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and after his elevation to his dignity in the year 520, procured the condemnation of the latter in a synod of bishops held at Constantinople. Whilst he was patriarch, the decrees of the council of Chalcedon were confirmed, and a reconciliation was completed between the churches of Constantinople and Rome, after a schism which lasted thirty-five years. Five letters of this patriarch to pope Hormisdas on the subject of the union are extant in the fourth volume of the collection of the Latin councils.

SERGIUS, patriarch of Constantinople in 610, was a native of Syria, and the chief of the sect of Monothelites, the principle of which was, that there is only one will, and one operation in Christ. This heresy was condemned in the council of Constantinople. Sergius died in 639.

JUNILIUS, an African bishop, and author of a work of merit, entitled "De partibus Divinæ Legis, Lib. II," which is written by way of question and answer, and forms a kind of introduction to the study of the sacred Scriptures. Junilius says, that he received the substance of it from a learned Persian named Paul, who had been educated at Nisibis, where there was a public seminary, for teaching the knowledge of the Scriptures, conducted in a similar manner with the celebrated catechetical school of Alexandria.

- FACUNDUS, bishop of Hermianum, in Africa, who defended the books called the Three Chapters, at the council of Constantinople, in 547, for which he was banished. He wrote some pieces which are extant.

FABIUS FULGENTIUS PLANCIADES, who is sometimes confounded with Fulgentius the saint, flourished about the year 520, and, according to some writers, was bishop of Carthage. He was the author of three books "On Mythology," addressed to a priest, named Catus. They were published in 1599, by Jerome Commelin, together with the mythological treatises of Hygyrus, Julius Firmicus Maternus, and Alberic; and at Amsterdam in 1081, by Munker, in two volumes, 8vo., with the same and other treatises of a similar nature, under the title of "Mythographi Latini." This Fulgentius was also the author of a curious treatise "De Primis Vocabulis Latinis," published in Paris in 1586, 4to., and to him has been attributed a dissertation "On the Allegories of Virgil," addressed to Charicles, a grammarian.

PRIMASIUS, a Catholic bishop, and Scripture commentator of some note in this century, was a native of Africa, and obtained the see of Adrumetum, also known by the name of Justinianopolis, in the province of Byzacene. About the year 550, he was one of a deputation which was sent to Constantinople, on the affairs of the African churches, and he was at that city in 553, when the fifth General Council assembled

there, by order of the emperor Justinian. He refused, however, to take any share in the deliberations of that assembly, though repeatedly invited; and he subscribed to the constitution which Pope Vigilius issued in defence of the Three Chap


EUSTRATIUS, a presbyter of the church of Constantinople, flourished about the year 578, and was author of "A Treatise concerning the Souls of the Dead," intended to prove that the souls of all men are active after their separation from the body, and that they act differently according to the difference of their merits. He was author also of "The Life of the Patriarch Eutychius," which appears to have been a funeral oration pronounced by Eustratius in the great church at Constantinople, a short time after the death of the subject of it.

AGAPETUS, a deacon of Constantinople. He wrote a letter to Justinian, on the duties of a Christian prince.

THEOPOLITANUS ANASTASIUS, bishop of Antioch. Justin the younger, in the year 570, banished this patriarch, for holding the opinion, that the body of Christ was incapable of suffering even before the resurrection. He remained in exile twenty-three years. In the year 593, under the reign of Mauritius, he was recalled, and restored to his see; he died in the year 599. This bishop has left some sermons and treatises on the Trinity, and other points of faith, of which a Latin translation was published, in 4to. at Ingoldstadt, in 1616; and "On the Annunciation of the Virgin Mary and the Transfiguration of Christ," published in Greek and Latin, in the first volume of Combesis ü Auctairus," folio, Paris, 1648.

ST. COLMAN, the founder of the church and bishopric of Cloyne in Ireland. A well, reputed holy, to the N. W. of Cloyne, is dedicated to him, and is much frequented by the Irish Catholics on the anniversary of the saint, Nov. 24. He died Nov. 4. A. D. 604.

