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judicial effects of his sentence, his ruin is sealed and inevitable. If he is redeemed by a substitute, that substitute must possess contradictory attri butes, a combination of qualities not to be found within the compass of human nature. He must be frail and mortal, or he cannot die a sacrifice; he must possess ineffable dignity, or he cannot merit as a substitute.
"Such were the apparently insurmountable
difficulties which obstructed the salvation of man by any methods worthy of the divine character; such the darkness and perplexity which involved his prospects, that it is more than probable the highest created intelligence would not have been equal to the solution of the question, How shall man be just with God?
"The mystery hid from ages and generations, the mystery of Christ crucified dispels the obscurity, and presents, in the person of the Redeemer, all the qualifications which human conception can embody, as contributing to the perfect character of a substitute. By his participation of flesh and blood, he becomes susceptible of suffering, and possesses within himself the materials of a sacrifice. By its personal union with the eternal Word, the sufferings sustained in a nature thus assumed, acquired an infinite value, so as to be justly deemed more than equivalent to the penalty originally denounced.
"His assumption of the human nature, made his oblation of himself possible; his possession of the divine rendered it efficient: and thus, weakness and power, the imperfections incident to a frail and mortal creature, and the exemption from these; the attributes of time, and those of eternity; the elements of being the most opposite, and deduced from opposite world-sequally combined to give efficacy to his character as the Redeemer, and validity to his sacrifice. They constitute a person who has no counterpart in heaven or on earth, who may be most justly denominated Wonderful, composed of parts and features which (however they may subsist elsewhere in a state of separation) the combination and union nothing short of infinite wisdom could have conceived, or infinite power effected. The mysterious constitution of the person of Christ, the stupendous link which unites God and man, and heaven and earth; that mystic ladder, on which the angels of God ascended and descended, whose foot is on a level with the dust, and whose summit penetrates the inmost recesses of an unapproachable splendour, will be, we have reason to believe, through eternity, the object of profound contemplation and adoring wonder."-p. 510.
These extracts cannot fail to place this volume in a light, at once gratifying to the reader, and highly creditable to the author's talents and piety. As the first link in the series, it will raise the barometer of expectation, and impose upon the editor the arduous task of indefatigable industry and unremitting care, to prevent disappointment from defeating the hopes he has thus already excited.
REVIEW.-Ecclesiastical History, in a Course of Lectures, delivered at Founder's Hall, London. By William Jones, M.A. Vol. I. 8vo. pp. 556. Holdsworth, London. 1831.
To what number these lectures will be extended, and to how many volumes the whole when completed will amount, the author has not informed us. This we conceive to be a piece of bad policy, even
though it may seem to furnish the publisher with an opportunity of proceeding with the work, or of discontinuing it, as circumstances may dictate, without subjecting him to the charge of having violated his word or broken his faith with the public. Perhaps, eighteen out of every twenty of all who wish to purchase such a work as this, would first desire to know its probable extent, the times when the parts and volumes may be expected to appear, and the aggregate amount of expense. Unless these points can be satisfactorily ascertained, prudence will dictate to persons of limited incomes, not to commence an undertaking which it may be doubtful if they will ever be able to complete. No purchaser would ever wish to throw himself upon the mercy of either author or bookseller; and such a surrender no one has any reasonable right to expect.
Ecclesiastical history is an extensive field, to which scarcely any boundaries can be assigned; and he who enters this fertile enclosure, will soon discover himself to be surrounded by materials that are almost inexhaustible. The business, therefore, of him who would turn his time and opportunity in this prolific region to good account, is, to examine with care the various subjects which court his attention, and, by comparing them with others, to make such selections from the general mass, as may appear most congenial with the unyielding character of historical truth.
Guided by this principle, Mr. Jones has prosecuted his inquiries with unremitting diligence, and, returning from the thickets in which "weeds and flowers promiscuous shoot," with the fruits of his researches, the public are invited in this volume to enjoy the repast. To any large proportion of original matter, he makes no pretensions. Nor is this to be expected: the ground has been too frequently trodden, to admit of novelty in the leading historical facts. It is only in arrangement and combination, in elucidation of occurrences, and in delineation of character, that any thing new appears." In these we behold the author to considerable advantage. To the manner in which he recals departed ages to our recollection,~ he has imparted a degree of vividness, which renders his lectures as entertaining, as the facts recorded in them are intrinsically interesting.
