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Jews. It was that which the Jews required of them, and it was that which should be given to them. Some good might be done by polemical discussions in advancing the truth, but although discussion might be a powerful engine, there was something sweeter and far more substantial in endeavouring to penetrate into the heart, in the very words which Christ himself used. To be useful amongst the Jews, it was only necessary to study the Word of God in the very language which God himself employed. He believed their position as Missionaries was not an unimportant one in those days of general overturning. The Jews were zealous to learn wisdom; but it was a pitiable sight to see them exulting in the liberty which nations were acquiring, ready to defy the power which was producing those changes, while the new liberty was only made use of to plunder and to persecute them. They alone possessed the balm of Gilead that could be for the healing of the nations; and it would be a ruinous idea if they were to suppose that, out of these tumults, the Jews would be greatly benefited. They must go forth, notwithstanding the changes which were taking place on behalf of the outcast Israelites, for whether they were bound in chains or set free, they would have to contend with the God of this world, under whom they were held. There was something elevating in the thought of being fellow-workers with Him who rules the raging of the sea, and stilleth the tumults of the people. There they might realise the importance of the work committed to them; and, above all, there they might realise the glory of Him who, clothed in the power of heaven and earth, had promised, in the exercise of that power, to go with them, and be with them even to the end of the world. (Applause.) Mr SCHWARTZ, Jewish missionary at Berlin, said- Moderator, permit me to thank the House with all my heart for the kind way in which it has pleased the Assembly to welcome me this evening; for I must say that, having had to encounter many difficulties and trials,-having had to overcome many obstacles and heartburnings, I felt rather low-spirited and downcast, and it was necessary for me to come to Scotland, in order to be encouraged by your kind sympathy, and to be strengthened by Christian intercourse with the friends of Israel in this land. Now, Sir, what can be more cheering to my mind than the sight of an Assembly like this, and what can be more encouraging than to be received in such a kind way as it has pleased the House to welcome me? I shall not detain you with any prefatory remarks, but will at once proceed, with your permission, to make a few statements regarding the present state of Germany, and especially of Prussia, in the capital of which, Berlin, I have been labouring for the last three years and a half. I believe it is pretty much known and acknowledged, even in this country, that the King of Prussia is favourably inclined to the truth of the gospel; and there can be no doubt but that he is persuaded of this, that righteousness exalteth a people, and that he has done all in his power to favour the preaching of the gospel in Prussia. There can be no doubt that many speak evil against him, because of his having sided with the truth, and that many that now calumniate him would have greatly exalted him, had he been an infidel like them. It required great Christian courage, indeed, to come forward and to declare before the first General Diet he ever convened,knowing quite well what were the religious views of most of the men assembled there, it required great Christian courage, I say, to declare before such an audience, I and my house will serve the Lord. And certainly for this he merits and deserves the prayers of all the true Christians of Scotland. Yet it cannot be denied that, by some mistakes committed on the part of Government, the cause of true religion has been damaged greatly in Prussia. The king, when he ascended the throne, was anxious to grant liberty of conscience to all his subjects, and therefore they were allowed to say and to write anything they pleased against Christ and the truth of his gospel; and books and pamphlets that would have been reckoned, even in this free country to be blasphemous, were circulated freely and openly in Prussia. But they were not allowed to say much against Government and its proceedings. Thus it happened that all opposition was concentrated against the Church of Christ, and that she was assailed most violently and unceasingly. You will no doubt agree with me in saying, that this was not only dangerous for the welfare of the Church, but still more to the State. For if men have been taught to despise God's authority, how can you expect to find them willing to obey the authority of Government; if they have learned to trample upon the laws of the King of kings, how shall they
be willing to yield obedience to the demands of an earthly king? Then, again, it was a great mistake to mix up politics and religion one with another, two things which should never be entangled, but should always be kept quite separate. It was quite common to think that a man could not be a good Christian if he did not approve of all the doings of Government. Strange, no doubt, it would appear to the House, if a man could not be a good Christian because his views regarding the Free Church differed from those expressed in the famous letter of Sir James Graham. Another evil effect was, that we got a great many hypocrites. For, as many knew that they would be sooner promoted if they professed to be lovers of the gospel, we had at once many Christian lawyers, medical men, &c.; and I am sorry to say, that it is very likely that many that professed to be followers of Christ, when all went on quietly and smoothly, will now turn and side even with the enemies of the Cross. Then came the Revolution. I shall, of course, not detain the House with any details, nor say anything regarding the State; but I may, perhaps, be permitted to say a word or two how it affected the Church and the Jews. There can be no doubt but that the same men that wished for a Presbyterian government in the Church, wished also to have a constitutional form of government in the State; that, on the whole, it was an infidel movement, and that many a man delighteth in the changes that have lately taken place, especially for this, because he thinks that, having overthrown the old regime, they have got rid at the same time