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7 Mine eye is consumed because of grief; it waxeth old because of all mine enemies.
8 Depart from me, all ye workers of iniquity; for the LORD hath heard the voice of my weeping.
9 The LORD hath heard my supplication; the LORD will receive my prayer. 10 Let all mine enemies be ashamed and sore vexed: let them return and be ashamed suddenly. (F)
Skiggaion of David, which he sang unto the LORD, concerning the words of Cush the Benjamite.
LORD my God, in thee do I put my trust: save me from all them that persecute me, and deliver me:
2 Lest he tear my soul like a lion, rending it in pieces, while there is none to deliver.
3 O LORD my God, if I have done this; if there be iniquity in my hands;
4 If I have rewarded evil unto him that was at peace with me; (yea, I have delivered him that without cause is mine enemy :)
5 Let the enemy persecute my soul, and take it; yea, let him tread down my life upon the earth, and lay mine honour in the dust. Selah.
6 Arise, O LORD, in thine anger, lift up thyself because of the rage of mine enemies and awake for me to the judgment that thou hast com. manded.
4 Psalm of David, in time of sickess and great affliction.-This psalm is addressed to the chief musician, on Negiupon Sheminith-that is, probably on stringed instruments (tuned) an octave above the usual pitch, as more plaintive, and therefore a more suitable accompanitent to a penitential psalm like this. Bishop Horsley here remarks, "The supplicatory Psalms may be generally divided into two classes, according to the prayer; which, in some, regards the public, and in others the individual. In those of the latter class, which is the most numerous, the supplicant is always in distress. His distress arises chiefly from the persecution of his enemies. His enemies are always, the enemies of God and goodness. Their enmity to the supplicant is unprovoked. If it has any cause, it is only that he is the faithful servant of JEHOVAH, whose worship they oppose. They are numerous and powerful, and use all means, both of force and stratagem, for the supplicant's destruction; an object, in the pursuit of which they are incessantly employed. The supplicant
is alone, without friends, poor, and destitute of all support, but God's providential protection. The supplicant, on the other hand, often miraculously relieved, is yet never out of danger, though he looks for ward with confidence to a period of final deliverance. If at any time he is under apprehension of death, it is by the visitation of God in sickness. And at those seasons, the persecution of his enemies always makes a considerable part of the affliction.
But why, (it may be asked,) is David so distressed at the thought of dying? Did he suppose that he should perish, or be annihilated? or that the state on which he was entering was one of total insensibility? This can refer only to the state of the body. The grave is the land of forgetfulness and of silence, where the voice of praise is never heard. (Psalm 1xxxviii.12; exv. 17; Isa. xxxviii. 18, 19.) Recovery from sickness is the restoration of joy and gladness, and while our joy arises from a principle of gratitude, our gladness will be expressed in praise; and that praise will not rest privately in our own bosoms, but we shall be glad to unite with the congregation of all those who fear God.
PSALM VII. Title,-Shiggaion.-This is a very difficult word, and of doubtful derivation. Ains vert calls it an artificial song " (or wandering); Geiss," a lamentation;" and Boothroyd, (still tran elegy." See Hab. iii. L-Cish, the Beanite. The late Mr. C. Taylor has taken pains to show that the Hebrews (like other talists) indulged sometimes in a play of words. (Fragments, No. 187, 188.) Something of the kind y be observed here. Some suppose the name Cash (or Kush) used for Kisk, and the name Kish,
the father, for Saul his son. Others think Cush may here be used in a moral sense for Shimei, (who also was a Benjamite) as in such sense a black man; that is, a man of black, malignant character. Sech was Shimei, as we find in his history (2 Sam. xvi. 5, &c.) The Cushites, if not absolutely bluck, were of very dark complexions.
Ver. 2. None to deliver—Heb. “Not a deliverer,” Ver.3. If I have done this-Namely, what he was accused of, 2 Sam, xvi. 7, 8.-If there be (such) iniquity, &c.
7 So shall the congregation of the people compass thee about: for their sakes therefore return thou on high.
8 The LORD shall judge the people: judge me, O LORD, according to my righteousness, and according to mine integrity that is in me.
9 Oh let the wickedness of the wicked come to an end; but establish the just for the righteous God trieth
the hearts and reins.
10 My defence is of God, which saveth the upright in heart.
11 God judgeth the righteous, and God is angry with the wicked every day.
12 If he turn not, he will whet his sword; he hath bent his bow, and made it ready.
13 He hath also prepared for him the instruments of death; he ordaineth his arrows against the persecutors.
14 Behold, he travaileth with ini
quity, and hath conceived mischief, and brought forth falsehood.
