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passages.. "What mere assertion will make any man believe that in one second of time, in one beat of the pendulum of a clock, a ray of light travels over one hundred and ninety-two thousand miles; and would therefore perform the tour of the world in about the same time that it requires to wink with our eyelids, and in much less than a swift runner occupies in taking a single stride? What mortal can be made to believe, without demonstration, that the sun is almost a million times larger than the earth; and that, although so remote from us that a cannon-ball shot directly towards it, and maintaining its full speed, would be twenty years in reaching it, it affects the earth by its attraction in an inappreciable instant of time? Who would not ask for demonstration, when told that a gnat's wing, in its ordinary flight, beats many hundred times in a second; or that there exist animated and regularly organised beings, many thousands of whose bodies laid close together 'would not extend an inch? But what are these to the astonishing truths which modern optical inquiries have disclosed; which teach us that every point of a medium through which a ray of light passes is affected with a succession of periodical movements, regularly recurring at equal intervals, no less than five hundred millions of millions of times in a single second that it is by such move'ments, communicated to the nerves of our eyes, that we see: nay, more, that it is the difference in the frequency of their recurrence which affects us with the sense of the diversity of colour-that, for instance, in acquiring the sensation of redness, our eyes are affected four hundred and eighty-two millions of millions of times; of yellowness, five hundred and forty-two millions of millions of times; and of violet, seven hundred and seven millions of millions of times, per second? Do not such things sound more like the ravings of madmen than the sober conclusions of people in their waking senses? They are, nevertheless, conclusions to which any one may most certainly arrive, who will only be at the trouble of examining the chain of reasoning by which they have been obtained."
"An eminent living geometer had proved by calculations, founded on strict optical principles, that in the centre of the shadow of a small circular plate of metal, exposed in a dark room to a beam of light emanating from a very small brilliant point, there ought to be no darkness-in fact, no shadow, at that placebut, on the contrary, a degree of illumination precisely as bright as if the metal plate were away. Strange and even impossible as this conclusion may seem, it has been put to the trial, and found perfectly correct."
lishing a series of "standing works in divinity;" the second volume of which is the "Bishop of Chester's Apostolical Preaching."
The" Episcopal Watchman," in noticing what the American newspapers are pleased to call "the profligate extravagance of the English government," among the items of which are enumerated "the enormous salaries paid to the bishops," justly informs his countrymen, that our bishops are not "salaried" by the state; and that, where their revenues are large, they arise chiefly from the modern improved value of lands given to their sees in ancient times, when comparatively of little worth, and which cannot with any shew of justice be detached from them. The United States' government might as justly be charged with "profligate expenditure' because Trinity church, New York, happens to be very rich, from the rental of lands with which it was endowed long before the Revolution, and which have become highly valuable by the growth of the city of New York.
A bill, subjecting to a penalty any person who should instruct free Negroes in the rudiments of learning, or even of Revelation, has been rejected by the House of Delegates, in Virginia. But then the baseness of the man who moved it, and the minority which supported it! NOVA SCOTIA AND CANADA.
The Bishop of Nova Scotia lately presided at a meeting for forming Sunday and daily schools, for the education of the children of the Coloured people of Halifax, of which there are several hundred. A recent number of the "Christian Sentinel" (a new periodical that is published at Three Rivers, and the only episcopal publication, we believe, in British America) says, that the Coloured people have mourned over the want of education, and are most anxious to procure the means of obtaining it, at whatever sacrifice, for their children. The same number of the Sentinel, in reprinting the excellent protest of the Sheffield clergy against horseracing, states that the evils of this scene of immorality are as visible in Canada as in England; and that at the close of the Quebec races may be seen the disgusting sight of drunken persons literally carried off by the cart-load from the stands. INDIA.
The Bombay "Christian Spectator," in mentioning the case of a widow burnt with the corpse of her husband at Allebagh, as late as last August, says, that a rag of the poor creature's clothes, found, or pretended to be found, among the ashes, is treasured up as a sacred relic; the deluded votaries of idolatry and superstition believing that a miracle has been performed for the confirmation of their faith. Thus does every false religion, so called, from Popery to Hindooism, boast its
The New-York episcopal press is pub- lying miracles.