To the works of preceding writers, Mr. Jones has had recourse; at times embodying in his own language the sentiments which they have delivered, and occasionally enriching his own pages with ample quotations from theirs. In the adoption of this method, he has not, however, renounced
ais own independence, for he rarely fails to animadvert with freedom even on our most celebrated historians, whenever he conceives their statements to be erroneous; nor does he neglect to rectify their mistakes, when they appear to ascribe given effects to im proper and inadequate causes.
Throughout all his lectures, Mr. Jones defends Christianity against the insidious at tacks of Gibbon, and others of the same school; and in a variety of events, which these writers attribute to secondary causes, he discovers the finger of God, and the accomplishment of prophecy. The history of the early pagan persecutions is detailed with much vigour; and the credibility of the sacred writers he has rendered particularly interesting. The character of the ancient druids is delineated with a powerful hand; and the testimony of Josephus and of many others, to whom we are indebted for records of early facts, is given with great perspicuity.
Of the church of Rome, Mr. Jones traces the origin and degeneracy with much fidelity; and the facts which he adduces in support of the latter, stand unparalleled in the dreadful catalogue of ecclesiastical enormities. These brutal excesses he has placed in their proper light; and no further evidence can be wanting, to prove, that a combination of such wretches, by what name soever distinguished, cannot be the church of Christ. On this, and on many other topics, he has done ample justice to his subject; and, on the whole, produced a volume that may be perused with advantage by almost every class of readers.
REVIEW.Memorials of the Stuart Dynasty; including the Constitutional and Ecclesiastical History of England, from the Decease of Elizabeth to the Abdication of James II. By Robert Vaughan. 2 Vols. 8vo. pp. 523, 550. Holdsworth and Ball, London. 1831. THERE is no period in English history more eventful to the cause of religion than that which these volumes embrace. It was an age of turbulence, animosity, and disquietude in the state, and of fierce controversy and instability in the church. It was an age in which Popery and the Reformation contended for the throne of supremacy, and in which we perceive the scale preponderating alternately in favour of each, as the views of the reigning monarch extended their influence over his supple courtiers and submissive subjects.
Nor was it with Popery and Reformation alone that the nation was exclusively
embroiled. The court reformers were suspected by the Puritans of too near an approximation to the church of Rome; while the Puritans, on the contrary, were charged with faction, fanaticism, and disobedience to the constituted authority of the state, and of being influenced by a restless spirit, calculated to disturb the public peace. These mutual recriminations were expressed in no very conciliating terms. Animosity, acrimony, and invective, were enlisted under the banners of both parties, each of whom impugned the motives of the other, and delighted in giving features of frightful distortion to their characters. Of this wicked propensity, we quote the following instance, which, from a popular writer, in a work recently published, entitled, "Com. mentaries on the Life and Reign of Charles the First," Mr. Vaughan has inserted in his preface :
"According to one of our popular writers, and in this he is merely the echo of a host, the Puritans were a compound of barbarism, intolerance, and madness, and animated by a relentless malignity against every thing great, and good, and beautiful. They did infinite mischief, and always from a pure love of doing it a little good they also did; but it was ever with an intention to do evil. Their weakness was marvellous, and the fittest subject in the world for ridicule, had it not been allied to wickedness still more remarkable, and deserving far other means of correction."
Statements like the preceding no person can cordially believe; and when historical detail suffers itself to be thus distorted by prejudice, all confidence in the fidelity of its representations is at once destroyed. To know the real character of the parties who figured on the great theatre of our country during these troublesome and agitated times, all will allow to be highly desirable, and, so far as Mr. Vaughan has accomplished this arduous task, he has a right to claim the gratitude of the present generation, and of posterity.
