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of Eutychus, he could not refuse to comply with her solicitations but he addressed her to the following purport ; "If this man has reported falsehoods concerning Agrippa, he has been already sufficiently punished in the length of his imprisonment; but let Agrippa beware how he prosecutes this matter with too great a degree of rigour, lest, on a clear investigation of the affair, the punishment he intends for Eutychus should fall on his own head." Antonia reported the contents of this speech to Agrippa; but the more earnest she was in advising him to decline all further thoughts of prosecution, the more resolved he seemed to have the matter determined by a full examination.
When she found that he refused to be advised, she took an opportunity, when the emperor was passing by in a chair after dinner, with Caius and Agrippa walking before him, to advance immediately to Tiberius, with a repeated request that Eutychus might be brought to an immediate examination; on which he addressed her in the following manner: "I call heaven to witness, that what I am now about to consent to is contrary to my own inclination, and merely in compliance with your urgent request." Having said this, he gave orders to Macro, who had succeeded Sejanus as captain of the guards, to direct that Eutychus should be immediately brought before him.
The prisoner having made his appearance, Tiberius interrogated him in the following manner: "What have you to alledge against your patron Agrippa, to whose bounty you owe the possession of your freedom?" To this Eutychus made answer : "One day, as I was driving Caius and Agrippa in a chariot, and sitting at their feet in the discharge of my duty, I heard the substance of the conversation that passed between them; and, among other things, I particularly recollect that Agrippa addressed. Caius in the following manner: Devoutly do I wish that the old man was but safely deposited in the grave, and you were left governor of the world; for if he was departed, you might easily dispose of his grandchild Tiberius; and, exclusive of the general advantage that would arise to mankind from this circumstance, we might reasonably hope to share in the particular blessing of the revolution."
There wanted nothing to induce Tiberius to give credit to this information; and he was inexpressibly chagrined to think, that after he had committed the education. of his grandson Tiberius to the particular care of Agrippa, he should totally neglect that important charge, and devote his whole time to an attendance on Caius. The emperor, therefore, turning about to Macro, cried, "Put him in chains ;" but Macro, not knowing who it was that he meant, (for he could not think of such a circumstance respecting Agrippa) hesitated awhile till he should be more fully informed of his intentions. In the interim, Tiberius took a walk in the circus; and, observing that Agrippa was still at liberty, he again called to Macro, and said, "Have I not given orders for the putting that man in chains?" Upon this Macro exclaimed," What man?" The emperor replied, "Agrippa.
Agrippa had now recourse to the most humble supplications and intreaties, beseech ing Tiberius, by the regard he entertained for the memory of his son, who had conferred on him the honour of his acquaintance, and on account of the services he had been happy enough to render his grandson Tiberius, that he would grant him his pardon. But his solicitations had no effect; for he was immediately dragged away to prison by the guards in his robes of honour, as they found him. Now the weather being remarkably sultry, and Agrippa ready to perish through the intenseness of thirst, he observed one Thaumastus, a servant to Caius, who had a pitcher of water in his hand, and requested that he would give him a draught of it. Thaumastus readily complied with his request; and when Agrippa had quenched his thirst, he addressed his benefactor in the following manner: "Since you, Thaumastus, have been so generous as to confer this obligation
on me during my present disgraceful situation, with the same readiness that you formerly served me in a more elevated station of life, be assured that you shall never have cause to repent the liberality of your present conduct; for you may depend upon my word of honour, that as soon as my present difficulties shall be overcome, I will make use of my utmost interest with Caius that you shall be restored to your liberty." And Agrippa was afterwards as good as his promise; for no sooner was he advanced to the crown than he begged Caius would make him a present of Thaumastus, to whom he gave his freedom, and entrusted him with the management of his affairs; and, when' his death approached, he recommended him to his son and daughter Agrippa and Bernice, advising that he might continue in the same situation during the remainder of his life; and this he did with credit to himself, and possessing the esteem of all who
