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AUL, a servant of God, and exhort by wholesome instruction, CHAP:

an apostle of Jesus Christ, as and confute those who contraAddress to to the faith of the chosen of God, dict. Titus.

and the acknowledgement of the For there are many unruly peo- 10

truth which is according to godli- ple, vain talkers and deceivers, Descrip: 2 ness, in hope of everlasting life, especially they of the circumcision; tion of the

which God who cannot lie pro- whose mouths must be stopped, for Crete. 3 mised before the ages ; and hath they subvert whole families, teach- 11

displayed this promise in its season, ing what they ought not, for the
by that preaching which hath sake of base gain. One of their 12
been committed unto me, accord- own teachers hath said, “ Cretans

ing to the appointment of God our are very often false, fierce, and
4 Saviour, to Titus, my own son as brutish, lazy, and gluttonous.”

to the common faith ; favour, This testimony is true; wherefore 13 mercy


peace be to thee, from reprove them sharply, that they God our Father, and the Lord may be sound in the faith, not giv- 14 Jesus Christ our Saviour.

ing heed to Jewish fables and com5 For this purpose I left thee in mandments of men, who turn away Why he Crete, that thou mightest proceed from the truth. To the pure all 15 lett Titus

to set right what was left unfinished, things are pure, but to the defiled

and appoint elders in every city as and unbelieving, nothing is pure ; 6 I directed thee; if any one be ir- for both their mind and conscience

reproachable, the husband of one are defiled. They profess a know- 16 wife, having children that are be-ledge of God, but deny him in their lievers, and not charged with riot actions, being abominable and disand unruliness.

obedient, and approving them7 For a superintendant must be selves by no one good work. Character blameless as the steward of God; But speak thou the things which CHAP. intendant

not self-willed, not passionate, not become sound doctrine; that elderor overseer a continuer at the wine, no strik-ly men be sober, venerable, chaste, Duties of of the

er, not greedy of dishonourable sound in love, in patience, in fide- old and church.

gains ; but a friend to hospitality, lity. That elderly women likewise
8 a lover of good men, chaste, just, behave as becometh holy persons ;3
9 holy, temperate ; keeping to the not slanderers, not addicted to much

true doctrine which he hath been wine, teachers of what is good;
taught, that he may be able to that they may instruct the young 4

in Crete.



* The island of Crete was the parent of zeal and activity, and fearlessness of suffer. Roman and Greek idolatry ; and the Cretans ing, in preaching the gospel to them. This so far excelled cther nations in inventing epistle was written A. D. 56, while St. Paul gods, that they were called “ The Liars. was in Macedonia. They had also intermixed the whims of 2 All true Christians. Egyptian philosophy with Judaism. It was 3 The Poet Epimenides. highly necessary that Titus should be well 4 That is, all kinds of food, though forinstructed, how to conduct himnself amongst bidden by the Jewish teachers. them, and to be very earnestly exhorted to





CHAP. women to be orderly, to love their good work; to speak ill of no one,

husbands, to love their children, to not to be quarrelsome, but gentle,
5 be chaste, pure, keepers at home, shewing all meekness to all men. Of sub-

good, submissive to their own hus- I suy so all men, notwithstanding mission to
bands, that the doctrine of God be their vices; for o we ourselves were
not evil spoken of.

formerly unwise, disobedient, de- 3
6 In like manner, exhort youngceived, slaves to many evil desires
7 men to be sober minded. In all and pleasures, living in malice and

things showing thyself a pattern of envy, hated by others and hating

good works ; in thy doctrine impar- them.
8 tial, grave, uncorrupt ; in thy dis- But when the kindness of God 4

course instructive and unblameable, our Saviour, and his love towards Men are
that the adversary may be ashamed, man appeared, he placed us in a

solely to having nothing amiss to say about state of salvation, not in conse- the you.

quence of the righteous works which love of Exhort servants to submit them- we had done, but according to his Gedfor Of servants.selves to their own masters in all mercy, by a washing in baptism, ings of the

things, to be desirous of pleasing representing a regeneration, accom- gospel. 10 them, not contradicting, not thiev- panied with a holy disposition,

ing, but showing the utmost fide-formed anew in us, which God 6
lity, that they may adorn the doc-hath afforded us abundant means of
trine of God our Saviour, in all acquiring through Jesus Christ our

Lord; that becoming righteous 7
11 For the favour of God, which through the favour of God, we
Sesign of bringeth the offer of salvation to might be heirs in expectation of
se gospel. all men, hath appeared, teaching us eternal life.
12 to deny ungodliness and worldly This is a true doctrine ; and 18

lusts, and to live soberly, righte- wish thee earnestly to enforce these Necessity

ously, and piously, in this present things, that those who trust in God of good 13 world, gladly entertaining the hap- may be foremost in good works.

py expectation of the glorious ma- These aret hings which are good and

nifestation of the great God, and of profitable to mankind. But avoid 9 14 our Saviour Jesus Christ; who foolish questions and genealogies,

gave himself for us, to deliver us and contentions, and strifes about from all iniquity, and to purify for the law; for they are unprofitable

himself a peculiar people, zealous and vain. Reject an 3 heretic after 10 15 of good works. So teach and ex- the first and second admonition,

hort, and reprove with all authori-knowing that such an one is per- 11

ty. Let no one despise thee. versely turned from Christianity, СНАР.