ST. MAUR, a celebrated disciple of St. Benedict. He is said to have been sent by Benedict on a mission to France; and notwithstanding the silence of Bede, Gregory of Tours, &c. there are several documents which prove this, or at least render it very probable. He died about A. D. 584.

LIBERATUS, a deacon of the church of Carthage, flourished about the middle of this century. In the year 534, he was sent to Rome by a council of African bishops held at Carthage for the purpose of consulting with pope John about some dubious points; and he was frequently employed respecting affairs of importance.

JACOB BARADÆUS, or JACOB ZANGALUS, a monk of this century. He was a Syrian by birth, and a disciple of Eutyches and Dyoscorus. He maintained that there is but one nature in Christ. He was ordained bishop of Edessa,

by the remaining followers of Eutyches, the first broacher of that opinion; but the sect from that time took the name of Jacobites. He died in 588.

GEORGE FLORENTIUS GREGORY, bishop of Tours, one of the most illustrious bishops and celebrated writers in this century, was descended from a noble family in Auvergne. He was educated by his uncle Gallus, Bishop of Clermont, and distinguished himself so much by his learning and virtue, that in 573 he was chosen bishop of Tours. He afterwards went to Rome to visit the tombs of the apostles, where he contracted a friendship with Gregory the Great, and died in 595. He was extremely credulous with regard to miracles. He wrote the history of France; the Lives of the Saints; and other works. The best edition is that published by F. Rumart, in 1699.

EULOGIUS, patriarch of Alexandria, was, at first, presbyter of the church of Antioch, and distinguished himself by his zeal for the Catholic doctrines in a letter which he wrote to Eutychius, patriarch of Constantinople, containing an exposition of the true faith. He was elevated to the see of Alexandria in the year 581, and became very active in rooting out heresy, not only by the allowable and fair weapons of reason and argument, but by expelling from their situation all ecclesiastics who were advocates for the doctrine of one nature in Christ. He lived in habits of intimacy with Gregory the Great, whose sentiments and disposition were congenial to his own. He died in 608. Of his works only fragments are remaining.

ST. GAUDENTIUS, bishop of Brescia, to which he was appointed by St. Ambrose and other prelates much against his own wishes. He died about 627. He wrote the life of his predecessor Philaster; and fifteen sermons and letters, published together at Brescia in 1738, folio. There was a bishop of the Donatists of the same name and age, who wrote two apologies for his sect.

CONON, bishop of Tarsus, after whom a branch of the sect of Friseists were called Cononites, concurred at first with Philoponus, the ablest advocate for that sect, in maintaining the notion that in the Deity there are three natures, or substances, absolutely equal in all respects, and joined together by no common essence. He afterwards appears to have differed from Philoponus, on the subject of the equality of these natures; whence a division arose among their disciples, who were called Philoponists or Cononites, as they severally embraced the opinions of their respective leaders. At a later period the breach between them was still farther widened, on the subject of the resurrection of the body. Philiponus held that the form as well as matter, of all bodies, was generated and corrupted, and that both therefore were to be restored in the resurrection. Conon, on the contrary, maintained that the body never lost its form, that its matter alone was subject to corruption and decay,

and was consequently to be restored when the mortal shall put on immortality. What important topics to engage the talents, and to agitate the resentments, of learned and grave divines, and philosophers! What serious grounds for factions and disputes in the Christian Church!

ST. ISIDORE of Seville, was bishop of that city forty years, during which he proved himself the father of the poor and the oracle of Spain. He died in 636. The council of Toledo called him the doctor of his age, and the ornament of the church. He wrote commentaries on the Scriptures, a Treatise on Ecclesiastical Writers; a Chronicle from Adam to 626, and other works. The editions of his Missal and Breviary are very scarce. In his treatise on Divine Offices are some curious observations on music.

ST. ILDEFONSE, the pupil of Isidore of Seville, was abbot of a monastery at Toledo, and bishop of that see. He died nine years after, 667, aged 82, author of an account of ecclesiastical writers, and other works.