Alluding to the quotation given above, Mr. Vaughan thus states the character of
his own volumes :
"To the class of readers, who can derive pleasure from fictions of this description, when substituted in the place of history, the present work will be in no way acceptable. At the same time it will not surprise the writer to learn, that there are ultras on the other side, to whom the opinions sometimes expressed in these sheets will not be quite satisfactory. He has not cared to become a caterer for the morbid passions of any party. His object has been to induce a just estimate of the sentiments of devout men in former times, and to promote that enlightened attachment to the principles of freedom, by which those men were generally animated. That view of religion is defective and false which does not make the love and the veneration of man a natural consequence of devotedness to his Maker."-Preface, p. v.
To the impartiality by which Mr. Vaughan thus professes to be guided, he seems faithfully to have adhered in the prosecution of his inquiries. In the Puritans, and other sects, he has found much to commend, and many things to censure.
REVIEW. THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY.
On several occasions they evinced a zeal that was not according to knowledge, and brought upon themselves, by their own indiscretion, no small portion of that persecuting spirit which distinguished the age in which they lived. The high church party, on the contrary, were vindictive and intolerant, ready on all occasions to visit with their vengeance every one who presumed to withstand their power, or even to question their authority. Firmness of resist ance in the subjects of persecution, was to them an invitation to indulge their ferocity of disposition. They appeared, by their conduct, to know no medium between unconditional submission and utter extermination; and, as a natural consequence, all dissenters became a conspicuous mark, as well as an incessant prey.
On each side of the picture thus drawn, the colouring is exceedingly gloomy, but that of the high church party is tinctured with by far the most numerous and the deepest shades. With the abettors of government, law frequently usurped the place of justice, and in too many instances even law itself was supplanted by power. In such a state of things, no person could be secure; even trial by jury became a solemn mockery; and of all questions, the issues might be resolved into the arbitrary decisions of the judges.
"The judges held their office during good behaviour,' a condition that could not fail to be understood; and understood, could rarely fail to be pernicious. With this course, which in every state trial
was so unfavourable to the true decision of a judge, there were others connected, which were equally in the way of obtaining a true verdict from a jury. In such cases, the sheriff returned a panel, either according to express directions, of which we have proofs, or to what he judged himself of the crown's intention and interest. If a verdict had gone against the prosecution in a matter of moment, the jurors must have laid their account with appearing before the star-chamber, lucky if they should escape, on humble retraction, with sharp words instead of enormous fines, and indefinite imprisonment. The control of this arbitrary tribunal bound down, and rendered impotent, all the minor jurisdictions.-It is also remarked, that the man arraigned for treason was almost certain to meet a virulent prosecutor, a judge hardly distinguishable from the prosecutor, except by his ermine, and a passive pusillanimous jury."-Vol. i. p. 13.
If we turn from this despotism both in church and state, to the spirit of intolerance fostered by Puritanical fanaticism, the censurable conduct of each party will become still more apparent :
"Knewstab, a puritan, wrote a book during the reign of Elizabeth, to expose the extravagances of a sect founded by one Henry Nicolas, and called The Family of Love.' This work is dedicated to the Earl of Warwick, a member of the privy council, whom he addresses in the following language:-'With what care and conscience such matters are to be dealt withal, that which is read in Deuter. xiv. may sufficiently direct your honour. Where it is plainly declared, that if any shall secretly entice unto a strange religion either friend, husband, or brother, the nearest bonds that nature or friendship hath, they stand charged not only to reveal it, but also that their hands shall be the first upon them to put them to death. To betray the secrets of a dear friend, who is to a man as his own soul, seemeth to flesh and blood a heinous matter. To deal so with a man's brother, the son of
own body, the law of nature, doth cry out against it. And yet, for the glory of God, we are not only, in such a case, to reveal this against them, but ourselves to be the chief doers in the death and execution of them which telleth us, that at the bringing in of sown, by neg
idolatry, and a strange religion, how secretly soever lecting thereof, God's glory should be defaced, and the danger that is due for the neglect thereof should be sustained, we are not only to lay aside natural affection, but even to break into our own bowels, and to bathe ourselves in our own blood."-Vol. i. p. 56.