UPPER CANADA INDIANS; CONDUCT OF CHRISTIANS TO HEATHENS; NEGRO SLAVERY, &c.
THE attention of Christians having of late been much directed to the spiritual necessities of the North American Indians, the following brief view of the condition of those within our own territories in Upper Canada may not be unacceptable to our readers.
Delawares; population 200; a flourishing school and some progress in Christian instruction. Chippeways; 260; the same. Mohawks; as follows: Grand River, 2000; some tribes unconverted, but an active and successful Church-of-England missionary among them;-River Credit, 220; a Methodist missionary, two schools, and a village built by government;-Lake Simcoe, 200; petitioning for a village and religious instruction ;-Rice Lake, 300; villages are building, and the women knit and spin;-Grape Island has become a Christian community under the Methodists;-Mohawks, 250; have embraced Christianity in connexion with the Church of England, and are urgent for a missionary-Kingston, 100; they wish to join their brethren at Grape Island ;-Scattered, 350; but might be collected and instructed. These tribes being within the British territories, and their numbers not very large, plans might easily be devised, at no serious expense, for bringing them all within the range of civilization and religious instruction. The conduct of European settlers in former days to the unenlightened natives of newly colonized countries, has been such as to entail no small debt of compensation upon their posterity. We wish we could say that even in the present more humanized age there were no guilt lying upon Christian nations in this respect. But such is not the fact the aborigines in the vicinity of European colonies have been almost every where wasting away, by a mixture of force and fraud most guilty and disgraceful. Witness the horrible system which has so long prevailed at the Cape of Good Hope; witness the palpable injustice and inhumanity of Georgia at this moment towards the Cherokees, who are being expatriated and driven into the wilderness, and their lands appropriated, in defiance of the most solemn treaties; witness the severe measures which, while we are writing, are being adopted towards the aborigines of Van Dieman's Land, who seem to be regarded by some of their White brethren as little better than wild beasts. fear that in scarcely any European colony have justice, kindness, and religious instruction been fairly brought to bear upon the natives; and, in the absence of these, and the presence of the contrary, can we wonder that the persecuted tribes become
indignant, vindictive, and apparently irreclaimable, till they rapidly sink away and disappear from their invaded forests ? How much will modern Christians have to answer for, if they do not endeavour to prevent the recurrence of such atrocities, and to send to the unenlightened tribes of the earth, schools, Bibles, and their best earthly friends and protectors, Christian missionaries?
Having touched upon this topic, suggested to us by the mention of the natives in our own North-American dominions (where, however, they have probably been treated with far more justice and humane consideration than in most other European colonies), we shall take the opportunity of noticing one or two other points, more or less connected with the same subject.
Among the petitions and remonstrances before the United States legislature against the cruel injustice of expatriating the Indians, we rejoice to see one of just emotion and great strength of argument from the American Board of Missions. The directors shew most convincingly how fearful will be the effect in destroying the work of civilization and Christianization so hopefully commenced. It is delightful to our minds to witness missionary institutions, in every part of the world, without departing from the line of their duties, and in full accordance with them, casting themselves between the oppressor and the oppressed, and teaching the nations of the earth those lessons of justice and humanity without which the profession of Christianity is but a mockery. The London Missionary Society, chiefly through that philanthropic agent of their religious benevolence, Dr. Philip, were the principal means of re storing to their full rights, as men and Christians, the whole of the Coloured population in South Africa; nor did the good effect of their remonstrances stop there, for the British government was induced to include in the same righteous enactment the whole of the Crown colonies.