ST. AUSTIN, or AUGUSTINE THE FIRST, archbishop of Canterbury, was originally a monk in the convent of St. Andrew at Rome, and educated under St. Gregory, afterwards pope Gregory I., by whom he was despatched into Britain, with forty other monks, about A. D. 596, to convert the English Saxons to Christianity. They landed in the isle of Thanet, and having sent some French iuterpreters to king Ethelbert with an account of their errand, the king gave them leave to convert as many of his subjects as they could, and assigned their place of residence at Doroverum, since called Canterbury; to which they were confined till the king himself was converted, whose example had a powerful influence in promoting the conversion of his subjects; but though he was extremely pleased at their being Christians, he never attempted to compel them. He dispatched a priest and a monk to Rome, to acquaint the pope with the success of his mission, and to desire his resolution of certain questions. These men brought back with them a pall and several books, vestments, utensils, and ornaments for the churches; with directions to Augustine concerning the settling of episcopal sees in Britain; ordering him not to pull down the idol temples, but to convert them into Christian Churches; only destroying the idols, and sprinkling the place with holy water, that the natives, by frequenting the temples they had been always accustomed to, might be the less shocked at their entrance into Christianity. Augustine resided principally at Canterbury, which thus became the metropolitan church of England; and having established bishops in several of the cities, he died A. D. 607. The popish writers ascribe several miracles to him. The observation of his festival was first enjoined in a synod held under Cuthbert archbishop of

Canterbury, and afterwards by the pope's bull in the reign of Edward III.

St. KENTIGERN, or St. MUNGO, a celebrated saint of the Romish church, who flourished in Scotland, in this century, and is said to have been of the blood royal of both Scots and Picts, being the son of Thametis, the daughter of Loth, king of the Picts, by Eugene III., king of Scotland. He founded the bishoprics of Glasgow and St. Asaph, A.D. 560. He got the name of Mungo, from the affection of his tutor, St. Serf, or Servanus, bishop of Orkney, who called him Mongah, which, in the Norse, or Norwegian language, signifies dear friend.

St. GILES, the tutelar saint of Edinburgh, a native of Greece, who flourished in this century, and was descended of an illustrious family. On the death of his parents he gave all his estate to the poor, and travelled into France, where he retired into a wilderness near the conflux of the Rhone with the sea, and continued three years. Having obtained the reputation of extraordinary sanctity, various miracles were attributed to him; and he founded a monastery in Languedoc, known long after by the name of St. Giles.

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St. COLUMBA, a celebrated saint, or rather apostle, of Scotland, who flourished in this century. The Rev. Dr. Smith, minister of Cambleton, in the statistical account of his parish, makes him of the blood royal of Scotland. After mentioning the expulsion of the Dahnaidhini, or ancient Scots, to Ireland, A.D. 446, and their "return in 503, under the conduct of the three sons of Er, called Lorn, Angus, and Fergus, who became the second founders of the kingdom of the Scots;" he adds, Angus seems to have died soon after his arrival in this country, for we hear no more of him. In the division of the country, Isay probably fell to his share; as, after his death, we find it possessed by his son Murdach, whose widow Erca, the daughter of Lorn, was afterwards married to his cousin-german, the son of Conal of Ireland, to whom she bore Felim, the father of St. Columba, the apostle of the Highlands." This holy man, instigated by zeal, left his native country, Ireland, A. D. 565, with the pious design of preaching the Gospel to the Picts. It appears, that he left his native soil with warm resentment, vowing never to make a settlement within sight of that hated island. He made his first trial at Oronsay; and finding that place too near Ireland, succeeded to his wish at Hy, or I, for that was the name of Iona, or I-Columb-Kill, at the time of his arrival. He repeated here the experiment on several hills, erecting on each a heap of stones; and that which he last ascended is to this day called Carnan-chul-reb Eirun, or the eminence of the back turned to Ireland. Columba was soon distinguished by the sanctity of his manners; a miracle that he wrought so operated on the Pictish king Brudems, that he immediately made a pre

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