Through these labyrinths of ecclesiastical tyranny, injustice, and severity, on the one hand, and of obstinacy, intolerance, and fanaticism, on the other, Mr. Vaughan conducts his readers with a steady course; but we cannot follow him through all the intricacies in which he has pursued the various subjects of censure, commendation, and pity, which appear in his two interesting
State affairs, during this eventful era of British history, bear a strong resemblance to those we have already noticed in connexion with religion and the national establishment. Wars, jealousies, duplicity, intrigues, factions, cabals, aggression, and violence, were alternately and successively triumphant. To these disgusting topics Mr. Vaughan never forgets to direct our attention; and although the reader may sigh over the melancholy events which he is called to contemplate, he will be induced rian has recorded facts, and traced their to admire the fidelity with which the histoconnexion with causes and consequences, both proximate and remote.
REVIEW.-The Gardens and Menagerie of the Zoological Society, delineated in Two Vols. 8vo. pp. 308-328. Tilt, London. 1831.
THE Zoological Gardens have long been an object of strong and peculiar attraction. They are situated in the Regent's Park, in the north-west vicinity of London; and, extending over many acres tastefully laid out in walks, and planted with shrubs and flowers, contain a great variety of beasts and birds, collected from every quarter of the globe. To the naturalist, this collection cannot fail to furnish an inexhaustible source of rational entertainment, while he watches the emanations of instinct in the varied tribes that are presented to his contemplation. The curious beholder will find gratification in simply surveying the tricks and manœuvres which they constantly display, and in marking the peculiarities by which each genus and species is specifically distinguished.
Essentially different from the common exhibitions of wild beasts and birds in travelling or stationary caravans, the Zoolo
his mother, or with his daughter, the bowels of his gical Gardens allow them room to put forth
their instinctive propensities, within given enclosures, that seem best adapted to their respective natures. Under these admirable arrangements, the most delicate may enter without being annoyed with any offensive smells, and the most timid may approach with the greatest safety. Sated with the view of one race, the spectator may turn to another, and gaze until he wishes for a second change; this may be succeeded by a third, or a fourth, and when all have been surveyed, he may sit or walk while indulging in the reflection which the surrounding objects afford. In these gardens we have spent some delightful hours, and know not a place in London, which, when the weather is fine, we should be more gratified to revisit.
Of the various creatures which these gardens contain, the volumes before us furnish an epitomized account. The first is confined to quadrupeds, and the second to birds; but in each we have an outline of the natural history peculiar to the subjects of which they treat. The Gardens, when these volumes were printed, contained sixty-four quadrupeds, and seventy-one birds; but several additions have since been made, and as opportunity offers, the variety and number continue to increase. Among the beasts, a noble elephant has lately been introduced: this every visitor pronounces to be an important acquisition.-We must not, however, forget, that it is not the Zoological Gardens, but the volumes which describe their inhabitants, that more immediately claim our attention, and from these we beg to make some subsequent selections.
1. The Chinchilla fur, in such high request among our fair countrywomen, for muffs and tippets, must confer on the history of the little animal whence it is obtained, a peculiar interest in their estimation. To this article therefore we shall particularly solicit their attention.
Notwithstanding the extensive trade carried on in its skins, the Chinchilla might have been regarded, until the last year, almost an unknown animal; for no modern naturalist, with the exception of the Abbe Molina, a native of Chili, who has written expressly on the natural history of that country, had seen an entire species, living or dead; and the description given in his work, added little of truth, and much of error, to the information that was to be derived from an inspection of the skins themselves, in the imperfect state in which they are sent into the market. Still his account contains many particulars relative to the habits of the animal, which are not to be met with elsewhere."-p. 2.
The earliest account of the Chinchilla is in Acosta's natural history of the East and West Indies, published in 1591. In this he says, "The Chinchilles is another kind of small beasts, like squirrels. They have a wonderful smooth and soft skin, which they (the people) wear as a healthful thing
to comfort the stomach, and those parts that have need of moderate heat. They make coverings and rugs of the hair of these Chinchilles, which are found on the Sierre of Peru." In a vague and indefinite manner, several other writers have noticed this small" animal, but little more seems to have been known respecting it, except that it was a native of Peru, and about the size of a squirrel, until we come to Molina's Essay on the Natural History of Chili.