While Agrippa was standing bound with chains with other prisoners before the palace, leaning in a melancholy manner against a tree, an owl perched thereon; which, being observed by a German prisoner, he asked a soldier who was the person dressed in purple; and, being told that he was a Jew of the first distinction, he begged the soldier would let him approach him; for he wished to know some things respecting his country. This request being complied with, and an interpreter being allowed, the German addressed Agrippa to the following effect: "I perceive, young gentleman, that you are dejected by this sudden and amazing change in your fortune; yet it is not in your power to conceive, nor will you easily credit. how very near your deliverance approaches, under the special care and protection of that providence which is your peculiar guard. I now invoke all the gods which are worshipped either by your nation or ours, by whose permission we are thus imprisoned, to witness that I say not this to flatter you with idle hopes, by which you will be deceived; for I am not insensible that such prognostications, if the event should not prove answerable to the prophecy, are productive of more injury than service. But I conceive it to be my duty, at whatever risk to myself, to inform you that you will see such a surprizing turn of affairs, as will elevate you from this distressful situation, and place you on such a summit of honour and power that you will become the envy of those who have heretofore affected either to despise or pity you. The remainder of your days will be prosperous, and your good fortune will be possessed by children whom you will leave behind you. I now intreat your particular attention to what I have further to say. When you shall again behold this bird, you shall die at the end of five days from that time. Thus much I am commissioned by heaven to give you to understand by this auspicious omen. What I declare is founded on fact; and I tell you the simple truth, that you may not be borne down by the weight of your present afflictions, but be happy in the prospect of future events. All I have further to desire of you is, that when you shall find these predictions verified by the event, you will not be unmindful of your fellow-prisoners; but procure the freedom of those you may leave in this place." When Agrippa heard this prophecy of the German, it appeared to him altogether as ridiculous as it did afterwards wonderful when it came to be accomplished.
During this time, Antonia was exceedingly unhappy on account of the hard treatment of her friend; and, conceiving that the inflexibility of the disposition of Tiberius was such, that the making application to him would but be a mere loss of time, she took a different method, and applied to Macro to render his confinement as easy to him as possible, by directing that he should be attended by soldiers of a civil and humane disposition, that he should constantly sit down at table with the officer in whose immediate custody he was, that he should be permitted the use of the bath daily, and that
the visits of his friends and freed-men should be admitted. All these favours were granted whereupon he was visited by his friend Silas; and Marsyas and Stychus, two of his freed-men, constantly conveyed to him the food of which he was most fond; and, under pretence of carrying blankets to sell, they supplied him with those articles on which to repose in the night, the soldiers, agreeably to the hints they had received from Macro, making no opposition to these proceedings.
At the expiration of about six months from the commencement of Agrippa's imprisonment, Tiberius, on his return from Capræa, was attacked with an illness that was, at first, but slight; but which gradually increasing, he grew worse till his life was despaired of. When he came to perceive that there were no hopes of his recovery, he dispatched Evodus, his favourite freedman, to bring his children to him early on the following day to take a final leave of their dying parent. These were not his natural children, but his adopted children; his grandson Tiberius, the son of Drusus ; and his nephew Caius, the son of Germanicus.
He now betook himself to fervent prayers to the gods of his country, that he might be directed, by some particular signal, which of the two he should make choice of for his successor, yet secretly wishing that Tiberius might be distinguished by the happy omen; however he did not dare venture to make a prejudication in a matter of such high importance, but thought proper first to consult his oracle. Wherefore, he determined that he would be governed by this circumstance, that the young prince who should first wait upon him in the morning should succeed him in the government. Having formed this resolution, he gave particular orders to the tutor of his grand-child to bring the youth to him by day-break, not entertaining a doubt but that the gods would declare in favour of Tiberius but the event proved the contrary; for the emperor sending out Evodus as soon as day-light appeared, to see if the young princes were at the door, and to bring into the palace the first he saw, he found Caius alone, informed him that he must wait on his father, and immediately introduced him. Now it happened, that Tiberius, being unapprized of the intention of the emperor, had stayed to breakfast, and thus missed the favourable opportunity.
