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opinionated, self-loving, yours is the carnal mind.
Brethren, we know what an humbling doctrine this is, and how offensive it is to many, as it formerly was to the proud Pharisees. But it is the truth of the gospel of Christ, and must not be hid. Jesus came not to call the righteous, but sinners; and we must preach to you that, till you are humbled into the dust, the gospel is not for you; because, till you really feel yourselves to be sinners, you will reject it. We are bound to tell you what the carnal mind is: we are bound to tell you that, unless your heart is converted by the Spirit of God, yours is the carnal mind, and that, while you are in this state, you are at enmity with God. O how many a soul has been lost because it has proudly resisted this truth! How many a one has denied himself the saving efficacy, and the glorious blessings, and the "unsearchable richies of Christ," because he would not bear to be told that his was the carnal mind! and therefore did he live and die the enemy of God.
Bear with me, then, my brethren, while I go on to notice, in the second place, the awful fact that the carnal mind, the mind of so many in the world, is enmity against God. And would you ask why this is the case? Consider that God is holy, and man by nature unholy. Our first parents disobeyed God; and the consequence of this has been that "all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God:" all are born in sin. Sin and holiness cannot agree: the one must be at enmity with the other. If then God is holy, and man unholy, man must be at enmity with God until his nature is changed. Our own experience proves this to be true; for we see with our own eyes, and we can decide it with our own hearts, that men who are in the carnal unchanged condition manifest their enmity against God by disobeying his commandments; some by living in open sin, and carelessness of the future; others, by seeking their salvation in themselves; others, by easy indifference; others, by that inconsistency of conduct which shows that they know nothing, and care less, about the gospel of Jesus Christ, which alone points the way to heaWho is the greatest enemy of God? Is it not Satan, who was banished from the holy realms of bliss because he dared to dispute God's authority? Well, then, do not the careless and wicked of this world, the men of carnal minds, serve Satan, and yield to the temptations of Satan; and, therefore, do they not join that wicked one in his enmity against God? Do they not rebel against the King of kings? Do they not love sin, which God
hates? Do they not, all classes of them, reject the gospel of his Son, and virtually say, "We will not have this one to reign over us"? Do they not, in fact, tread beneath their feet the blood of the covenant, and wantonly refuse the mercies and eternal salvation which God offers? O true indeed it is, that "the carnal mind is enmity against God." God is holy; and men are unholy: they prefer their own lusts and passions, that they may "enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season; and, though God loudly calls them from the path of destruction, they will not hear; for he is not their king: they serve the "prince of this world." Are they not therefore enemies?-enemies indeed who can mock and despise the Maker and Giver of all things; who can turn their backs upon such a Saviour as Jesus, and so "crucify the Son of God afresh." God is not the enemy of man; but man is the enemy of God. True, God hates sin; but he loves the sinner-so loved him that he sent his only Son to die for him, that his carnal mind might be changed, and peace made. If, then, man refuses to accept these terms of peace, which are so freely offered, must he not be the enemy, the ungrateful enemy, of God?
My brethren, most earnestly do I press these things upon your consideration. What are you? Are you at enmity with God, or at peace with him? You are at enmity, if your mind is yet carnal-if you yet serve Satan, and are not disciples of the Lord Jesus Christ. Then tremble for your souls. O suppose "Thy soul that God this night were to say, is required of thee" (and who can say he will not?), what would become of you? Bitter indeed would be your repentance; but it would be too late. How would you curse your folly, to have lived the enemy of that King, who, because you refused his offer of mercy and pardon, would then show you his power and his justice by condemning you to eternal punishment! Then live no longer at enmity against God: the "grace of God, which bringeth salvation, hath appeared to all men." He still offers to you pardon: the blood of Jesus is still powerful to wipe away all your sins: the Spirit of Jesus is still mighty to change that hard carnal heart, which now is leading you to perdition; and, if you are lost, you will be the destroyer of your own soul.
And why should you not hear and obey? What inducement have you to remain the servants of Satan, and therefore the enemies of God? Are you so fettered by the business of this world? why, the business of this world will very soon be over. in the chains of pleasure? why, they will be
SANCTIFICATION OF THE SABBATH*.
