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J. S.-I had always thought that the ministers were all of equal power and authority, and that they ordained each other.
J. D.-You are as much mistaken on that point, Jacob, as you are in your notion of a flock choosing their pastor. When St. Paul addresses the elders of Ephesus, that is, those whom we now call presbyters, or clergymen, he does not ascribe to them the same power and authority which were vested in those whom we call bishops. He tells them, as one of our bishops might tell the clergy in his diocese, to take heed to themselves and to all the flock over which the Holy Ghost had made them overseers, and to feed or nourish with good instructions the church of God. He warns them that men would arise from amongst themselves "speaking perverse things to draw away disciples after them ;" and he therefore urges them to watch and to remember his warnings (Acts xx. 17, 28, 30, 31). Now observe how differently he writes to Timothy and Titus, who had higher power committed to them than those which elders in general received, and who held the office of bishops as we understand the word at the present time. He exhorts Timothy to "charge some," just as our bishops charge their clergy, "that they teach no other doctrine" than the true one (1 Tim. i. 3). He urges him to be careful not to admit improper persons to the office of ministers: "Lay hands suddenly on no man, neither be partaker of other men's sins (1 Tim. v. 22). "The things which thou hast heard of me among many witnesses, the same commit thou to faithful men, who shall be able to teach others also" (2 Tim. ii. 2). And as Timothy, like one of our bishops, had the power of calling to account any of the elders or clergy under his superintendence, the apostle admonishes him to use this authority prudently and justly: "Against an elder receive not an accusation but before two or three witnesses;" and, when an accusation had been proved, he was to rebuke the offender "before all that others also may fear." And he solemnly charges Timothy to "observe these things without preferring one before another; doing nothing by partiality" (1 Tim. v. 19-21). Here you may plainly see that there was a power committed to Timothy which none of those who were merely elders, or presbyters, possessed. The priests and deacons of Ephesus were subject to Timothy's authority, much in the same way as the priests and deacons of the church of England are under their respective bishops. If we examine St. Paul's epistle to Titus, bishop of Crete, we thall find that he had the same power over his clergy which Timothy had in Ephesus. He was to ordain elders," or priests, " in every city" and he was to reject any "heretic after the first and second admonition" (Titus i. 5; iii. 10). We do not find any passage in scripture which ascribes these powers to mere presbyters; and therefore, had we no other evidence to prove it, we should be warranted in concluding that the form of governing the church, which is used by the church of England, is agreeable to the practice of the apostles, and, consequently, to the will of God.
J. S.-Well, James, though all this may be very true, yet, as God has not commanded that all Christians should follow the same rule, the dissenters are under no obligation to adopt the like
practice, even if it be as ancient as the apostolic age.
J. D.-Surely Jacob, if episcopacy was the mode of charch-government practised by the church of Christ in the time of the apostles, it is reasonable to conclude that it is the wisest and best mode which can be followed by Christians at present. What? Shall we deen ourselves wiser than the apostles? Shall we suppose that we can devise a scheme better adapted to promote true religion than the one left us by men who were inspired by the Spirit of wisdom and knowledge? Although it be not expressly commanded that there shall be always bishops, priests, and deacons in the church, yet, as this is a scriptural mode, it is surely more satisfactory than any other of mere human contrivance; and so it was considered for at least fiften hundred years. Hence it is well observed in the preface to the form of ordaining bishops, priests, and deacons in the church of England, that “it is evident unto all men diligently reading the holy scripture and ancient authors, that from the apostles' time there have been these orders of ministers in Christ's churchbishops, priests, and deacons ; which offices were evermore had in such reverend estimation, that no man might presume to execute any of them, except he were first called, tried, examined, and known to have such qualities as were requisite for the same, and also, by public prayer with imposition of hands, were approved and admitted thereunto by lawful authority." By deviating from this scriptural and ancient practice the various sects of dissenters have created endless divisions, and opened a door to the most dangerous errors and delusions.
J. S.-There will be different opinions on such matters. If the dissenters only hold fast sound doctrine, it can be of no consequence what mode of worship they follow, or in what way their ministers are appointed.