The emperor was astonished when Caius entered the room, and wondered at that providence which had defeated his design in the disposal of the government, by thus settling it in a way totally contrary to what he had intended. Nor did he deem the present disappointment of his expectations the worst circumstance attending the affair; for he did not consider the loss of the empire as of equal consequence with the personal safety of his grand-child; since, where the acquiring of dominion is the object, the question will be decided by force; ambition is deaf to the calls of humanity; and where there is a rivalship for power, the ruin of one party is generally deemed the security of the other.
Being thus disappointed in the wish that he had formed respecting the succession, he was but ill disposed to congratulate the future emperor on the good fortune that awaited him; yet as, on this occasion, it was necessary that something should be said, he addressed the fortunate prince in the manner following: "It is unnecessary, my son Caius, for me to inform you that Tiberius is more nearly allied to me in blood than you are; yet I now commit the government of the Roman empire into your bands, in consequence of having consulted the will of the gods, and debated on the affair in my own mind. But I command you that, in the exercise of the power with which you are invested, you constantly remember the obligations you are under to him who bestowed it on you; and that your gratitude to your patron be testified by every possible instance of affection and regard to your brother Tiberius. All that I have to request of you in grateful acknowledginent of the honour I have now conferred is,
that in every particular you will treat him with the utmost kindness, since he is equally endeared to me by nature and affection. I would likewise wish to remark to you, that it is no less your interest thau your duty to comply with the injunctions I have given; for on the life and happiness of your brother the dignity and security of situation will in a great measure depend, and your unhappiness will speedily succeed the day of his death. The situation of a sovereign prince is equally dangerous and uncertain, he stands on a giddy and slippery elevation; nor will the divine vengeance fail to follow any actions he may be guilty of in violation of the laws of nature and consanguinity."
Tiberius having thus made his last address to Caius, he promised a punctual and exact obedience to every article of his commands; but he did not intend that his actions should correspond with his words; for no sooner did he come into the possession of power, than he caused his brother to be put to death; but within a few years he himself lost his life by assassination.
In a few days after having given these injunctions, Tiberius died, to the great joy of the Roman people, who detested him for his tyranny. The tidings of his death no sooner reached Marsyas, the freed-man of Agrippa, than he instantly hurried away with the good news to his patron, who was then going to bathe, and whispered him in the Hebrew language, "The lion is dead." Agrippa immediately comprehended his meaning, and exclaimed, "How is it possible that I should requite you for this favour, and the many other obligations thou hast conferred on me, provided that thy present intelligence should prove true?" The officer to whose custody Agrippa had been committed, observing in what a hurry Marsyas delivered his message, and how well pleased the prisoner was with the news, immediately conjectured that the intelligence was of the satisfactory kind, and therefore desired Agrippa to inform him of the particulars. At first he made some kind of hesitation; but on being urged to discover what he knew, he related the plain matter of fact. The officer having con gratulated him on the good news, invited him to partake of an elegant supper; but while they were in the midst of their entertainment, a messenger arrived with an account that Tiberius was out of danger, and would soon arrive in town.