of Christianity altogether, which, no doubt, is a very great mistake. You are aware that orders have been issued by the new Government to convene a General Assembly, and that for every 40,000 Protestants a member is to be chosen. Every one that chooses to call himself a Protestant has a right to a vote, and can be a minister of that new Church. A strange thing it must be to see such a Church, without any standard of doctrine, whereby ministers may be tried, without any Church discipline for its professing members. It is not necessary to say much about it, for it is evident that a Church thus organised can never exist, and has no right to be called a Church of Christ any more. The question that is now very much agitated is just this,whether all ministers, be their creed whatever it may, shall be paid by Government, or no one; and I must say, it seems to me rather than pay every one, pay no one,-which no doubt will be the case, and, ere long, the Established Church of Prussia will have ceased. It is not likely that preachers and professors of the gospel will be persecuted now. The leaders of the revolutionary movement would partly feel ashamed of doing so, as they have continually declaimed a good deal against the intolerant spirit of orthodoxy, and professed how liberal they would be should they ever have in their hands the Government of the country,-partly because they think they have many other things to look after at present, and scarcely find it worth while to trouble themselves much with it, as they believe the gospel will soon be gone altogether, since it is not any more assisted from high quarters. Should they find, as they will find, that they have been mistaken, and should the gospel prove to be the power of God, I am sure the Radicals of Germany will, like the Infidels in the Canton de Vaud, persecute ministers and true professors of the gospel. How does all this affect the Jews. The German Jews have always participated very much of the spirit that has reigned in the Christian Church. When the Spirit of God breathed in the Church, the Jews also inquired into the truth of the Word of God; but when infidelity spread amongst the Christians, the Jews became infidels like their neighbours. I can say that I have scarcely ever met a Jew in Berlin that believed in the Divine authority of the Old Testament; and in a pamphlet lately issued by the Rabbi, or, as he would call himself, by the minister of the Reform party of the Berlin Jews, the following sentences occur:-" We believe that the first three chapters of the Genesis are but a mythos. We do not believe therefore, that God created in seven days heaven and earth. We are ready, with the majority of our countrymen, to adopt the first day of the week instead of the seventh. We do not wait for a personal Messiah,-equality of political and civil rights is the Messiah we are looking for. We believe that we have been dispersed among the nations, not because the wrath of God is abiding on us, but rather in order to lead these Gentiles to the only one God." All the press is in the hands of Jews, or in their pay; and for years they have led public opinion; and all their teaching has been, directly or indirectly, that the wretch must be crushed, and Christianity must be
destroyed. Christians have given them the sharpest weapons to fight against the gospel; and a minister of the Established Church in Germany went even so far as to declare that there was no real difference between Christian and Jewish ministers. Hence it comes that they preach openly that the time will soon come when all men will become Jews, and the wild branches of Christianity will be cut off; and it is very possible that all that believe that it is not necessary for a Jew to be circumcised, nor for a Christian to be baptized, will unite, and jointly make a stand against the gospel. It was not so much that the Jews hated Christianity; no, what is worse, they despise it, and contempt is even worse than hatred. Remarkable it is that at the same time Austria, with its ten thousands of Jews, is opening just now, no doubt in answer to the prayers of Christians that have been offered up, one might almost say for centuries. There are two hundred thousand Jews in Hungary, in Bohemia, the cradle of the Reformation, where the Hussites were so dreadfully persecuted,— there are ten thousands of Jews that have never heard the sound of the gospel, know nothing of Christianity, but they have continually been oppressed, persecuted, burdened with high taxes, and calumniated, and have seen nothing of Christianity but the abominable and idolatrous practices of the Romish Church. Should there be none in the Free Church that feels moved in his heart to come forward and to proclaim the gospel to these lost sheep of the house of Israel? You believe that the work amongst Israel is a very difficult one, and you are quite right. Why, then, shall it always be entrusted to your inexperienced men, whilst all experienced Ministers are keeping aloof from it? An experienced Minister would bring with him all his former experience, the prayers of the congregation he has left would everywhere follow him; and how would the Jews be affected, if they knew that the man has left his native land,—has left his manse, his flock,—simply because the love of Christ constrained him to proclaim to them the gospel of Christ. Now, it has been done by a German minister, and he has been allowed to address the Jews on the Rhine on a Saturday in their own synagogue. I have been alone for nearly four years in Berlin when coming back, shall I say to my countrymen I have been permitted to lay your case before the General Assembly of the Free Church, they have listened with the greatest kindness to all I had to say; and yet, no, I cannot believe that I shall have to go out again quite alone, I am sure that some one will step forward and help me in this our arduous and trying work. Any congregation willing to part with its minister, any Presbytery ready to lose one of the brethren, would, I am confident, lose nothing thereby, for they would have only lent the man to the Lord, and I am persuaded the Lord will richly reward them. Fathers and brethren, should the least, the very least impression have been made upon any one of you, do ascribe all to the facts I have been permitted to bring before you, for all that I could do was to state these all-important facts in a very imperfect way, with a stammering voice, in a language not my own.