J. D.-And yet, Jacob, when there is such a variety of opinions among Christians, it must be very satisfactory to know what opinion the holy apostles held on this point. Their opinion evidently is in favour of having bishops, priests, and deacons in the church. Undoubtedly the most important concern is to "hold the faith once delivered to the saints;" but, whether it is more likely to be kept pure and undefiled when we are following our own devices and modes of worship, &c., or when we are adopting the example and practice of the apostles and early Christians, let reason and common sense determine. that the scriptures nowhere command us to follow the mode of church government that was sanctioned and practised by the apostles; but are we not plainly commanded to avoid divisions, to be united together by one baptism, one faith, one hope, to be of the same mind, and to walk by the same rule? How can we do this if every man is to choose a rule for himself to walk by, without paying any regard to the way in which the early Christians walked? The church of England follows this rule, and directs her children to keep in the good old paths; and she considers that she is by this means best maintaining and preserving in its purity "the faith once delivered to the saints." Her form of government, scriptural and apostolical as it is, would
not, however, be a sufficient reason for belonging to her, if she did not also teach, without additions or omissions, the fundamental doctrines of Christianity; but these doctrines are faithfully taught by her, as every one must confess, who fairly examines her liturgy, articles, and homilies.
SIXTEENTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY.
heareth it, and sitteth up for a while, but anon layeth himself down again on the bier of his perverseness and self-destruction; but his lips speak no answer to the voice of saving love, his soul is untouched by the compassion of his Lord: he neither confesseth nor repenteth him of his sin: he hungereth not for grace, neither thirsteth for righteousness: he sleeps on unto death eternal, and quenching the Spirit that brooded over him. Alas! he will not awake up and come unto Christ, that his breath may come into him-the breath of the Almighty, who is "the resurrection and the life."
"I say unto thee, Arise!" "Tis the voice of the [GOSPEL]" And he that was dead sat up, and began to Lord speaking to us in his sanctuary; speaking speak.”—LUKE vii. 15.
THE Saviour had shown his power by many miracles: he had healed the sick, and cured those whom man could not restore: he had made the blind to see and the lame to walk: he had cleansed the leper, and made the dumb to speak and the deaf to hear; nay, he had cast out devils; but here it is proclaimed that Jesus could make the dead to live. It had not been enough for us to have cast ourselves upon a saviour who could not conquer death; for death is, of all man's adversaries, the mightiest and the most appalling; a terror to every child of man; a devourer, whose prey is confined neither to great nor small, rich nor poor, prince nor beggar; for death, like a fisherman, incloses all kinds in his net. Our need called for a Redeemer who could encounter death, break his sceptre, crumble his work in the dust to which he abases us, and convert death into life. In such a Saviour and such a Redeemer only could every son of Adam trust for his soul's deliverance. And this was the fulness with which Jesus was anointed: his sufferings and cross were the grave of the powers of death, and the harbingers of life and immortality. He came; and the dead woke from their sleep: his "breath came upon them; and they lived." For we are told, "He that was dead sat up, and began to speak." O what power is there in the call of Jesus! Behold, at his word the dead arise, and their tongue is unloosed! Did ever man speak as Messiah spake? At his word corruption puts on life again-the grave yields up its dead. There is nor motion nor voice in the tomb. Saviour is this, who can call its tenant anew to move and speak among the living, and cause them, whose bones were dried" and whose "hope was lost," to come up out of their graves! As with the earthly so is it with the spiritual. When his word of life falls upon the sinner's heart, and makes it beat, the slumberer in sin is raised up from his sleep of death: he has heard the voice, and lives; and utterance is given him: "O sinful man that I am, and lost for ever! What shall I do to be saved?" Lo, Jesus delivers him to his mother, the church of his saints: he believes he has found grace and life and peace and joy, and walks with Christ: he hungers and thirsts, and the bread from heaven and living waters become his meat and drink. They are the " green pastures" of his soul: it grows up unto a measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ. Mark now the soul that turns a deaf ear to the word of life. He doth not arise, but sleepeth on still; or he
to us by his word; speaking to us when his saints feed upon the bread he giveth them, that both we and they may eat and be satisfied. Is he not now the same Lord of grace and compassion, who went into the city of Nain? Where two or three are gathered together in his name, is he not still in the midst of them, eager to make our hearts burn within us, and saying unto our souls, "Arise, ye that sleep, and I will give you life"? O, we will not come unto him, that we may have life: we hear his word, but because we believe it not we do not keep it: we have no meekness, that it may be engrafted and save our souls. Yes, we are stiffnecked and uncircumcised in heart and ears: we resist the Holy Ghost: we will not believe his report: we will not be converted, and live: we love death better than life, and darkness better than light, because our deeds are evil.