"Hail sabbath! thee I hail, the poor man's day.
very soon over too, leaving no satisfaction behind. Then seek the Lord in earnest, that he will grant you true repentance, the new heart which he has promised, the great reconciliation which he invites you to seck through the blood of his Son. For remember that, if God is mighty to save, he is also mighty to destroy; and he must destroy all those who die in their carnal state. Have you, then, any wish to be saved? If you have, examine your hearts well and closely. Are they yet carnal, natural, unconverted? You, A RELIGIOUS observance of the sabbath must who live without prayer, begin to pray: you, be considered a primary duty; for, while it will who live in the habits of open sin, give them preserve you from many temptations, it will also up at once: you, who are not in the habit of impart a thousand blessings to your souls. Let reading the word of God, make it a habit at me admonish you, therefore, my young friends, to once: you, who have gone on quietly, travel-devote the whole of this day to those beneficial ling on the easy road of indifference, and feel- and delightful purposes for which it was instituted. Let nothing keep you from the house of ing quite contented with yourselves, learn the God: embrace every opportunity of attending dievil of your own hearts, and that sin is still vine worship: engage in the holy service with dwelling within you: you have never repented: reverence and devotion: hear the gospel preached your heart is still the same: your prayers are with seriousness and attention; and let it be your dead forms, your duties the common habits earnest desire that you may be instructed by it, and that you practise what you hear. Let the of every properly-educated mind: I warn hours that are not devoted to public worship be you not to continue in such a course, yes, filled up either with prayer, meditation, selfeven as St. Paul did the Corinthians, in those examination, the perusal of the bible, or some earnest words: "Now, then, we are ambas- pious book, or in conversation with those whose sadors for Christ, as though God did beseech discourse, savouring of grace, may profit your you by us; we pray you in Christ's stead, souls; or in visiting the sick and afflicted, with a be ve reconciled to God." view to their spiritual good.
What more can I say to you, my brethren? what more need I say, speaking to reasonable men? May the Lord give the blessing on what I have spoken, and so impress the truths of the gospel upon your hearts, that you may learn not only the folly, but the terror of living in enmity against God. It is foolish; for it must end in destruction: it is terrible; for "our God will be a consuming fire," "when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels, in flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ; who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord." On the other hand, it is wise and profitable to seek friendship with your God: wise, for he is love to the penitent, and willeth not that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance; profitable, for no less than the glories of heaven are promised to all those who hear the call of mercy, and repent of their sins. As the apostle says, in the verse just before our text: "To be carnally-minded is death; but to be spiritually-minded is life and peace. May God grant unto us these inestimable blessings, for Jesus' sake. Amen.
"In the observance of the sabbath," says a worthy pious divine+, "Christians are encouraged to hope for the divine blessing. This expectation is warranted by the express words of the fourth commandment: wherefore the Lord blessed the sabbath-day, and hallowed it." The Almighty has then blessed this day; and it shall be blessed. This blessing is not merely a nominal thing: it is many millions of the human race has the sabbath powerful and efficacious, it maketh rich. already afforded cause of praise; and for it generations yet unborn will arise to magnify the Lord.
The sabbath does good to men in a temporal point of view. To those who minister to the Lord in spiritual things on the first day of the week, will he through the week minister in temporal things. Around the dwellings of the devout observers of the sabbath will the hedge of a special providence be planted; and of them will the remark of Abimelech, and Phicol, the captain of his host, to Abraham, be made by their neighbours, "that God is with them in all they do." Pious judge Hale owned that he found it fared well or ill with him through the week, according as he kept the Lord's day. And this is what the Lord promises his people-that, if they honoured his sabbath, he would "cause them to ride on the high places of the earth, and feed them with the heritage of Jacob their father." And surely, if a God of infinite goodness brings temporal judgments upon those who profane, he must be much more disposed to confer temporal mercies on those who sanctify his day.
* From "Advices to the Young."
Essay on the Christian Sabbath; by the rev. James Mitchell, of Wooler, Northumberland.
We are not, however, to suppose the sabbath was only designed to promote our temporal interests; it has a still higher aim; and brings along with it nobler blessings than this world can afford. It does good to the souls as well as to the bodies of men. Sinners as well as saints share in its important advantages. From the sabbath the former have oftentimes had occasion to date their new birth-that grand change which is the beginning of all our real happiness inftime and eternity. When reading or hearing the word of God preached, they have, by the power of the Holy Ghost, been convinced and converted, brought to Christ, to God, to holiness and happiness.