Thus a way was opened for the extension of the Gospel, which had hitherto been grievously impeded by fraud and oppression; and other missionary institutions have reaped the benefit-especially the Moravian, whose missions had been much injured by this unchristian state of society, though they did not consider it their duty publicly to testify against it to the proper authorities. The Wesleyan missionaries in the West Indies, much to their honour, have acted, though prudently, yet honestly and boldly, as regards the case of the slave population; and the consequence has been, that they have suffered much persecution for righteous ness sake; but bright will be their reward. The Church Missionary Society has ever
been a powerful claimant for Africa and her children; and without its valuable and liberal assistance the plan for civilizing and Christianizing the recaptured Blacks at Sierra Leone could not have been effected. The Bishop of Jamaica is doing all he can to crush the operations of this society in his diocese-why should not the truth be spoken ?—a line of conduct to be expected from a prelate whose first achievement was to take to his bosom Mr. Bridges, the libeller of Mr. Wilberforce, the Coryphæus of slavery, and the torturer of his poor female slave Kitty Hilton; and who has not been even yet suspended by his lordship from his sacred functions, notwithstanding the government at home have honourably done all in their power, but in vain (such are West-Indian juries, where slavery is concerned), to punish him by the civil arm, and, as the last mark of disgrace, have struck out his name from the list of magistrates. It is known to our readers that there is an Auxiliary to the Church Missionary Society at Kingston in Jamaica; and that its members are justly anxious for the extension of the Gospel among the slaves. It so happens, also, that a religious Church-of-England periodical publication has lately been set on foot in Jamaica, entitled, "The Christian Record," which has done much to enlighten the public upon the real state of the slave population, and the duties of Christians, both in Great Britain and the West Indies, in regard to their temporal and spiritual welfare. A rumour, it seems, has been carried to the Bishop, that some of the friends of the Kingston Auxiliary Church Missionary Society patronize this publication; besides which, the society, to its honour be it spoken, labours under much of the colonial unpopularity which follows every institution honestly and efficiently designed to promote the religious instruction of the poor outcast slave. The consequence is, as stated in the Christian Record for December, that the Rev. Mr. Bolton, rector of St. George, Kingston, having given permission to the Rev. G. Griffiths to preach a sermon on behalf of the society, the Bishop interfered, and forbad it; and also issued a circular, prohibiting any sermon "in aid of the funds of any religious society" without his express permission, the humble petition for which is "distinctly to state," not only" the name of the preacher," but also "the purport of his discourse!" His lordship further intimates that this permission will be very limited; for he significantly adds, that one society, the Jamaica Society for promoting Christian Knowledge-which does not profess to be a missionary society to any persons, and least of all to the slaves-has "every claim " on the support of his clergy. Not, however, content with either the special countermand of the St. George's
sermon, or the general prohibition which provides for all such cases in future, the Bishop, it is further stated, turned a Board of the Diocesan Committee of the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge into an ecclesiastical court; the laymen present actually withdrawing from the room, while the Bishop from the chair demanded from the Rector of St. George's an account of his conduct; requiring an apology, and reprimanding him for wishing to open his church to the Church Missionary Society. These, with many other circumstances, are boldly but temperately stated in the Christian Record; and well, therefore, may the Bishop of Jamaica be displeased at a publication that thus tells the world how matters are managed in his diocese; and that a board, convened for the business of a charitable society, may be converted into a court of irresponsible ecclesiastical inquisition, for the trial of a clergyman for no greater crime than allowing a charity sermon to be preached in his church; while another clergyman may come from church and sacrament, and cause a woman to be barbarously and obscenely lashed, and pass unscathed. But these things cannot last long. Intelligence has just reached us, that the Jamaica Legislature itself has passed a law placing all free Coloured persons upon the same level as the White class. The latent object of this apparently liberal act was, to induce the free Coloured population, who are numerous and wealthy, and possess many slaves, to make common cause with the Whites in resisting the wishes of the mother country in behalf of their bondsmen. There was nothing of favour or affection in it; it was merely the result of fear: the Coloured people had long demanded their rights, and were able, if they thought fit, to seize them they are also loyal, and attached to England; and they had expressed, through Dr. Lushington, their willingness to concur with Great Britain in such measures as should be thought proper, relative to their brethren in slavery. But still higher results will probably ensue for not only are the free Black and Coloured classes remarkably loyal and attached to England, but religion also is more diffused among the respectable part of them than among the Whites: and, as they will now form a powerful body of electors, we trust that their influence will have a considerable effect upon the legislation of the island, and particularly in counteracting the hostility, so conspicuous in the assembly, to the extension of religion among the slaves. The example of Jamaica must soon be followed by all the other islands; and thus all distinctions of caste and colourexcept in the case of the slave-will be for ever done away; and, all freemen being thus placed in the eye of the law upon one level, nothing will remain to be effected but that all slaves shall become free.