15 He made a pit, and digged it, and is fallen into the ditch which he made.
16 His mischief shall return upon his own head, and his violent dealing shall come down upon his own pate.
17 I will praise the LORD according to his righteousness: and will sing praise to the name of the LORD most high. (G)
To the chief Musician upon Gittith. A Psalm of David.
LORD our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth! who hast set thy glory above the heavens.
2 Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings hast thou ordained strength because of thine enemies, that thou
(G) An Elegy of David.-" David is said to have composed this psalm" concerning the words (or the matter) of Cush the Benjamite. "Whether Saul, or Shimei, or any one else, be intended under this name, it is sufficiently clear that David had been maliciously calumniated, and that this psalm was written to vindicate himself from the imputation." The writer declares his trust to be in God alone, protests his innocence of the accusation, and requests that judgment may be given on his behalf. He then prays for the suppression of wickedness and the establishment of righteousness, denounces the most awful judgments against sinners, and praises God for his deliverance.
That the psalmist requests to be "judged according to his righteousness," has been used as an argument, not only to apply, but to confine this psalm to the Messiah,
but with how little force may be seen by considering the cases of Hezekiah and Nehemiah (referred to in the Notes.) We have no objection, however, to such an ap plication, if not made exclusive. The folfowing remarks of Bishop Horne are both just and striking:
"Conscious of his righteousness and integrity, as to the matter in question, David desires to be judged by him who is to judge the world at the last day. How few, among Christians, have seriously and deliberately considered whether the sentence of that day is likely to be in their favour! Yet, how many, with the utmost composure and self-complacency, repeat continually the words of this psalm, as well as those in the Te Deum, We believe that thou shalt come to be our judge!' Legal, or perfect, righteousness and integrity, are peculiar to the Redeemer; but evangelical righteousness and integrity all must have who would be saved."
Ver. 4. Yea, (rau) "but-rather" I have delivered. -See ver. 10, 11, of the chapter just quoted. Ver. 5. Selah.-See Note on Ps. iii. 2. Ver. 8. According to my righteousness.-See Neh. xiii. 14, 22, 3; 2 Kings xx. 3, and Expos.
Ver. 10. My defence is of God-Heb. “ My buckler is upon God;" Ainsworth," In God;"' the meaning unquestionably is, "God is my buckler," or "shield."
Ver. 11. God judgeth the righteous-Marg. "God is a righteous Judge." So Ainsworth, Horsley, &c.
-God is angry with the wicked-This should understood in the singular," the wicked man," whic agrees with the following sentence, If he, &c.
Ver. 14. Behold, he travaileth. The verb travaileth and conceiveth should be transposed "Hath conceived iniquity, travailed with mischie and brought forth falsehood; i e. an abortion : this effect Boothroyd,
Ver. 15. He hath made-Heb. "He hath digged pit, and sunk it" (deep), &c.
Ver. 16. Pate-The crown of his head.
mightest still the enemy and the avenger.
3 When I consider thy heavens, the work of thy fingers, the moon and the stars, which thou hast ordained;
4 What is man, that thou art mindful of him? and the son of man, that thou visitest him?
5 For thou hast made him a little lower than the angels, and hast crowned him with glory and honour.
6 Thou madest him to have dominion over the works of thy hands; thou hast put all things under his feet: 7 All sheep and oxen, yea, and the
beasts of the field;
8 The fowl of the air, and the fish of the sea, and whatsoever passeth through the paths of the seas.
9 O LORD our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth! (H)
To the chief Musician upon Muth-labben. A Psalm of David.
WILL praise thee, O LORD, with my whole heart; I will shew forth all thy marvellous works.
2 I will be glad and rejoice in thee:
(H) A Psalm of David, for the vintage. -We consider this as an evening or midnight hymn, in which the psalmist, overwhelmed with the brilliant glories of an eastern sky, is led to reflect upon the comparative littleness and insignificance of man and of himself, though king of Israel. It is not necessary to suppose David acquainted with the modern system of astronomy, to account for his humiliating views. Supposing the golden orbs, which he surveyed, to be only floating meteors, their brilliancy and beauty, and especially that of the moon, might well command his admiration. Man is mean and little, compared with the globe which he inhabits, much more compared with the vaulted skies around him-well might he, therefore say, "Lord, what is man that thou art mindful of him, and the son of man that thou visitest him?"
From the title of this psalm, we think it highly probable that it was composed for the time of vintage, which we know was a time of great rejoicing, in which not only
the young people, but the children also, joined in praising God for the bounties of his providence; which marked Israel, under that dispensation, as the chosen people of God, and was calculated to silence the reproaches of their enemies. This circumstance may account for our Lord's application to himself of the hosannahs of the Jewish children, Matt. xxi. 16.
