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Society, the Magdalen charity, the Sunday-schools, the miseries of chimney-sweepers' apprentices, and whatever else occurred in the British dominions of a nature to excite the humane feelings, called forth his benevolent efforts. His fellow-citizens entertained such a sense of his talents, that, in lord Bute's administration, a deputation of the principal merchants of London waited on that minister, with a request, that some public favour might be conferred on a man who had done so much service to the community at the expense of his private fortune. Hanway was, in consequence, made a commissioner of the navy. He died in 1786, and a monument was raised to his memory by subscription.
A local guide is to be procured of the booksellers, entitled, The Ancient and Modern History of Portsmouth, Portsea, Gosport, and their Environs.
The tourist who wishes to complete his survey of this neighbourhood, may either take a boat up Portsmouth harbour, and land near Portchester Castle, or at Fareham; or may make a circuit by land to the latter place, and return thence to Southampton.
Supposing the latter plan to be preferred, he will proceed from Portsmouth in a north-easterly direction. Having crossed the extreme line of the fortifications about three miles and a half from Portsmouth, Portsdown rises before him, until he reaches the village of Cosham, in which the road to Fareham turns to the left,
and runs along the flat at the head of Portsmouth har bour, about three quarters of a mile below the foot of Portsdown. Should his leisure allow him to ascend this lofty down, an extensive prospect will compensate for the effort. "PORTSDOWN HILL is a narrow lofty eminence, running east and west for nearly seven miles: the upper part consists of chalk broken into vast hollows, the lower part is a brown loam. On the south it commands a noble view of the British channel, which is lost only in the mist of distance, with its majestic feature, the isle of Wight. The dark blue tints of the New Forest mingle with the horizon in the west: on the north the eye commands the extensive vale of the forest of Bere; not, as in ancient times, impervious and inaccessible, but agreeably interspersed with enclosures, corn-fields, and cottages: and, on the east, the graceful spire of Chichester cathedral appears rising above the level of the wolds of Sus
In September, 1816, in the neighbourhood of the upper chalk pit, a number of skeletons were discovered. They appeared to have been the victims of a battle, an iron instrument having been found inserted in one of the heads. It has been conjectured with considerable probability, that, during the reign of Stephen, and most probably in 1142, when Matilda brought war into this part of the kingdom, these victims filled their crowded and nameless sepulchre.
Midway between Cosham and Fareham the ancient
Beauties of England, vol. vi. p. 298. + By an anonymous correspondent of the Hampshire Telegraph, September 27, 1816.
CASTLE of PORTCHESTER is seen. A fortress successively possessed by the Britons, the Romans, the Saxons, and the Normans, occupied this spot; and the modes of building practised by the three latter, are still discoverable in the walls and towers of the present castle. By the Britons it was denominated Caer Peris; by the Romans, Portus Magnus; by the Saxons, Port Ceaster. It is situated on a neck of land, projecting into the harbour. It is a noble pile, of a quadrangular form, surrounding an area of between four and five acres, and still in sufficient preservation to be used as a place of confinement for prisoners of war, from 3000 to 5000 of whom have been imprisoned here at a time.
The remains of Roman workmanship are particularly observable in the outward walls, and in the round and semi-circular towers at unequal distances. In several of these towers are still visible remains of Roman brick, dividing the rows of stone work. The learned author of the Munimenta Antiqua thinks that a great circular arch of stone about eight feet in width has very much the appearance of having been originally Roman, and that it is, perhaps, even a remaining part of the identical Prætorian portal. Many Roman coins and medals have been dug up here at different times.
In the keep, which forms the north-east angle of the castle, traces of the architecture of the Saxon and Norman periods, and even of later ages, to the time of Elizabeth, are plainly to be seen.
The original destination of all the parts of this castle cannot now be ascertained, as they have frequntly been altered during the last century.
The sacellum of the prætorium of the Romans, that is, the temple used by the governor of the castle, is supposed to have been on the spot now occupied as the parish church, which is itself an edifice of great antiquity, though it has been frequently repaired and partly rebuilt at various periods. It still exhibits various specimens of Saxon architecture. It contains a monument to Sir Thomas Cornwallis, knight, groom-porter to queen Elizȧbeth and James the First, who died in 1618.
It has been asserted by some authors, and contradicted by others, that Vespasian landed at Portchester on his first arrival in Britain. That it must have been at least in his possession, is extremely probable. That several of the Saxon leaders landed here, is scarcely to be doubted.*
Between Portchester and Fareham, we pass, on the left, CAM'S HALL, an elegant modern building, in a pleasant park, on the eastern side of the lake or inlet of Portsmouth harbour that runs up to Fareham.
Fareham has been described in a former chapter, (page 232.)
*For further details on Portchester Castle, see Grose's Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 214; King's Munimenta Antiqua, vol. ii. p. 27 ¡ Beauties of England and Wales, vol. vi, p. 303.
Itchen Village, and Netley Abbey.
AGREEABLE excursions may be made, by crossing Itchen Ferry.
Among these is a walk to Pear-tree Green, We proceed through ITCHEN village; a flourishing place, which supplies Southampton market with fish. The inhabitants are quite peculiar in their manners. Any settlers in their district, who are not actual natives of the village, they consider as foreigners. The men are mostly employed in navigating their fishing smacks, while the women carry to market the produce of their husbands' labour.
Through this place we ascend to PEAR-TREE GREEN; a very pleasant eminence, commanding good views of Southampton and its neighbourhood. This situation takes its name from an aged pear-tree at the upper end, now sinking to decay.
Pear-tree church is a chapel-of-ease to St. Mary's, which stands on the opposite side of the river. It was erected at the expense of Richard Smith, esq. who also built the neighbouring mansion. Capt. Smith having been at more than £500 expense in building this place of worship, it was consecrated by Lancelot Andrews, bishop of Winchester,