"The Chinchilla," he says, "is another species of field-rat, in great estimation for the extreme fineness of its wool, if a rich fur, as delicate as the silkea. web of the garden-spiders, may be so termed. It is of an ash grey, and sufficiently long for spinning. The little animal which produces it, is six inches long, from the nose to the root of the tail, with small pointed ears, a short muzzle, teeth like the house rat, and a tail of moderate length, clothed with a delicate fur. It lives in burrows under ground, in the open country of Chili, and is very fond of being in company with others of its species. It feeds upon the roots of vari ous bulbous plants, which grow abundantly in those parts; and produces twice a year five or six young ones. It is so docile and mild in temper, that if taken into the hands, it neither bites nor tries to escape; but seems to take a pleasure in being caressed. If placed in the bosom, it remains there as still and quiet as if it were in its own nest. 'The ancient Peruvians, who were far more industrious than the modern, made of this wool coverlets for beds, and valuable stuffs. There is found in the same northern provinces another little animal with fine wool, calledthe Hardilla, which is variously described by those who have seen it; but, as I have never observed it myself, I cannot determine to what genus it belongs." -p. 6.
Another writer, in his travels into Chili over the Andes, published in 1824, ob serves as follows:
"The Chinchilla is a woolly field-mouse, which lives under ground, and chiefly feeds on wild onions. Its fine fur is well known in Europe; that which! comes from Upper Peru is rougher and larger than the Chinchilla of Chile, but not always so beautiful in its colour. Great numbers of these animals are caught in the neighbourhood of Coquimbo and Co piapo, generally by boys with dogs, and sold to traders, who bring them to Santiago and Valparayso, from whence they are exported. The Peruvian skins are either brought to Buenos Ayres from the eastern parts of the Andes, or sent to Lima. The extensive use of this fur has lately occasioned a very considerable destruction of the animals.
"Such is the history of our knowledge of this interesting animal until the arrival of a living specimen, which was brought to England by the late expedition to the north-west coast of America, under the command of Captain Beechey, and by him pre sented to the Zoological Society. An entire skin, rendered particularly valuable in consequence of having the skull preserved in it, was at the same time brought home by Mr. Collie, the surgeon of Captain Beechey's vessel, and deposited in the collec tion of the British Museum. We have thus fortunately placed within our reach the means of correcting many of the errors into which former writers have fallen with regard to it, and of giving a more complete description of it than has been laid before the world."-p. 7.
Having given the history of the Chin chilla, which, in the above quotation, we have greatly abridged, the author of these volumes proceeds to describe its generic character, taken not from the reports of travellers, but from actual observation. His account, however, is too long for quo tation, and a partial extract would not do justice either to him or to the animal which he describes. We must, therefore, content ourselves with transcribing his concluding remarks:
REVIEW.CASTLE'S MANUAL OF SURGERY.
"The length of the body in our specimen is about nine inches, and that of the tail nearly five. Its proportions are close set, and its limbs comparatively short, the posterior being considerably longer than the anterior. The fur is long, thick, close, woolly, somewhat crisped, and entangled together, grayish or ash-coloured above, and paler beneath. The form of the head resembles that of a rabbit; the eyes are full, large, and black, and the ears broad, naked, rounded at the tips, and nearly as long as the head. The mustaches are plentiful and very long, the longest being twice the length of the head, some of them black, and others white. Four short toes, with a distinct rudiment of a thumb, terminate the anterior feet; and the posterior are furnished with the same number, three of them long, the middle more produced than the two lateral ones; and the fourth, external to the others, very short, and placed far behind.
all these toes the claws short, hid
relative to other tribes. In reference to the varied species of beasts and birds, amounting in all to one hundred and thirty, contained in the Zoological gardens, and described in these volumes, a valuable epitome of natural history is here presented to the public. A large number of well-executed woodcuts adorn the author's pages, from which a tolerable idea of the bird or animal described may be obtained. The work is neatly printed, and, from the great
den by tufts of bristly hairs. The tail is about half variety of information which it contains, all
the length of the body, of equal thickness throughoat, and covered with long bushy hairs; it is usually kept turned up towards the back, but not reverted as in the squirrels.