O, let us pray that Jesus may come and touch the sinner's bier, that they which bear it, his sins, his evil concupiscences and fleshly lusts, may stand still; for they are carrying him to his burial. Alas! how many corpses, living corpses, are moving around us and about us, whose whole lives are a funereal obsequy, which is bearing their souls to the grave-a grave of utter darkness and despair, where reigns the awfulness of a silence unbroken by any voice but that which shall say to them in a tone of thunder, "Behold, the Judge standeth before the door!"
LOOKING UNTO JESUS.-If thou wouldst have and have thy life certified, go to Christ for all, thy conscience and heart purified, and pacified, make use of him; as of his blood to wash off thy guiltiness, so of his Spirit to purify and sanctify thee. If thou wouldest have thy heart reserved for God, pure as this temple; if thou wouldest have thy lusts cast out which pollute thee, and findest no power to do it, go to him, desire him to scourge out that filthy rabble that abuse his house, and make it a den of thieves. Seek this as the only way to have thy soul and thy ways righted, to be in Christ, and then walk in him. Let thy conversation be in Christ: study him, and follow him: humility and meekness, till by looking on them they look on his way, on his graces, his obedience and make the very idea of thee new, as the painter doth of a face he would draw to the life. So behold his glory, that thou mayest be transformed from glory to glory. But, as it is added, this must be by the Spirit of the Lord (2 Cor. iii. 18); do not, there
fore, look on him simply as an example without thee, but as life within thee. Having received him, walk not only like him, but in him, as the apostle Paul speaks (Col. ii. 6). And, as the word is here, have your conversation not only according to Christ, but in Christ. Draw from his fulness grace for grace (John i. 16).-Abp. Leighton.
ANECDOTE OF THE REDBREAST.-Last winter a pair of robins were daily fed near the kitchen door of Mr. James Neild, of Oulton, the male bird occasionally flying through the open window to pick up the crumbs from the floor; and so remarkably tame has he become, that he will fly to and feed out of the hands of one of the family. During the present season they have reared three broods of young-the nests being built in an old wall within a few feet of each other and again are occupied in the construction of another nest. Whenever gardening operations are in progress, one of the old birds is generally near to pick up the vermin; and it is a remarkable fact that these valuable birds will sometimes carry to their young, in a few minutes, between forty and fifty small worms and grubs. During a heavy shower a few weeks ago, the gardener took refuge in a harbour at some distance from his work, when he was quickly followed by his innocent companion, who, perched on the branch of a tree, warbled his song of joy, as if in gratitude for the bounties of Providence.
A NATURAL PHENOMENON.-Great excitement has of late prevailed at Liegnitz, caused by another mysterious locomotion of the Wanderstein, or migrating stone of the Risengebirge. This stone has repeatedly been known to have changed its place, without the action of any outward agency whatever. It stands in the Agnetendell, near the village of that name, and consists of fine-grained granite of a yellowish grey, composed of white quartz, red feldspar, with a slight admixture of black glimmer. This block of granite has suddenly moved above twenty-five yards from its former place. The last locomotion dates from the year 1822; and its migrations are the more enigmatical; as they take place, not on a slope, but on perfectly level ground. It is impossible to conceive the cause which thus repeatedly forces this rock from its place of rest, and constrains it to such violent leaps as that in 1822 and of this year, which took place between the 18th and 20th ult.-Breslauer Zeitung.
"THE READER" IN A PRINTING OFFICE.-In a printing establishment "the reader" is almost the only individual whose occupation is sedentary; indeed, the galley-slave can scarcely be more closely bound to his our than is a reader to his stool. On entering his cell, his very attitude is a striking and most graphic picture of earnest attention. It is evident, from its outline, that the whole power of his mind is concentrated in a focus upon the page before him; and, as in midnight the lamps of the mail which illuminate a small portion of the road seem to increase the pitchy darkness which in every other direction prevails, so does the undivided attention of a reader to his subject evidently abstract his thoughts from all other considerations. An urchin stands by, reading to the reader from the copy-furnishing him, in fact, with an additional pair of eyes; and the shortest way to attract his immediate notice is to stop his boy; for, no sooner does the stream of the child's voice cease to flow, than the machinery of the man's mind ceases to work: something has evidently gone wrong; he accordingly at once raises his weary head; and a slight sigh, with one passage of the hand
across his brow, is generally sufficient to enable him to receive the intruder with mildness and attention. Although the general interest of literature, as well as the character of the art of printing, depends on the grammatical accuracy and typographical correctness of "the reader," yet from the cold-hearted publie he receives punishment, but no reward. The slightest oversight is declared to be an error; while, on the other hand, if by his unremitting application no fault can be detected, he has nothing to expect from mankind but to escape and live uncensured. Poor Goldsmith lurked a reader in Samuel Richardson's office for many a hungry day in the early part of his life.Quarterly Review.