We have digressed from the topic with which we set out; but the matter is not alien to it; for to the benevolent exertions of missionaries, whether in India or Africa, in our slave colonies or in North America, are the aborigines and oppressed classes of society greatly indebted for some of their dearest privileges: and this not by hostile interference with the existing relations of civil society, bad as they may be; not by stirring up discontent and exciting divisions; but by far better methods,-by inculcating upon all, Christian, practical, self-denying duty; by addressing even the West Indian-slave in the language of St. Paul to those who were somewhat similarly, though far less cruelly, situated; by raising the public tone of feeling; by preaching faithfully the Gospel of Christ, that best subverter
of all that is unjust and oppressive; and by a fair and prudent representation, as occasion serves, to the legitimate authorities at home, of those practices which impede the success of the Gospel, and properly call for the faithful remonstrances of a Christian missionary. With the utmost prudence and delicacy, these things must render an honest missionary obnoxious, wherever there is any thing morally wrong, which the parties wish to conceal. Many of the people of Georgia declaim against missionaries among the Indians, much as some of our colonists do against those in the West Indies; and with as little reason, except what arises from that spirit which makes men love darkness rather than light, wherever their deeds are evil.
VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.
THERE is little for us to notice, at home or abroad, except the elections; the result of which has been very decidedly in favour of the bill for Parliamentary Reform. The new parliament will enter upon business about the twenty-first of June, and there seems not a shadow of doubt of the bill being carried in the House of Commons by a large majority.
Among the notices of the month, it is with much grief we record that an illegitimate son of a profligate actress has been made a Peer of the Realm-a proceeding which revives some of the most disgraceful recollections of English history in the corrupt days of Charles II. Ás Englishmen, and as Christians, we cannot speak too strongly upon such a subject; and our lamentations are the more keen from the recent remembrance of the court of George III., in which, whatever else were its faults, there was ever the most sacred regard to the national morality. An example like the present is an ominous public evil. We should have respected the King for whatever private kindness and liberal provision he might think proper for a family so unhappily circumstanced; but to obtrude them upon the nation, and to exalt them to elevated rank, is, to say the least, an instance of misjudgment, which we most seriously regret. If one of Mrs. Jordan's sons is to be made an Earl, what is to prevent another, who is in holy orders, being made a Dean, or a Bishop, without any other claim than that which accrues from his mother's profligate connexion?
There have been, it seems, some tumultuary proceedings of the slaves in Antigua, owing to the injustice of the masters, in carrying into effect the Government order, which forbids the Sunday
market, but refusing to afford any other time to the slaves in place of it. The plain course, unless the planters wished to excite discontents,in order to embarrass the cause of the slave in the mother country, was to appoint another day for the purpose. They could not expect that the slave would in a moment understand the nature and value of the Christian Sabbath, which they had neglected to teach him; nor, if he did, would it be just that his respect for the laws of God and man should be made to operate to his serious worldly detriment for his master's sordid advantage. The abolitionists have again and again pointed out the hardship to the slave of abolishing Sunday markets without affording other facilities for disposing of their provisions; so that if either the government or the planters had listened to their premonitions, the late evils would not have happened. Yet these very evils the pro-slavery party affect to lay at the door of Bible, Missionary, and Antislavery institutions; the Saints, it is said, having forced a Sunday upon the slaves against their will. No reasonable man will be long deceived by such artifices; but, on the contrary, will rather expect to witness the recurrence of scenes of discontent and insurrection, till the cause of them is taken away, by the gift of liberty and equal rights without distinction of birth or colour.