To the account of its habits, given by Molina, we can only add, that it usually sits upon its haunches, and is able to raise itself up, and stand upon its hinder feet. It feeds in a sitting posture, grasping its food, and conveying it to its mouth by means of its forepaws. In its temper it is generally mild and tracta ble, but it will not suffer itself to be handled without resistance, and sometimes bites the hand which attempts to fondle it, when it is not in a humour to be played with.
"Although a native of the Alpine valleys of Chili, and consequently subject, in its own country, to the effects of a low temperature of atmosphere, against which its thick coat affords an admirable protection, it was thought necessary to keep it during the winter in a moderately warm room, and a piece of flannel was even introduced into its sleeping apartment, for its greater comfort. But this indulgence was most pertinaciously rejected, and as often as the flannel was replaced, so often was it dragged by the little animal into the outer compartment of its cage, where it amused itself with pulling it about, rolling it up, and shaking it with its feet and teeth. In other respects it exhibits but little playfulness, and gives few signs of activity; seldom disturbing its usual quietude by any sudden or extraordinary gambols, but occasionally displaying strong symptoms of alarm when startled by any unusual occurrence. It is, in fact, a remarkably tranquil and peaceful animal, unless when its timidity gets the better of its gentle
A second individual of this interesting species has lately been added to the collection, by the kindness of Lady Knighton, in whose possession it had remained for twelve months previously to her presenting it to the Society. This specimen is larger in size, and rougher in its fur, than the one above described; its colour is also less uniformly gray, deriving a somewhat mottled appearance from the numer ous small blackish spots which are scattered over the back and sides. It is possible this may be the Peruvian variety mentioned in a former extract from Schmidtmeyr's Travels, as furnishing a less delicate and valuable fur than the Chilian animal. equally good-tempered and mild in its disposition; and, probably, in consequence of having been domi
ciliated in a private house, instead of having been exhibited in a public collection, is much more tame and playful. In its late abode it was frequently suf fered to run about the room, when it would show off
its agility by leaping to the height of the table. Its food consisted principally of dry herbage, such as hay and clover, on which it appears to have thriven greatly. That of the Society's original specimen, has hitherto been chiefly grain of various kinds, and succulent roots.
"When the new-comer was first introduced into Bruton street, it was placed in the same cage with the other specimen; but the latter appeared by no means disposed to submit to the presence of the intruder. A ferocious kind of scuffling fight immediately ensued between them, and the latter would unquestionably have fallen a victim, had it not been rescued from its impending fate. Since that time they have inhabited separate cages, placed side by side; and although the open wires would admit of some little familiarity taking place between them, no advances have as yet been made on either side." P. 12.
The length of our quotations and observations respecting this valuable little creature, with whose natural history the public have been but partially acquainted, must be our apology for omitting any selections 2D SERIES, NO. 9.-VOL. I.
derived from living subjects, it is calcu lated to furnish something more important than mere amusement, to every class of readers.
REVIEW.-A Manual of Surgery, founded
upon the Principles and Practice lately taught by Sir Astley Cooper, Bart. F.R. S. and Joseph Henry Green, Esq. F. R. S. Edited by Thomas Castle, F.L.S. 12mo. 515. Cox, London. 1831. THIS volume having reached a third edition, brings with it in this circumstance no contemptible testimonial of its merit, and of the high estimation in which it is held by the public. It is a work which enumerates most of the incidental afflictions to which human life is liable, delineates their nature and progress, and, in all ordinary cases, points out the most approved applications and means of cure.
To the editor, this must have been a manual of no small labour. It must have engrossed his attention for a considerable time, and have imposed upon him an arduous task of unremitting and diligent research. In prosecuting his inquiries, he seems to have had recourse to the best authorities, and to have selected the most approved practice that theory and experiment have been able to suggest. With the anatomy of the human frame, he appears to be well acquainted, nor has he omitted to watch the operation of causes, in their advancement to their respective issues. It affords, however, many indications of being better calculated for the young practitioner in surgery and medicine, than for others who are totally ignorant of the profession. In the rationale, we nevertheless observe, on every occasion, the plain dictates of common sense; and the practice recommended rarely fails to be accompanied with the reasons on which it is founded.
On looking over the awful catalogue of maladies and accidents to which the body of man is constantly exposed, we may rather wonder that the complicated machine continues in action so long without any
153. VOL. XIII.