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"When Camero inveighed in that city against those who were opposed to him in political principles, and endeavoured to stem the torrent of popular fury by chiding or admonishing those persons whom he encountered, the populace contracted such a hatred against him that at length one of the citizens, who was a passionate man, attacked him in a horrid manner both with his fists and with cudgels, and almost killed him. Removing the covering, he offered his naked breast to the man who was beating him, and said, Wretch, strike here! After having been thus mal-treated, he retired from Montauban to the contiguous town of Moissac, to recruit his shattered frame. In a short time he returned to Montauban, where, in the course of a few days afterwards, he died through grief of mind, and peacefully fell asleep in the Lord." (Jud. de Amyraldi Lib., p. 229.) In Andrew Rivet's Works, (tom. 3, p. 898,) the circumstance of baring his breast is thus related: "To one of those persons who had uttered threats against Cameron he instantly exposed his naked breast, as soon as he had unclasped the vestment which covered it, and cried out, Wretch, strike here! He had scarcely spoken these words before the villain threw him on the ground with great violence, and would have killed him, had not a female run up to Cameron and leaned over him while he lay upon the ground; by thus covering his body with hers, she protected him from blows." But this improved version of the fatal catastrophe must be received with much caution: It was written a long time afterwards, as a sort of popular palliation of that horrid tragedy, and an answer to the just animadversions of Grotius. In it Rivet evidently wishes to tax Cameron with great imprudence in braving danger, by opening his waistcoat to the villain who had employed threats against him. Indeed, in both productions, a feeling of malevolence towards the memory of Cameron is displayed. Peter du Moulin had incurred the censure of the French Court for his violent proceedings and seditious conduct: By him, therefore, the example of Cameron, in opposing the bad principles and infuriate behaviour of the misguided populace, would not be viewed with complacency, or represented with adequate justice.

The death of a Calvinistic pastor, who was half murdered while in the act of warning the populace against the crime of rebellion, was a circumstance of such an uncommon complexion among the Divines of that school, as to be the subject of general astonishment in the civilized and religious world. The very lax interpretation which the early pastors of the Genevan school gave to the doctrine of civil obedience, as contained in the 13th chapter of the Epistle to the Romans, is matter of history; and many of them have not hesitated to bestow upon those who refuse thus to explain away some of the express commands of scripture, the opprobrious epithets of "the patrons of the Divine

Right of Kings and the slaves of Passive Obedience." The quibbles which are necessary to the very foundation of Calvinism, contributed their aid to soften down the scriptural obligations of subjects to their rulers; and the most ignorant mechanic or husbandman in a Calvinistic congregation soon comprehended the doctrine of conditional obedience, the only trace of CONDITIONALITY Which is to be found throughout their fatal system. Most apposite therefore was this address of the venerable Hooker to the men of that school: "For whereas the name of DIVINE AUTHORITY is used to countenance these things which are not the commandments of God, but your own erroneous collections, on Him ye must father whatsoever ye shall afterwards be led either to do in withstanding the adversaries of your cause, or to think in maintenance of your doings. And what this may be, God doth know. In such kinds of error, the mind once imagining itself to seek the execution of God's will, laboureth forthwith to remove both things and persons, which any way hinder it from taking place; and in such cases, if any strange or new thing seem requisite to be done, a strange and new opinion, concerning the lawfulness thereof, is withal received and broached under countenance of Divine Authority."

Grotius thus alludes to the death of Cameron in his Wishes for the Peace of the Church: "I said, in my annotations at the close of the First Book On the Laws of War and Peace, that the Canons which prohibited the Clergy from the use of arms have been observed with greater strictness in the East than in the West. That remark was undoubtedly true, both as applied to those and to other Canons; because dispensations are unknown in the East, except in some few and trifling affairs. This busy intermeddling with other men's matters has already produced disastrous consequences to several persons; and if we enquire into the cause of those wars by which Europe has now for a long time been desolated, we shall find this flame to have been principally excited by those whose duty it was to be the heralds of peace. I can require no testimony of greater validity than that which is fresh in the recollection of Kings, Nobles, and People, when I affirm, that many of the civil wars in France have been excited by those who style themselves ministers of the gospel. No stronger proofs can be required than those furnished by several letters from the Duke of Bouillon and of Philip Mornay Lord du Plessis Marli, in which both of them complain of this circumstance: In addition to which, might be. quoted the Commentaries on the last of those wars, which were composed by the Duke de Rohan. Yet [from such ministers of the gospel I except CAMERON, who always entertained other sentiments, and on that account endured much hard usage. If in this respect there were others who resembled him, they also have my warm applauses. There were some pastors who kept