On this day the poor impotent sinner, waiting at the pool of ordinance, has received a cure from the almighty Physician: the wretched prodigal has felt his misery, and formed the noble purpose of returning to the honours, duties, and abundance of his Father's house; and the man who, from violent passions, resembled the demoniac, who was exceedingly fierce, and had his dwelling among the tombs, has been made to sit submissive at the feet of the Saviour, and in his right mind. And what advantages have resulted from this day to the saints of God? Truly they may say, with the author of the book of Revelation, that they have been often "in the Spirit on the Lord's day". By the religious exercises of the sabbath, the good work begun in conversion is preserved and carried on, corruptions and temptations become weaker, knowledge increases, and faith, hope, love, and gratitude acquire greater stability and vigour. Great is the happiness enjoyed by the saints on this day. In prayer and thanksgiving, in reading or hearing the word of God preached, in communicating, and in Christian conference, have they not had the foretaste of future bliss? Let the natural man then taste and see that God is good. For blessed is the man who keepeth the sabbath, not corrupting it!
The sentiments which the celebrated colonel Gardiner entertained, concerning the Lord's day, may appear from an extract of a letter, written to his mother shortly after his conversion: "I must take the liberty to entreat you that you would receive no company on the Lord's day. I know you have a great many good acquaintance, with whose discourses one might be very well edified; but, as you cannot keep out and let in whom you please, the best way, in my humble opinion, will be to see none". The pious and excellent Mr. Boston, author of the "Fourfold State," mentions one thing which, in a special manner, lay heavy on his heart, and occasioned him many bitter reflections-that he had been enticed by another boy to go to Dunselaw on a Lord's day, and, when on the top of the hill, to play at "pins" with him. This sin he always afterwards set before his eyes, in all his secret fasts for his humiliation, entreating the Lord that it might not be remembered against him. Mr. Brown, of Haddington, was also a conscientious observer of the Lord's day. To converse on the common affairs of life, or even on the mere external and trivial matters of the church, he considered as unsuitable to the spiritual exercises of the day, and offensive to God. he would not allow himself to say or do what he conceived to be inconsistent with the sanctification of that holy day, so he endeavoured to restrain all
within his house from such practices. "I," says the author of the Rambler, "fell into an inattention to religion, or indifference about it, in my ninth year. I used then to go and read in the fields on Sunday. This habit continued till my sixteenth year. When at Oxford, I took up Law's Serious Call to the Unconverted,' expecting to find it a dull book, and perhaps to laugh at it. But I found Law quite an overmatch for me; and this was the first occasion of my thinking in earnest of religion, after I became capable of rational inquiry." From this time forward, religion was the predominant object of his thoughts. Are there some, who repair to the fields on the sabbath for amusement, let them reflect that this appeared to the great Johnson, after his conversion, to be sinful and dangerous. Of these illustrious characters, who were blessings and ornaments to their country, several lived but a few years ago, and are a few among many instances that might have been adduced, to show with what love and esteem of the sabbath good men among ourselves were inspired.
By many persons, indeed, the sabbath of the Lord is little regarded. If they have gone to church once or twice on that day, they seem to consider themselves privileged to devote the remainder of it to business, to perambulations through the fields, to company, and to idle conversation. By these means young persons are often led into more vices on the sabbath-day than on any other.
On account of the breach of the Lord's day, observes the worthy and pious writer already alluded to, temporal evils have pursued individuals as well as nations. The sabbath-breaker may move on gaily for a time, and flattering prospects may open before him; but, ere long, difficulties will probably occur, and his path will be strewed with briars and thorns. Who ever yet hardened his heart against God, and prospered?
The promise of temporal prosperity made in the prophecies of Isaiah, to those who should keep the sabbath holy, in thought, word and deed, implies in it a denunciation of temporal judgments against all who should not conform to this scriptural standard. They especially have strong reasons for auguring not good, but evil to themselves, whose breach of the sabbath is attended with daring instances of insulting behaviour and contemptuous expressions, designed to hurt the feelings and to weaken the piety and virtue of those around them, and when it is persisted in, in opposition to the most affectionate and solemn admonitions of ministers, parents, or others.