The New Testament, however, gives us another and widely different view of human nature. Adam fell and lost his prerogative of supremacy, and in fact, his all: but a second Adam has been appointed to supersede the former; and not only to restore, but to raise our nature to higher honour and felicity than his predecessor lost. This second Adam, this "Lord from heaven," whose peculiar character is that of Son of Man, has been for "a little while" made lower than the angels, to the end that he might, in his own person, exalt human nature far above them; and herein is a display of the divine power and goodness that may well excite our admiration and our praise: " O LORD our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth!"
PSALM VIII. Title,-Upon Gittith. Some have supposed this to be a musical instrument, which David brought from Gath, where he long resided: so the Chaldee paraphrase; and if this be correct, it was doubtless a stringed instrument, as it does not appear that David played on any other. But Gath is also a winepress; and the LXX understand this title as intimating that it was composed for the time of vintage, with which the purport of the psalm very eil agrees, as it is a thanksgiving to God for the bounty of his providence
Ve1. O LORD our Lord-The first word here rendered LORD, in capitals, is JEHOVAH, the second Landis Adonat, Governor, or Master.
T.2. Ordained-Heb. Founded" strength. The Jews considered the divine ordination as the foulation of all strength. That thou mightest still (e. silence) the enemy and the avenger.
Vet. A little lower-The Hebrew, (says Mr.
Ainsworth) means either a little while," or 66 4 little deal," in both which senses it is used in Ps. xxxvii. 10, 16. Bishop Horsley renders it, "Thou hast somewhat abased him in comparison of angels." Dr. J. P. Smith, "Thou hast reduced him a little below the angels; the Heb. thus translated is Elohim, the gods; which is explained of angels, not only by the Greek and Chaldee, but also by the apostle to the Hebrews, chap. ii. 7, 9.
Ver. 7. All sheep and oxen-Heb. "Flocks and oxen, (or cattle) all of them."
PLALM IX. Title,-Upon the death of Labben.---Among the great variety of interpretations here given, we shall name a few only. 1. We have no idea that any of these Hebrew terms refer to hymn tunes. The Hebrews had no musical characters, nor any metrical tunes, like modern psalmody.
I will sing praise to thy name, O thou people his doings. most High.
3 When mine enemies are turned back, they shall fall and perish at thy presence.
4 For thou hast maintained my right and my cause; thou satest in the throne judging right.
5 Thou hast rebuked the heathen, thou hast destroyed the wicked, thou hast put out their name for ever and
60 thou enemy, destructions are come to a perpetual end: and thou hast destroyed cities; their memorial is perished with them.
7 But the LORD shall endure for ever he hath prepared his throne for judgment.
8 And he shall judge the world in righteousness, he shall minister judgment to the people in uprightness.
9 The LORD also will be a refuge for the oppressed, a refuge in times of trouble.
10 And they that know thy name will put their trust in thee: for thou, LORD, hast not forsaken them that seek thee.
11 Sing praises to the LORD, which dwelleth in Zion: declare among the
12 When he maketh inquisition for blood, he remembereth them: he forgetteth not the cry of the humble.
13 Have mercy upon me O LORD; consider my trouble which I suffer of them that hate me, thou that liftest me up from the gates of death:
14 That I may shew forth all thy praise in the gates of the daughter of Zion: I will rejoice in thy salvation.
15 The heathen are sunk down in the pit that they made: in the net which they hid is their own foot taken.
16 The LORD is known by the judg ment which he executeth : the wicked is snared in the work of his own hands. Higgaion. Selah.
17 The wicked shall be turned into hell, and all the nations that forget God.
18 For the needy shall not alway be forgotten: the expectation of the poor shall not perish for ever.
19 Arise, O LORD; let not man prevail: let the heathen be judged in thy sight.
20 Put them in fear, O LORD: that the nations may know themselves to be but men. Selah. (I)
(1) A Psalm of David—in thanksgiving for victory.-There seems no doubt but this was a song of triumph and thanksgiving for a signal victory over some pow
erful pagan adversary, whose object seems to have been the overthrow of the Jewish church and state. David, however, piously attributes his victory to divine interference, and thanks his deliverer for rescuing him from the gates of death, which had probably
NOTES-Psalm IX. Con.
Their hymns were all chaunted, as already remarked. 2. We do not conceive Labben to be Goliath: internal evidence is strong to the contrary. This psalm must have been composed after David laid claim to the crown, ver. 4.-after he had taken Zion, ver. 11; and the conquest here referred te, was in defence of his throne and his religion; ver. 4, 5. Ben signifies a son, and the Chaldee so here explains it; but David's feelings on the death of his son Absalom were very different from those of joy and triumph. Farther, Labben signifies white; and it is very possible that the fallen chieftain Lere meant, may have been named the white prince, perhaps from wearing a remarkable white feather, just as one of our English princes was called the black prince, from the colour
of his armour.