themselves quiet, because they were in those situations in which it was impossible for them to make any attempts. The faults of the adverse party do not operate, in their behalf, as an We have in these days beheld a prodigious circumstance, we have seen troops enlisted and regiments embodied, arms and warlike engines assembled together, under the name of the REFORMED CHURCHES. Had this power its origin in heaven or on earth?"

Grotius then adverts to the doctrines contained in the Commentary of old David Paræus of Heidelberg on St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans. The transaction to which Grotius alludes was the following: "On the 14th of April, 1622, being Palm Sunday, it happened that a certain clergyman [Mr. Knight, of Pembroke College preaching at Oxford upon these words, Let every soul be subject to the higher powers, among other positions advanced the following, that in case the King should misbehave himself, inferior magistrates had a right to in'form him better, and to correct or amend him.' For the explanation of this doctrine, he made use of the words of the Emperor Trajan, which he spoke to the captain of the guards, Take this sword, and if I reign well, draw it FOR me; if otherwise, draw it AGAINST me.' Hereupon this preacher was summoned by Dr. Pierce, one of the Canons of Christ Church and at that time Vice-Chancellor, to appear at his Court. He was then ordered to deliver a copy of his sermon, which he did. The King having heard of this matter, sent for him up to London, where he was strictly examined about his sermon, and asked how he came to preach it? He laid all the blame upon certain modern Divines of the foreign Churches, especially on Paræus, Professor of Divinity at Heidelberg, who, in his Expositions on the Epistle to the Romans, had advanced the same Theses and quoted likewise that passage of Trajan. Upon this confession the king forgave the minister his fault, he being a young Divine who might easily be misled by such a famous writer. But his Majesty ordered, the said book of Paræus to be publicly burnt, not only in both the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, but also at London on a Sunday at St. Paul's Cross:" "This royal mandate was duly executed. To remove every seditious imputation from their body, the University of Oxford, in a full Convocation on the 25th of June, 1622, condemned four of the most obnoxious propositions of Paræus, and added to each of them a scholastic censure.

* A loyal old English writer, in reference to this public burning of the books of Paræus, calls it "an accident much complained of by the Puritan party for a long time after, who looked upon it as the funeral pile of their hopes and projects; till by degrees they got fresh courage, carrying on their designs more secretly, by consequence more dangerously, than before they did. The terrible effects whereof we have seen and felt in our late Civil Wars and present confusions."


Grotius quotes this decree of the University which contained the positions condemned, and then subjoins: " If these exceptions of Paræus, that is, if so many subversions of St. Paul's rule be admitted, I declare that no empire will be in safety any longer than while those who hold such principles are destitute of power. But because it is not sufficient to know the evil unless at the same time its sources be made known, I will disclose those sources as far as I have been permitted to penetrate into their mysteries. These then are their sentiments: In every country there is a certain covenant between God, the 'King, and the People; and it is formed on this condition, that, "if the King forsakes God, it is also lawful for the people to 'forsake the King.' Those who have forsaken God, they consider to be, First, Those who acknowledge the supremacy of 'the Pope in the Church; for they have by that means fallen from the power which they delivered to the beast.'-Secondly, 'Those who attempt any reconciliation with that Church which 'adheres to the Church of Rome; that is, with the synagogue of Satan,' as they are pleased to express themselves.-Lastly, Those who retain any portion of their [ancient rites, not ' only such as are retained in England, but in other kingdoms 'still further northward; for all those rites are Popish and 'therefore idolatrous.'