Put men in mind of submission and sinneth against his own know-
to authorities and powers ; of a ledge, and conviction. The favour 15
ready obedience to them in every of Christ be with you all.



i Devoted himself both in life and death, state. to promote the cause of truth and virtue, on 3 A fomenter of divisions, who taught which the happiness of mankind depends.

doctrines as received from inspired men, * He means the Cretans in their Gentile' which he knew he had not received.

2 G2






H E B R E W S.'



over the prophets

GOD, who by sundry parts, and I had cleansed our sins by himself

, CHAP Superiority unto the fathers by the prophets, preme majesty; and is become so 4

hath spoken in these latter days much greater than those messen

unto us by his son, whom he ap-gers, the prophets, as he inherited that came pointed heir of all things, through a more excellent name than they. before tim.

whom also he settled the ages; For unto which of those messen- 5 3 who being a ray of God's bright-gers said the scripture at any time,

ness, and an image of his perfec- Thou art my son : this day 1 Psalm tions, and upholding all things by have adopted thee?” And again, 'Sam. the authority of his power, after he “ I will be to him a father, and vi. 14.

I This epistle, which is deservedly ad- Mosaic ritual. The scope and design of mired for the elegance and beauty of its style, the epistle, which was written from Rome is generally agreed to have been, as to

or some part of Italy, A. D. 63, is to show the subject and matter of it, the produc- the superiority of the Christian covenant tion of an apostolic pen. But there is much

over the Jewish, or the preference of Christ uncertainty as to the real author. The most and the Christian institution to Moses and probable account is, that the whole plan and the high-priest, and the Mosaic dispensasentiments of the epistle are St. Paul's, but tion. that he employed some amanuensis, per- • The same as being head over all things haps Luke, who expressed the apostle's to his church. thoughts in purer Greek than he commonly 3. Ratified that covenant by which God used himself. The omission of the name promised forgiveness of sins to all sincere in the address to the Hebrews, is easily ac- | Christians. counted for, from the well known preju- 4 This was originally said of Solomon, dices conceived against the apostle, for his but was considered by the Jews as applicable sentiments respecting the abolition of the I to the Messiah. :






from the

to him.

xlv. 6.

cii. 25.

CHAP. he shall be to me a son ;” and such a great salvation, which was CHAP.

when 'it bringeth again the first first published by the Lord, and
born into the world, it saith, established among us by the hear-

And let all the messengers of ers of it; God at the same time 4 xcvii. 7. God pay homage to bim.” bearing testimony to them both by

And of these messengers indeed signs, and wonders, and various the scripture saith, speaking of mighty works and distributions,

God, “ Who maketh his messen- according to his own will, of dicis. 4.

gers winds, and his ministers a vine power : shown,

Hame of fire :" but of the son it Now it became God, for whom 10 language saith, “God is thy throne for ever are all things, and by whom It was suitof scrip, and ever; the sceptre of thy king- are all things, in bringing many wisdom of e appli- dom is a sceptre of rectitude. sons to glory, to make the au- God to apthem and Thou lovedst righteousness, and thor of their salvation perfect point.a sufhatedst iniquity; therefore God, through sufferings.

For all are

fering Mesa

Msssiah, Psalm even thy God, anointed thee with of one Father, both Christ the

the oil of gladness above thy fel sanctifier and they who are sanc- 11 Psalm lows." And “ Thou, Lord! in tified; on which account Christ

the beginning didst found the earth, is not ashamed to call them bre

and the heavens are the works of thy thren. 11 hands. They will perish, but thou For indeed Christ helpeth not 16 12 wilt endure throughout: they will angels, but he helpeth the race of that he

might have decay altogether like a garment, Abraham ; so that it was right for and as a vesture shalt thou change him in all things to be like to his passion for them, and they will be changed; brethren, that he might be com- mankind.