Ver. 4. Thou hast maintained-Heb. "Thou hast made my judgment;" i. e. given judgment.―Judging right-Heb." In righteousness.'
Ver. 6. O thou enemy!-Bishop Lowth reads, "Destructions have consumed the enemy for ever; and
as to the cities which thou (O God) hast destroyed, their memory is perished with them." This nearly corresponds with the margin of our common Bibles, but is clearer.
Ver. 9. A refuge-Heb. “A high place."
Ver. 13. The gates of death.-The invisible world is constantly represented in the Scriptures as a place of confinement, having gates and bars, Job xvii. 15, -xxxviii. 17; Isa. xxxviii. 10.
Ver. 16. Higgaion-is generally allowed to mean, as in the margin, "a meditation." As we have sapposed Selah (Ps. iii.) to answer in some respects to n hold in our music, it is probable that the pious Israelites were here required seriously to meditate during this musical panse.
Ver 17. Turned into hell.-The place of future punishment; not the grave, nor the state of death merely; for this is equally true of the righteous as of the wicked.
WHY standest thou afar off, LORD? why hidest thou thyself in times of trouble?
2 The wicked in his pride doth persecute the poor: let them be taken in the devices that they have imagined. 3 For the wicked boasteth of his heart's desire, and blesseth the covetous, whom the LORD abhorreth.
4 The wicked, through the pride of his countenance, will not seek after God: God is not in all his thoughts.
5 His ways are always grievous; thy judgments are far above out of his sight: as for all his enemies, he puffeth at them.
6 He hath said in his heart, I shall not be moved: for I shall never be in adversity.
His mouth is full of cursing and deceit and fraud: under his tongue is mischief and vanity.
8 He sitteth in the lurking places of the villages in the secret places
doth he murder the innocent: his eyes are privily set against the poor.
9 He lieth in wait secretly as a lion in his den: he lieth in wait to catch the poor: he doth catch the poor, when he draweth him into his net.
10 He croucheth, and humbleth himself, that the poor may fall by his strong ones.
11 He hath said in his heart, God hath forgotten: he hideth his face; he will never see it.
12 Arise, O LORD; O God, lift up thine hand forget not the humble.
13 Wherefore doth the wicked contemn God? he hath said in his heart, Thou wilt not require it.
14 Thou hast seen it; for thou beholdest mischief and spite, to requite it with thy hand: the poor committeth himself unto thee; thou art the helper of the fatherless.
15 Break thou the arm of the wicked and the evil man; seek out his wickedness till thou find none.
16 The LORD is King for ever and
enclosed many both of his enemies and friends; and determines, in consequence of being so spared, that he will enter the rates of the daughter of Zion, and worship among her children,
We have reason to bless God that we live in times of peace, and in a land that has long been exempted from the miseries of war. But all true Christians have enemies, if not externally, yet in their own bosoms; against these enemies they have need, most earnestly, to pray, and to return thanks for every victory obtained over them.
The church of God also, as a body, have
their enemies, and will always be liable t› suffer from the hostilities both of infidels and wicked men: and though, under the Christian dispensation, we are forbidden to pray for the destruction of our enemies, there is nothing unchristian in praying that they may be made sensible of their frailty and bumbled before their Maker and their Judge, and thereby be prevented from showing their enmity against the people and the cause of God.
PSALM X. The LXX have united this psalm to the preceding, for which we know no reason, except that it has no distinct title; but this alteration makes a difference in the numbering, till we come to the 147th psalm, which is divided into two, and makes the final number right. Father Calmet, Dr. Grey, and Bishop Horne, suppose it to have been composed daring the time of the Babylonish captivity; but there is no certainty of this.
Ver 3 Heart's (Heb. "soul's) desire, and bless eth, c-Marg. The covetous blesseth (himself); ke abhorreth the Lord."
Ver.4. God is not in all his thoughts---Marg. "All his thoughts are, there is no God."
Vet. Never be in adversity-Heb. "Not unto generation and generation."
"Rise, great Redeemer, from thy seat, To judge and save the poor; Let nations tremble at thy feet,
And man prevail no more."Watts.
Ver. 7. Vanity---Marg. "Iniquity." Ver. 8. His eyes are privily set--- Heb. "Hide themselves;" i. e. to watch for the poor.
Ver.9. Secretly---Heb. "In secret places." Ver. 10. He croucheth Heb. "breaketh," or rather, bendeth himself, as a wild beast crouches down to spring at his prey. -By his strong ones--Marg. "Into his strong parts;" i. e. into his paws. Ainsworth.
Ver. 12. The humble---Marg. " Afflicted." Ver. 14. Committeth himself (Heb. " cleaveth ") unto thee.
Ver. 15. Break thou the arm---' ---That is, the power of the wicked.
Ver. 17. Prepare (Marg. "establish”) their heart.