On such offenders as these the vengeance of heaven has sometimes descended, not by a slow and gradual progress, but in so remarkable and summary a manner, and has been so adjusted in regard to time and place, as to leave no doubt in the breasts of serious and considerate persons, of its being the effect of the immediate and awful visitation of the Almighty. By such procedure Providence has repressed, in certain places, a daring spirit of impiety and irreligion, has filled the minds of men with awe of his holy and righte other divine institutions. To those who would ous nature, and excited respect for his sabbath and wish to see accounts of some remarkable judg ments of God on sabbath-breakers, recourse may
be had to Clarke, Willison, Glen, and other writers on the sabbath.
If the more visible judgments of God do not more frequently overtake sabbath-breakers, it is not owing to indifference in God to their conduct; but to his wonderful forbearance, by which he is led to spare them, with a view that they may have more time and space for repentance. At the same time, perhaps, they occur oftener than many are ready to imagine; though, from unbelief and inattention to the proceedings of Providence, they are commonly overlooked; or, from a fear of offending the friends of those who have been the subjects of them, they are not unfrequently concealed. But, whatever may be supposed with regard to the temporal judgments of God, is it not obvious to every pious and considerate person that spiritual judgments are soon observed to overtake the profaner of the Lord's day? When a man begins to lay aside a respect for the sabbath, his declension from the paths of religion and virtue becomes in a short time very perceptible. Provoked by his impiety, the Spirit of God more and more deserts the sabbath-breaker; and then he walks in counsels of his own. Now is prayer (if ever it was made a duty) before God in secret restrained, the word of God becomes neglected, the company of the virtuous and good is forsaken, and that of the wicked and unbelieving preferred. By degrees the profaner of the sabbath breaks through the restraints of shame and fear, indulges in swearing, uncleanness, drunkenness, and every other species of wickedness. How often have condemned malefactors acknowledged that their career in vice commenced with a breach of the duties, and a disrespect to the ordinances of the sabbath? How fatal then to forget God and his day!
THE religion of our Lord Jesus Christ was intended to repair the evil consequences of the fall. Man foolishly neglects the provision thus made for his defects, and vainly endeavours to form plans for his own improvement. In no case is this more apparent than in the arrangements made respectively by God and man for renewing the broken bonds of fraternity on earth. From the time that man violated the first, he has habitually transgressed also the second, great commandment. The crime which Cain committed against his brother Abel has been perpetuated, with more or less frequency, publicity, intensity, in word, deed, or desire, between families, nations, and individuals, to the present day. They who are bone of the same bone, flesh of the same flesh, who have the same blood circulating in their veins, and are scions of one common parental stock, have not ceased to lift heart, hand, and voice against their fellows. Men, to far too great an extent are still "filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity, whisperers, backbiters, haters of God, despiteful,
This is one of a series of handbills, written by a clergyman, and published at a cheap rate by Wertheim, London. We think them very well calculated for distribution, and recommend them to our readers.-ED.
proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, without understanding, covenantbreakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful" (Rom. i. 29-31).
Yet God from the beginning declared his displeasure against this class of sins, commanded at Sinai that man should "love his brother as himself," and by the gospel has furnished additional aids and inducements to obedience. He adopted us anew into his family, and made us children of the same household, and joint-heirs of the same eternal inheritance by Christ Jesus. He sent the same Spirit to dwell in every soul, and exhorted us by the strongest motives that, as Christ loved us, even unto death, so ought we also to love one another.
Why, then, are not men reconciled and universally united? Why must the offer of fraternity be made? Why do "wars and fightings" still prevail? Plainly, because we have endeavoured to keep the second commandment without giving primary attention to the first. We have endeavoured, without a foundation, to cement the beautiful fabric of society together with "untempered mortar." "And, even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient" (Rom. i. 28).
If we desire the restoration of peace on earth, we must begin by seeking reconciliation with God through his dear Son, and desire to be filled with the mind and spirit that was in Jesus. "He who" really "loveth God" will "love his brother also." "In this the children of God are manifest, and the children of the devil; whosoever doeth not righteousness is not of God, neither he that loveth not his brother" (1 John iii. 10). "Faith worketh by love;" love to God, and love to man. But political systems which are not of faith cannot produce the fruits of faith, and are as little able to reconcile as they are to regenerate mankind.
CURIOUS SITUATIONS OF BIRDS' NESTS*.