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"2. Another of their sentiments is this: In the Revelations (xviii, 6,) it is written, Reward Babylon double according to 'her works. But this Babylon is that Church which is con'nected with the Roman See. In this passage every believer ' receives a Divine command, to demolish altars and the images ' of saints, and to remove all this worship together with the worshippers; for unless this be done, Babylon can neither be destroyed nor receive double according to her works. 'cursed be they who do this work of the Lord negligently! (Jer. xlviii, 10.)'

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"3. Another of their opinions is that which, they say, is to be found in the prophecy of Daniel, (vii, 18, 22,) All Kings and rulers whatsoever are bound to serve the saints of the Most High; that is, the saints of the Reformed [or Calvinistic communion. This prediction is so evidently written, 'that those persons must be blind who cannot see it.'

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"4. To these sentiments some of them add, 'All things belong ' of right to the elect, all the rest are robbers.' Who these elect are, is a point which with them admits of no controversy, by placing themselves in the elect number; 'because Christ died for them in particular; and of this circumstance they are well 'assured, because they believe it, or because BY FAITH they apprehend this benefit!' This is sad trifling; but it is such as conduces to serious evils."

The reader who is conversant with the writings of the venerable Hooker, will perceive a great co-incidence between this statement by Grotius, and that given in the Preface to the "Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity." It must also again be observed, that the term REFORMED is assumed by the Calvinists on the Continent, in the same manner as the epithet EVANGELICAL is claimed by their brethren in England.

Rivet, Professor of Divinity at Leyden, wrote an answer to these statements; and Grotius thought it necessary, for the defence of truth, to expose the quibbling of his adversary, which he did in his Discussion of Rivet's Apology, from which the following is a very instructive extract containing another allusion to the case of Cameron: "It is the duty of the man who is studious of the peace of Christians, to destroy those dogmas which disturb the peace of society. A man must become a good citizen, before he is a good Christian. Subversive of civil peace is the dogma of those who call themselves THE REFORMED, which declares it to be lawful for subjects to rise in arms against their Kings or rulers;' which that most noble man, Philip Mornai Lord du Plessis Marli, inserted in his last will as a sentiment agreeable to piety. From this source arose the insurrection at Amboise, when the Reformed Renaudiere convened some persons like himself to a private conclave, and delivered to them the power over the States of the realm. From the same source arose Beza's seditious and warlike orations. This also


*The phrase in the text is, Hinc Beza conciones pro classico; which was an allusion well understood at that period. It will be illustrated by the subjoined quotation from the History of Thuanus, (lib. 53,) who, in giving an account of the letter of the Protestant Charpentier concerning the causes which conduced to the bloody French tragedy of St. Bartholomew's Day, says: "Charpentier declares, that there were two parties amongst the Protestants,—the one consisting of peaceable persons, who acted with sincerity and from a religious principle, and who followed the maxims of the religion which they professed, the other consisting of persons who acted from a spirit of faction, and who were seditious men and enemies to the public peace and tranquillity; 'that each of those parties had at its head particular pastors; and that the 'moderate leaders were obnoxious to the more violent,and especially to Beza,' whom he calls the trumpet of Seba, and against whom he utters in his book the most bitter exclamations.-Charpentier not only excuses the massacre, but likewise proves, at great length and in a very artful manner, that it was 'just and necessary, in order to subdue an impious faction, whose sole desigu was to subvert the royal authority, to withdraw the chief cities of the realm 'from the allegiance which was due to their sovereign, and to disturb the public tranquillity ;-a faction that seemed to have been formed for the ruin of the Protestant religion itself, by some seditious individuals who were the ene'mies of their country.'

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SEBA, in the phrase The trumpet of Seba, is an anagram upon the name of BEZA, and refers to the following passage of Scripture: "And there happened to be there a man of Belial, whose name was Sheba, the son of Bilcri, a Benjamite: And he blew a trumpet, and said, 'We have no part in David, 'neither have we inheritance in the son of Jesse. Every man to his tents, 'O Israel!'-So every man of Israel went up from after David, and followed

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