Most painful tidings continue to arrive of the severe distresses of the people in some parts of Ireland; the afflicting details of which our readers will have seen in the newspapers. Considerable sums have been collected for relieving the most pressing cases, but much more is required to meet the exigency; and most earnestly do we pray that it will please God to open the
hearts of all who have it in their power to come forward promptly and liberally to assist the sufferers, many of whom are stated to be actually perishing by famine. The conduct of Don Miguel towards our countrymen, in common with persons of all other nations, having become a subject of just and loud complaint, our government has sent out some ships to the Tagus, and demanded an explanation; in consequence of which he has made abject apologies, and promised reparation to the aggrieved parties. France and the United States are also urging their remonstrances; and it seems not unlikely, unless he materially changes his line of proceeding,
that he will not find his usurped throne much longer tenable.
There is not any decisive intelligence from the theatre of war in Poland. The balance still hangs doubtfully suspended; but it is no slight circumstance in favour of the Poles, that the invader has been so long kept in check; while, in the mean time, the cholera morbus is seriously distressing the enemy, and the insurgent districts draw off a considerable portion of his force. The horrors of the war are described as most appalling; and, unless the other nations of Europe should be enabled successfully to mediate, we see no speedy prospect of their termination.
ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.
D. B. B.; T. B.; E. S. A.; M. A.; J. S.; B.C.; W. L. N.; T. H. K.; J.; S.; AN OBSERVER; J. K. S; D. E.; A SECRETARY; S. B.; T. R. B.; W. L. N.; and ALPHA; are under consideration.
N.'s Letter referring to facts, the writer should have favoured us with an authentic signature. Judging, however, by the published writings of M. Gaussen and Dr. Malan, we see nothing to retract in our statement, that the former has avoided some peculiarities into which the latter has fallen; and that his continuance within the pale of the national communion is likely to be more for the furtherance of the Gospel than if he had quitted it.
SUPPLEMENT TO RELIGIOUS INTELLIGENCE.
BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY.
OUR readers will find annexed to our Number a faithful report of the proceedings at the late Anniversary of this Society. With extreme affliction we witnessed that painful scene, and with equal distress we peruse the narrative of the proceedings. A strong effort was made to impose on the Society a test of faith; which was rejected, and we think most wisely and scripturally, by a large majority of the members present. Some other societies have, however, determined to make the experiment; but we must say we think under a total misconception of the plain Christian bearings of the case. Besides, if any test is requisite, the particular tests insisted upon are far from being strict enough; yet every attempt to refine upon them will only prove more clearly the injudiciousness of adopting any. What passed at this unhappy meeting is quite enough to shew what will be the issue, if once we begin introducing tests of faith in societies like this; we might say, into almost any of our religious and charitable societies. Tract and Missionary Societies might seem most to require them; yet even some of these have never adopted them, nor found them necessary. In a society for distributing the Word of God without note or comment, they are utterly superfluous; and we feel persuaded, that, after the present effervescence is over, wise and well-judging persons, anxious for the glory of God and the salvation of the souls of men, will come to a calm and settled resolution to reject them, whether propounded by the High-Church school of Mr. Norris and Bishop Marsh, or in any other quarter. We most feelingly, heartily, and in the sight of God, concur in the general views of the Bible-Society Committee, and in the extract from their Report in the appended paper; and our earnest prayer to Him is, that he will be pleased to continue to shed abroad his favour abundantly upon the proceedings of this institution, devoted to his honour, and the gift of his blessed word of salvation to a sinful and guilty world.
We need not add one word, to urge upon the attention of our readers the important and painfully interesting statements in the appended speeches.
BRITISH AND FOREIGN SCHOOL SOCIETY. Every friend and every enemy of popular education, should particularly weigh the facts in the first page of this document.