but thou art the same, and thy passionate, and a faithful ?high- 17
13 years will not fail.” Moreover, of priest for the service of God, to

which of these messengers hath the make reconciliation for the sins of
scripture ever said, " Sit thou on the people : for by suffering trial 18

my right hand, until I make thine himself, he is able to succour them
14 enemies thy footstool?”. Are they that are tried.

not all ministering spirits, sent Wherefore, holy brethren, par. CHAP.
forth to minister on account of the takers of the heavenly calling, con-
future heirs of salvation ?

sider this apostle and high-priest of Why he CHAP

Therefore we ought to give the our profession, Christ Jesus, who

more earnest heed to the things was faithful to him who appointed ing attendExtreme which we have heard, lest at any him, as Moses also was in all the ed to. neglecting

time we let them escape us, for, if family committed to him ; for he 3

the doctrines delivered by those received as much greater honour pel.

messengers the prophets were of than Moses, as the regulator of a
2 such authority, that every trans- family hath greater honour than

gression of disobedience received a the family itself.
just recompence of punishment, Take heed, brethren! that there 12
3 how shall we escape if we neglect never be in any of you an evil heart

due com

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• The scripture, in the ninety-seventh evident that the quotation in the text is appsalm, which speaks of David's return to plicable to Christ only by accommodation. his own land, after being driven out of it • Christ was not a high-priest in the by his enemies, which is here called, the proper sense of the word, for he was of scriptures bringing him into the world. the tribe of Judah, and the high-priest The reason of David's being called the first. was always of the tribe of Levi. He only born appears

from Psalm lxxxix. 27. It is resembled a high-priest.



ICV, 7.

CHAP of unbelief, in falling away from spects 'like ourselves, yet without CHAP, IV.

the living God: but encourage each sin. Let us therefore come with Deceitful- other daily, while it is called to confidence to the throne of favour, 16 ness of sin to be care

day, lest any of you be hardened that we may find mercy and parfully

by the deceitfulness of sin. For we don for our seasonable relief. guarded have fellowship with Christ, if we Now every high-priest taken CHAP. against.

can hold fast the principles on from among men is appointed in 14 which we stand firmly to the end, behalf of men, over divine services, Christ was

according to the following declara- to offer both gifts, and sacrifices for appointed Psalm tion, “ To-day if ye will hear his sin, one who can make allowances office by

voice, harden not your hearts, as for the ignorant and mistaken, in- God, as was 16 in the provocation of me.” For asmuch as he also is himself cloth-Aaron;

some when they had heard, pro-ed in weakness; and on this ac- 3
voked God, however not all who count he hath occasion to make

came out of Egypt under Moses. sin-offering for himself also, as
17 But with whom was God grieved well as for the people. And as no te

forty years? Was it not with those one taketh this honour to himself,

who sinned, whose carcases fell in but must be called thereto by God, 18 the desert? And to whom did he as Aaron was ; in the same man- 5

solemnly declare that they should ner Christ did not confer upon him

not enter into his rest, but to those self the honour of the high-priest-
19 who were disobedient? We see hood, but God, who said concern-

then that they were unable to go in ing him, “ Thou art my son, to-
from their want of trust in him. day I have adopted thee."

Let us, therefore, endeavour ear- Now Christ in the days of his and the IV. nestly to go into that rest, that flesh, offered up both supplications prayers

, God can- none of us may imitate the same and entreaties, with strong crying made to

pattern of disobedience, since it is and tears, unto him who was able God to be

impossible we can escape unnoticed; to deliver him from death, and was deli 12 for the mind of God is lively and heard for his pious reverence; and evils which

active, and sharper than any two-though he was a son, yet he learn- wicked men edged sword, and piercing even to ed obedience under his sufferings,

were bring. a separation both of life and spirit, and having been made perfect him, might 13 both of joints and marrow; and is through his sufferings, became the be considera discerner of the thoughis and in-author of eternal salvation to all ed as sin

offerings. tentions of the heart: nor is any that obey him. creature hidden before it; but all It is impossible that they who CHAP. things are bare and laid open to have been once enlightened, and the eyes of him with whom we have enjoyed that heavenly gift, Danger of have to do.

and partaken of the holy spirit, apostacy. Having, therefore, a great high- and have tasted the good word of 5 The exam-priest, who hath passed into the God, and seen miracles of the age

heavens, Jesus the son of God, that was to come, should, if they 6

let us hold fast our profession. fall away, be renewed unto repentcouraging. For we have not a high-priest un ance, having exposed for them

15 able to feel a common concern for selves again the son of God upon

our infirmities, but one who hath cross to public shame. For the 7
suffered trial, and was in all re-l land which drinketh the rain, that

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* Human, frail, mortal.

3. The age succeeding the ascension of • An angel being sent to comfort him, Christ. Luke xxii. 43.

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