This intelligence astonished the officer in the highest degree; and being apprehensive that his life must pay the forfeit for his having rejoiced with a prisoner on the news of the death of Tiberius, he pushed Agrippa violently from his seat, and exclaimed in a rage, "Is it thus that you seek to impose upon me by lies and artifices, and could you find no other person to amuse with a pretended story of the death of Cæsar? Depend upon it that you shall severely pay for the liberties you have taken." Saying this, he directed that he should be put in chains, and more closely watched than he was before. Agrippa having passed the night in this situation, the report of Cæsar's death prevailed in the morning, and the people offered sacrifices of joy on the
Soon after this report, two letters were brought from Caius, one to the senate, informing them that he was appointed successor to Tiberius; and another to Piso, governor of the city, to the same effect. These letters ordered that Agrippa should be discharged from prison, and allowed to live in his former house; so that, though still in a kind of custody, he was eased of all fearful apprehensions, and considered himself as in a state of enlargement. Soon afterwards Caius came to Rome, and brought with him the body of Tiberius, which was interred in a most sumptuous manner. The emperor would instantly have discharged Agrippa; but this was opposed by Antonia, not for want of affection to the party, but that she thought it would be rather indecent to hasten the discharge; and, as Tiberius had committed the prisoner, would be
deemed a kind of insult on his memory. In a few days, however, Caius sent for him to his palace; and, having given directions that he should be shaved and properly dressed, he caused a crown to be put upon his head, as successor to the tetrarchy which had been possessed by Philip; he likewise created him king, bestowed on him the tetrarchy of Lysania, and gave him a chain of gold of the same weight as that of iron which he had worn in prison. Marcellus was now sent as governor of Judea by Caius.
When Caius Cæsar was in the second year of his reign, Agrippa intreated his permission to retire into his own country to adjust his private affairs, promising to retura at a limited time. It was matter of astonishment to his countrymen to behold Agrippa with a crown on his head, as he appeared a singular instance of the instability of fortune, and the fluctuation of human affairs, having so changed his situation from one excess to the other. Some of them considered him as a wise and fortunate man, who could so firmly support himself against all difficulties; while others were so astonished at the revolution that had happened, that they could scarcely credit the evidence of their own senses.
Herodias, the detested wife of Herod Antipas, greatly envied the prosperity of her brother, and would not permit her husband to enjoy any peace till he should consent to go with her to Rome, and there lodge an accusation against the prosperous Agrippa. Agrippa had, however, resided too long at the court of Rome to be ignorant of the arts of intrigue. He, therefore, being timely acquainted with their ambitious designs, had taken care to send to Rome one of his freed men, to accuse Herod of having had a share in the late conspiracy of Sejanus; and, as a proof of it, to mention the arsenals which he had filled with arms sufficient to furnish seventy thousand men, and his having formed a league with Artabanus, the king of Parthia. Fortunatus presented his master's letter at the very time while Herod was enjoying his first interview with the emperor. Caius immediately enquired whether Herod had really collected such a store of arms; and finding that this fact could not be denied, banished him, and afterwards Herodias, to Lyons in France, confiscated their treasures, and conferred both the treasures and the tetrarchy on Herod Agrippa. Herod had been tetrarch forty-three years; so that this event happened in the year A. D. 39.
The character of Caius Caligula is well known to all who are in the slightest degree acquainted with the Roman history. It is scarcely too much to affirm that he had all the follies which could degrade, and all the vices which could contaminate human nature. Yet his vanity was so great, that he was disposed to account himself a god, and lay claim to the honours which the heathen were accustomed to render to their deities of the first order, such as Mercury, Apollo, and Mars. He first determined to personate Mercury; and clothed himself in a mantle resembling the garment of that deity, carried a white rod in his hand, and wore buskins with wings affixed to them. He now divested himself of the ornaments and ensigns of Mercury, and assumed the appearance of Apollo, wearing a radiant crown representing the beams of the sun upon his head; and to convey an intimation that he would be slow to punish offences, and ready to execute benevolent offices, he carried a bow and arrow in his left, and the graces in his right hand. After this, he caused holy songs to be sung, and dances to be exhibited in honour of the new deity, though but a short time had elapsed since he had been contented with being distinguished by the names of Liber, Euius, and Lyceus. In order to counterfeit Mars, he provided himself with a costly head-piece, sword, and buckler, and marched with priests and bravoes attending him on each side, ready to obey his inhuman commands; for he ridiculously imagined that by spreading destruction, and an indiscriminate spilling of blood, he should gain a more