Rev. Mr DAVIDSON of Lady Glenorchy's, said The report just read was a satisfactory proof of the earnest faithful manner in which Mr Stuart performed the duty of the Convenership of the Jewish Mission Committee. He gave to the duty which devolved upon him in that capacity not only much anxiety and labour, but also his prayers; and he (Mr Davidson) was sure, that if any one scheme in particular had the earnest and anxious wishes of that Assembly for its success, it was the Jewish Scheme. If it had not been attended with all the success they could wish, it was evidently not from a want of earnest and prayerful watchfulness on the part of those engaged in it, but because the Lord's time, which was a set time in connection with the inbringing of that people, had not arrived. But no doubt it was progressing towards that period; and although this was but the day of small things, yet nevertheless there were indications apparent, which should tend to encourage and quicken us to hope that the day is not far distant when the vail should be removed from the hearts of the people of God. It was quite out of the question at this hour to enter largely, or indeed at all, upon the interesting statements which had been made in the hearing of the House. He had risen therefore, simply, at the request of some of his brethren, to move the adoption of that report; and he was sure that the missionaries who had addressed them would receive the hearty congratulations and thanks of that Assembly for their interesting statements.
The Assembly then approved of the report of the Committee, and recorded their thanks to them, and to Mr Moody Stuart their Convener, for their services; as also
to Mr Allan and Mr Schwartz for the addresses which they have delivered to the House.
Mr MACNAUGHTAN of Paisley said, that, in the account that was given in of the amount of moneys collected, no mention whatever was made of the Manse Scheme. He thought it desirable that reference should be made to this, that the impression should not go abroad, over the length and breadth of the land, that the £56,756 contained in the statement which was given in under the head of general abstract of collections, subscriptions, and donations, was the whole of the sum which had been raised by the Free Church during the past year.
Dr CANDLISH said, that it ought to be borne in mind that the statement given in by Mr Jaffray was not an account of the entire funds of the Church. The report submitted to-night was only a statement of the Missionary Schemes properly so called, and the Education Scheme, and nothing else; and the Manse Scheme and Church-Building Scheme were not included.
ARRANGEMENT OF THE SCHEMES OF THE CHURCH.
Dr CANDLISH said that the motion of which he had given notice yesterday was to the following effect :-"That a Committee be appointed to take into consideration the present arrangements of the Schemes of the Church, and the several departments of business therewith connected, with a view to such an adjustment as may be essential to the position which the Church, in the providence of God, has now reached, and to promote the permanent prosperity of the various undertakings in which she was called to engage; and that the Committee report to a future diet of the Assembly." I propose that this Committee shall be a large one, consisting of about ninety members of the Assembly, selected just from the various Presbyteries of the Church as they occur, and embracing as large a representation as can well be got of the business-habits of the Assembly; and I would propose that that large Committee should meet immediately on the rising of this diet, with a view to the appointment of a small Committee to mature matters. I believe this is one of the most important pieces of business which this Assembly has to transact, at least in so far as the outer affairs of the house of God are concerned; and therefore it is that I desire that matters should, first of all, be a little matured by a small Sub-Committee, and that they should submit their report to the large Committee to which I have referred, and afterwards, perhaps, to a conference of the whole House. Let it not be supposed that this motion contemplates any radical change in regard to the evangelistic operations in which we have now for so many years been engaged; but it has occurred to not a few that we have now arrived at that stage of our progress as the Free Church of Scotland, at which we may consider whether a better adjustment of the business affairs connected with our various Mission Schemes might not be made. I do not merely refer here to impressions which may have gone abroad as to the management of the affairs of our different Committees, and as to the expenses of that management. I do not refer to that merely, although these impressions may constitute one reason why it is of importance we should have these matters brought under general review; but I refer to this fact also, that some have thought that a better adjustment might be made in reference to some of the Committees, and to some of the collections. I would also take leave to suggest, that the overtures, when called for, on the arrangement of Committees and the adjustment of the collections for the Schemes of the Church, should be referred to this Committee. I believe that one thing presses