26.-PROCLAMATION OF KING GEORGE III. His present Majesty was proclaimed King on the 26th of October 1760, the day after his accession to the throne. *26. 1764.-HOGARTH Died. That drew th' essential form of grace; JOHNSON. Epitaph at Chiswick. FAREWEL, great painter of mankind, Who reached the noblest point of art; And through the eye correct the heart! If nature touch thee, drop a tear: For HOGARTH's honoured dust lies here. GARRICK 28.-SAINT SIMON AND SAINT JUDE, Apostles. Simon is called the Canaanite, from the Hebrew word Cana, to be zealous: hence his name of Simon Zelotes, or the Zealot. After enduring various troubles and afflictions, he, with great cheerfulness, suffered death on the cross. Jude was of our Lord's kindred; ' Is not his mother called Mary, and his brethren James and Joses, and Simon and Judas ?' Matt. xiii, 55. After great success in his apostolic ministry, he was, at last, for a free and open reproof of the superstitious rites of the Magi, cruelly put to death. He has left one epistle of universal concern to Christians. *29. 1618.-SIR WALTER RALEIGH BEHEADED. Our youth, our joys, our all we have, Who in the dark and silent grave, (When we have wandered all our ways) *—. 1751.—R. B. SHERIDAN BORN. The orator-dramatist-minstrel—who ran Through each mode of the lyre, and was master of ALL! Whose mind was an essence, compounded with art, Played round every subject, and shone as it played;- Ne'er carried a heart-stain away on its blade ;Whose ELOQUENCE- -bright'ning whatever it tried, Whether reason or fancy, the gay or the grave,Was as rapid, as deep, and as brilliant a tide, As ever bore Freedom aloft on its wave'! 1 Astronomical Occurrences In OCTOBER 1817. THE Sun enters Scorpio at 34 m. past 6 in the evening of the 23d of this month; and the time of his rising and setting is shown in the following TABLE For every fifth Day of the Month. Wednesday, Oct. 1st, Sun rises 12 m. after 6. Sets 48 m. past 22 6 38 32 28 .42 18 Monday, 6th, 52 8 1 11 21st, 31st, 6 7 a • From Lines' On the Death of -,' which appeared in the Morning Chronicle for August 5, 1816, and were attributed to a celebrated poet of the day. Bb The following Table shows what is to be subtracted from the apparent time, in order to obtain true time. TABLE Of the Equation of Time for every fifth Day of the Month. m. S. Oct. 1st, from the time on the dial subtract 10 18 6th, 11 49 11th, 13 10 16th, 14 19 15 14 15 53 16 13 21st, 26th, 31st, The Moon enters her last quarter at 42 m. after 2 in the afternoon of the 3d; there will be a new Moon at October 2d, at 57 m. after e • 3d, 49 16th, 45 43 17th, 19th, 26 20th, 12 21st, 55 past 4 in the afternoon of the 10th; she will commence her first quarter at 44 m. past 7 in the morning of the 17th; and the Moon will be full at 55 m. after 2 in the morning of the 25th. The Moon may also be seen on the meridian of the Royal Observatory at the following times during the present month: . The Moon will be in conjunction with a in Libra at 56 m. past 9 in the morning of the 12th. Mercury and Spica Virginis will be in conjunction on the 5th, when the star will be 50' north of the planet. Mercury will also be in his inferior conjunction at past 5 in the morning of the 10th; and he will appear stationary on the 18th. None of the eclipses of Jupiter's first or second satellite will be visible this month at the Royal Ob servatory, and only one of the third satellite; when the emersion will take place at 18 m. after 9 in the evening of the 23d. ON THE CALCULATION OF ECLIPSES. [Continued from p. 266.] In the preceding part of this article, we have considered only the pure shadow; but the partial interruption of the solar beams by the Earth, causes this to be surrounded by a sensible obscuration, denominated the penumbra; the limits of which we shall now point out the method of determining. Let AB' (fig. 7) be a tangent to the apposite limbs of the Sun and Moon; MM' represents the orbit of the Moon; the angle M'EC will be the distance of the penumbra from the axis CE of the shadow. This angle being the exterior angle of the triangle C'M'E, it is equal to the sum of the two interior and opposite angles EM'C' and EC'M'. Now the first of these is the horizontal parallax of the Moon, and the second is equal to C'AE + C'EA; that is, the parallax of the Sun plus his semidiameter, as seen from the Earth; consequently the angle CEM', or the exterior radius of the penumbra, is equal to the sum of the parallaxes of the Sun and Moon added to the apparent semidiameter of the Sun. Then, by subtracting the semidiameter of the pure shadow from this result, the breadth of the penumbra will be obtained. As we have shewn that this semidiameter is equal to the sum of the solar and lunar parallax, minus the apparent semidiameter of the Sun, it follows that the breadth of the penumbra is just equal to the apparent diameter of the Sun. If it were required to calculate the extent of the penumbra projected by the Moon upon the Earth in eclipses of the Sun, according to the same principles, it would only be necessary to substitute in the preced ing considerations the given quantities relative to the Moon, instead of those which relate to the Earth. By this means the exterior radius of this penumbra will be equal to the sum of the parallaxes of the Sun and the Earth augmented by the apparent semidiameter of the Sun; these being all calculated for the Moon instead of the Earth. If we neglect the solar parallax, as being very small, the formula will be simplified, and the exterior radius of the lunar penumbra, seen from the Moon, becomes equal to the sum of the apparent semidiameters of the Sun and Moon, as seen from the Earth. To this sum there must be added 4",54, on account of the parallax of the Sun. The total breadth of the penumbra is therefore equal to the apparent diameter of the Sun seen from the Moon; that is, to the diameter as seen from the Earth, increased by 4".54, on account of the difference of distance. Thus, if we denote the apparent diameter of the Sun as seen from the Earth by D, and that of the Moon by D', also the solar and lunar parallaxes by p and p'; then, from what precedes, we shall have the semidiameter of the lunar penumbra, as seen from the Moon, equal to + (D' + D) P and that of the lunar shadow, as seen from the same place, equal to (D' — D) and consequently, by subtracting the last of these values from the first, the breadth of the lunar penumbra will be equal to D.p' p-p In the case where the Sun is in apogee, and the Moon in perigee, we have D= 1890".96, p'=3665", |