EARLY ATTENDANCE AT CHURCH.--Let me advise you to make all suitable arrangements for kneeling, for the placing of your books, &c., in good time. Regard these matters as preliminaries to be settled, once for all, before the commencement of the service. Let every thing be in its place, and that too a convenient and proper place. If possible, do not render yourselves liable to be disturbed, during the course of the service, by want of room for this thing, or want of a place for that. Anticipate and remove every thing which may tend to distract your attention, or to make you restless and uneasy. Convenience for kneeling, and for kneeling with comfort (for kneeling is not an act of penance), is a matter of real importance. I regret that many pews, not excepting the pews in our own little church, are so narrow as to be inconve nient for this purpose. If I were speaking to churcharchitects, I would say, "Let there be always ample room and accommodation for this posture of supplication; and, whenever you build a church, take care to make as many kneeling-places as seats." But, addressing myself, as I do now, to persons whose duty it may be to worship God in churches not well constructed in this respect, I can but suggest the propriety of using an effort, and exercising some little forethought, in order to obviate or overcome the disadvantage. Hassocks are very inconvenient, especially in narrow pews. A covered stool, with room for the feet underneath, is far better; but I would especially recommend a kneeling-board, with the same accommodation affixed to the whole length of At all events, let there the pew, in front of the seat. be some provision of this kind, by means of which each individual worshipper may be able really to kneel, without being subject to inconvenience or pair from continuance in this posture. Kneeling ought to be a posture at once of lowliness and of rest; of rest, not indeed for its own sake, but in order to the full employment of the thoughts in prayer: just as, when we sit in church, we sit not simply for the sake of repose, but for repose in order that we may give attention to the word read or preached. I apprehend that, in our religious services, the leading idea of a standing posture is alacrity, effort, or respect; of sitting, attention; of kneeling, lowliness. Attend carefully to the directions of the rubric with respect to posture, response, or any other matter which affects your conduct as a member of the congregation. It ought not to be necessary for you to study the rubric during divine service. Your previous acquaintance with the prayer-book, and with the meaning and spirit of the instructions contained in the rubric, ought to be such as to lead you to comply with those instructions at the proper time, as it were instinctively, without thought or further inquiry.-Riddle's Churchman's Guide.
London: Published for the Proprietors, by EDWARDS and HUGHES, 12, Ave-Maria Lane, St. Paul's; and to be procured, by order, of all Booksellers in Town and Country.
PRINTED BY JOSEPH ROGERSON,
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SKETCHES FROM NATURAL HISTORY.
Or the hyæna there are three kinds, namely, hyena vulgaris (the common hyæna), hyena crocuta (the laughing hyana), hyaena fusca (the brown hyæna).
The skin of the common hyæna is striped; its hair long, erect, and coarse; its head broad and flat; and there is in its eyes a peculiarly sullen and wild expression. From the head to the tail a bristly mane runs along the top of the back; and this greatly adds to the uncouthness of its appearance. The tail is short and bushy. The hyæna carries its head with its nose near the ground, which gives the shoulders an elevated appearance. It is of the
size of a large dog or wolf, and evinces the savage disposition of the last-named animal. Its cry is peculiar as it begins, it resembles the moaning of the human voice, while it ends with a hideous bellowing. Its eyes shine in the dark; and, like the cat, it seems to see in the night as in daylight.
The hyæna inhabits Asiatic Turkey, Syria, Barbary, and other parts of Africa. It is a solitary beast, dwelling in caves or in dens which it has formed for itself. Through the day it usually lies concealed, and roams for its prey at night. It is bold, and commits great devastations among flocks, while it will not hesitate to attack other animals naturally stronger than itself.
A remarkable instance of the ferocity of the hyana occurred some years ago, in one that was kept in the menagerie of the Jardin des Plantes, at Paris. Seized, as it would seem, with frenzy, the miserable beast actually bit and tore off a portion of
its own leg, which it devoured. The wound, however, healed; and the writer of this brief notice some time afterwards saw it still alive.
THE OLD MAN'S CHILD.
