour: but for

ch. xiii. 21.

28 Father, glorify thy x Matt. iii. 17. name. * Then came there a voice from heaven, [a saying,]

this cause came I unto this hour.

Mark viii. 35. Luke ix. 24: xvii. 33.

tch. xiv. 3: xvii. 24.

1 Thess. iv. 17.

render, by itself alone.

I render, soul: the same word is thus rendered in ver. 27.

y render, the.

a not expressed in the original. perishes, and is not apparent (as the seeds of dicotyledonous plants are) in the new plant ::-see 1 Cor. xv. 36. The saying is more than a mere parabolic similitude: the divine Will, which has fixed the law of the springing up of the wheat-corn, has also determined the law of the glorification of the Son of Man, and the one in analogy with the other: i. e. both through Death. The symbolism here lies at the root of that in ch. vi., where Christ is the BREAD of life. it abideth by itself alone, with its life uncommunicated, lived only within its own limits, and not passing on. 25.] And this same divine Law prevails for the disciples, as well as for their Master: -see Matt. x. 39 and note. But the saying here proclaims more plainly its true extent,-by its immediate connexion with ver. 21 and by the words, unto life eternal. The word soul (or, life, but here better, soul) is not really in a double sense as the wheat-corn retains its identity, though it die, so the soul: that the two senses are, in their depth, but one. Notice, that the soul involves the life in both cases, and must not be taken in the present acceptation of that term.


26.] Connexion:-The ministering to, or intimate union with, Christ (the position of Philip and Andrew and the rest, and that into which these Greeks seemed desirous to enter) implies following Him, and that, through tribulation to glory. where I am] The word refers, not to the place of our Lord at that moment, but to His essential, true place, i. e. (ch. xvii. 24) in the glory of the Father. him will the Father honour] By glorifying him in My glorification, ch. xvii. 24. 27.] Bengel observes that the horror of death and the ardour of obedience were in

z render, but yet, or, nevertheless.

conflict. And to express both these together
in human speech was impossible: therefore
our Lord exclaims, What shall I say?
The following words, Father, save me
from this hour, must not be taken in-
terrogatively, as if our Lord were doubt-
ing whether to say them or not: for
thus the whole sense is destroyed, besides
the sentiment being most unworthy of
Him who uttered it. The prayer is a
veritable prayer; and answers to the pro-
phetic Messianic prayers in the Psalms,
which thus run- My soul is troubled;
Lord, help me' (Ps. Ixix. 1; xl. 12, 13;
xxv. 17; vi. 3, 4, al.); and to that prayer
afterwards in Gethsemane, Matt. xxvi. 39.
for this cause] The misunderstand-
ing of these words has principally led to
the erroneous punctuation just noticed.
for this cause really means, “in order that
I may be saved from this hour:" i. e. 'I
came to this hour for this very purpose,-
that I might be saved from this hour:' i. e.
'the going into, and exhausting this hour,
this cup, is the very appointed way of my
glorification.' This interpretation does
not, as Luthardt says, fall if we give up
the interrogative punctuation of the pre-
vious clause, but holds equally good when
that is relinquished. The other interpre-
tation of the words for this cause, that
of Meyer and others, is, that Thy Name
may be glorified. But surely this is to do
violence to the order of thought. This
particular does not come in till the next
clause, and cannot without an improbable
transposition be drawn into this.
The glorifying the Name of the Father
can only take place by the glorification of
the Son; and this latter only by His death :
so that this is the ardour of obedience'
triumphant. a voice from heaven] This


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