on the minds of some of the brethren, and that is, a fear of indefinite demands being made upon the people. I feel that we labour just now, in reference to prosecuting the great objects which the Church is called to promote, under a disadvantage, arising from the vague and indefinite alarm that is abroad as to multiplying our demands. It is therefore of the last importance, that steps should be taken to adjust this matter. I cannot imagine that we can always live on shifts and expedients such as that resorted to at the close of the present financial year, and which has been so properly acknowledged already this evening, I refer to the exertions made by the ladies, to make up the funds of the Mission Scheme. It becomes extremely important that we should arrange and economise our collections and our appeals to the people, so as to give them thorough
confidence in contributing to the objects which the Church is seeking to promote. Let us remember the Schemes which we inherited when we came forth from the Establishment; but let us make our arrangements so that our people may be secured from indefinite appeals to their liberality. I cannot but take this opportunity of saying, that with all the satisfaction with which I listened to the report which was laid on your table of the funds of the Mission Schemes, I freely warn the Assembly that they will have to look in the face, before they rise, certain embarrassments and certain difficulties under which more than one of the Mission Schemes at present labour; and that it is not enough just to be satisfied with a very flourishing account of the state of our finances, in a missionary point of view, as a whole. We should be prepared to look somewhat more in detail as we proceed. (Hear, hear.) Without enlarging further, it is with this object that I propose the adoption of this motion. I have framed it very generally, so that it may infer the right adjustment of the missionary Committees, and of the missionary collections,-the right adjustment of the offices of the Schemes, and of the officials connected therewith, of the Secretaries of the different Committees, and those who are paid by the Church for transacting its business. And I would fain hope that, with the assistance of the business men of the House, a report may be prepared and submitted before this Assembly rises, which will tend at least to put the whole matter on a permanent and satisfactory footing. (Hear, hear.)
Mr TWEEDIE said, that if it were necessary, he would second the motion. In addition to the reasons stated by Dr Candlish, there was another consideration which had been overlooked, and which he hoped would be kept in view by the Committee appointed. It was well known that a good deal of the details of the business before the Committees devolved upon the Conveners. It was also well known that some of the Conveners had congregations to attend to, and that this constituted a plurality which was not always very compatible with the discharge of that which they owed either to their congregations or to the Committee over which they presided. Now, he was of opinion that if the Committee kept this matter in view, an arrangement might be made which would lighten the duties of the Conveners, if not supersede the necessity of having Conveners, excepting as Tulchan Conveners. (A laugh.)
A Committee was then appointed, in terms of Dr Candlish's motion; after which the Assembly adjourned till Saturday at eleven o'clock.
SATURDAY, MAY 20. 1848.
Interim Report of Committee for Classing Returns to Overtures-Letter of Resignation by Dr Candlish of Office of Professor of Theology-Memorial of Free St George's Congregation, regarding the same-Speeches of Dr Candlish, Dr Makellar, Sir James Forrest, Dr Buchanan Dr P. Macfarlan, Dr Fleming, Mr M. M. Crichton, Mr Gray, Mr Wilson, Mr Gibson, Mr Sinclair, Dr Candlish, Mr Duncan, Dr Brown, Mr Burns, Mr Macnaughtan, Mr Tweedie, and Dr Buchanan-Barvas Case-Appeal by Mr Anderson-Speeches of Mr Brown, Dr Mackay, Mr Macrae and Mr Crichton-Saltcoats Case-Speeches of Mr Currie, Mr Murray, Mr Stewart, Mr Macrae, Dr Candlish, Mr Carment and Mr D. M'Rae-Report of Committee for receiving applications for Sanctioning of Charges.
The Assembly met to-day at eleven o'clock, and was constituted as usual with devotional exercises. The minutes of the previous sederunt were read and approved of. Mr ANDREW GRAY then presented an Interim Report from the Committee for classing returns and overtures from Presbyteries. He said there had been three classes sent in,—one on Translations, one on the Acceptance of Calls, and one upon the subject of the Constitution of Schools. It was in regard to the last overture that the Committee wished to report. There were a great many returns,-not fewer than fifty-three, and these contained a number of important suggestions, which would require careful consideration. In fact, the Assembly must at once perceive that no small labour would be required to bring the matter fully before the mind of the Church at large. The Committee therefore desired to refer that overture to the Educational Committee, that they might amend it, and present it to the Assembly on an early day for their consideration. He would therefore move "that the overture on the Constitution of Schools be referred, along with the returns of Pres