I HAD one evening prevailed on Mrs. Kyle to take a little air and exercise, while I filled her post beside her husband's bed, and he and I were quite alone, when, after a silence of some moments, he exclaimed: "Sir, there's one sin lies heavy on me I hav'nt spoke about."
I encouraged him to proceed, and asked what the sin was.
He replied, "The way I brought up Kitty, sir you often told me I was bringing her up for the world, and not for heaven; and I see it now: I see it all plain enough now. She comes and tells me so every night: she tells me that I've been her ruin; and then I wake up with such a start, and I'm cold and hot all over.'
"This is only the effect of illness, Kyle," I replied: "people who are as weak as you are, and especially after a fever, often are troubled by dreadful dreams. You must not allow your mind to dwell upon the uneasy visions of the night. Don't suppose, however, that I think you have nothing to reproach yourself with, in regard to the manner in which you performed the duties you owed to your child: you have much to be sorry for, much to repent of; but what I would have feel is that, while there is forgiveness with God, you have no cause to despair."
"But suppose my child should die unforgiven? Perhaps she is dead now, Mr. Relton: perhaps she is dead now," he repeated with an energy which shook his whole frame, and made the perspiration stand thick upon his brow: "perhaps she is dead; and suppose I should see her sent away with the wicked from the judgment-seat-sent to hell, sir; then do you think God could ever forgive me, Mr. Relton? No, no, no: I feel he couldn't."
"Kyle," I answered, "you must try and calm yourself before I can speak to you: such agitation will do you serious harm: lie still for a few moments, and think whether the Saviour, who did not condemn the woman that was a sinner, nor reject the penitent thief's petition, will refuse your prayer for pardon, if it be offered in sincerity?"
Kyle was silent for a moment, and then said: "To be sure, sir, it would be a sin to doubt the Almighty's goodness, after all the mercy which he has showed me; but it is hard to believe that he can ever forgive such a sinner as me."
"Have you forgotten that the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth from all sin'?" I asked. Then, smoothing the ruffled pillow, I bade the sufferer rest quietly, while I read to him the parable of the prodigal son; and, as I proceeded with the touching and beautiful narrative, I endeavoured to apply the encouraging inferences which may be drawn from it to his own case.
Thank ye, sir; thank ye," he exclaimed feebly, as I closed the book. "That does me more good than all the physic put together; and, if you ar❜n't tired out, sir, perhaps you wouldn't mind reading me a few more verses-peaceful
verses, sir, if you please, that say Christ died for sinners such as me."
I consented; and, as the blessed gospel promises occurred to me, I repeated the beautiful words in which they are delivered to us for our consolation. Which the exact verses were I repeated to Kyle I at this distance of time (for I did not write them down, as was my custom with regard to the conversations) cannot say; but they were some such as the following: "Herein is love; not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins" (1 John iii. 17): "This is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Jesus Christ came into the world to save sinners" (1 Tim. i. 15): “God so loved the world that he gave his only Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life: God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through him might be saved" (John iii. 16, 17): Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us" (Gal. iii. 13): "Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works" (Titus ii. 14): "All we like sheep have gone astray: we have turned every one to his own way; and the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all" (Isa. liii. 6): "He hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him” (2 Cor. v. 21): "For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive” (1 Cor. xv. 22): "Who was delivered for our offences, and was raised again for our justification" (Rom. iv. 25): "Christ is entered into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us" (Heb. ix. 24): "He is able to save them to the uttermost, that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them” (Heb. vii. 25): "There is, therefore, now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit." Many more texts such as these I read; and they fell like oil upon the wounded spirit of the "contrite one."
"Gracious words, gracious words!" he mur mured, when I ceased speaking. "And now, sir, will you please pray that, before I die, I may feel that they were meant for me? I can't feel yet as if I had anything to do with promises of pardon; but, before I die, I hope they may seem to belong to me, as I may say: do you think they will, sir?"
Indeed, Kyle," I replied, "I do; and if you have but faith sufficient (your repentance being, as I believe, sincere and heartfelt) there is no reason why you should not now take comfort from the gospel promises; but I will pray God to give you firmer faith; and you shall join me with your heart, but not with your voice, for you are tired, and your wife will not let me be nurse again, if she comes home and finds you wearied and exhausted."
The next time that I took Mrs. Kyle's place in the sick room, I found her patient feebler in body, but more fervent and trustful in spirit. After making the usual inquiries, I asked him what I should read to him.
"O read to me about my Saviour," was his