BIRDS in general choose situations for their nests according to the safety and concealment they appear likely to afford; but instances frequently occur, in which this rule is departed from, and the pair seem to commence operations without their usual prudence and sagacity. Is it that among birds, as among men, individuals are found to procrastinate their affairs to the latest moment, and then are driven to adopt hasty and injudicious measures? or is it that certain members of the feathered tribes are possessed of greater boldness, and confidence in man, than their fellows?
Many amusing instances of the curious situations of birds' nests might easily be furnished. The following are chiefly extracted from the communications of the rev. Mr. Bree, and others, to Loudon's " Magazine of Natural History:"
For three years in succession a curious situation was chosen by a blue titmouse for building its nest. A betwell, or batwell (which is a close basket of
*From "Chronicles of the Seasons."
wicker-work used in brewing), was hanging upon curious intruder." A great quantity of moss was a peg against a cottage wall, in Leamington, at a used in the construction of this; and, to prevent height of not more than six feet from the ground. any of it falling into the tube or bucket, the sagaIn this betwell the bird built its nest; but unfor- cious bird placed small sticks as props, a material tunately the fact was not discovered until after a which she never employs under ordinary circumbrewing, when the old woman who owned the stances. When the young are hatched, one or implement, on cleaning out her betwell, was as- more of them will sometimes crawl to the edge of tonished to find in it a birds' nest full of eggs. the nest, and fall over into the water, and so get About the same time in the following year, having ejected through the spout. Under these circumoccasion to brew again, she recollected the circumstances "it greatly pleases me,' says Mr. Dostance, and examined the betwell previous to using vaston, "to see my servants replace them gently in it. There again she found a tomtit's nest, which the nest, with kind soothings or facetious chidings, she unceremoniously removed, and the brewing showing that natural humanity is innate in very proceeded as usual. The third year the bird many of the labouring classes, till effete for lack renewed the attempt; and, moved perhaps by of nurture, or corrupted by evil communications." its perseverance, the old woman allowed the nest At Springfield House, Warwickshire, a pair of to remain until the birds were hatched. "It was redstarts once built their nest under an inverted upon this occasion," says Mr. Bree, "that I was garden-pot, accidentally left on a gravel walk, witness of the fact, "just as the eggs were on the entering their habitation from above, at the drainvery point of being hatched. On my going to the hole. The nest attracted much attention, and was house to see this curiosity, the betwell with its watched daily, as it became an object of interest in contents was immediately taken down from its peg, the family to ascertain when, and by what means, and placed in my hand for inspection, the bird all the young birds would emerge from under the pot, the while sitting within it upon its nest, which it and make their début. How long they might have made no attempt to quit, but merely gave signs of continued in confinement, if left to themselves, it anger by frequently bristling up its wings and is impossible to say, as they were eventually infeathers, and by hissing." This bird, it appears, debted to female curiosity for their emancipation. had suffered itself to be carried in its wicker habita- A lady lifted up the pot to see whether the birds tion about the village (as Leamington then was), were there, when the whole brood, taking advanand exhibited to the visitors. tage of so favourable an opportunity, made their escape, darting forth in all directions, like rays from a centre.
The natural timidity of birds is greatly lessened, and in some cases almost entirely removed, during incubation. The blue titmouse has on many occasions furnished proof of this. A remarkable instance occurred a few years ago, at Newland, in Gloucestershire. A pair of blue titmice built their nest in the upper part of an old pump, fixing it to the pin on which the handle worked. It happened that, during the time of building and laying the eggs, the pump had been out of use; but at the time when the female was sitting it was again set going, and it was naturally expected that the motion of the pump-handle would drive her away. But so determined was she in her work, that she remained sitting for the appointed period; and the young birds were safely hatched, with no other misfortune than the loss of a part of the tail of the sitting bird, which was rubbed off by the friction of the pump-handle.
The greater titmouse and the tomtit have been observed to choose a similar situation; indeed, it would appear that the groove in which the pumphandle works has some particular charm for these birds. Mr. Dovaston, of Westfalton, near Shrewsbury, gave in 1832 an account of one of the greater titmice, who annually, or nearly so, built in this pump, where," he says, "there is a nest of eggs at this moment. It is placed just under the top of the handle, where that lever bends, and is joined to the piston by a swivel. The only entrance the bird has is close over the handle, where the slit runs a little higher, to allow it to rise above its fulcrum. This pump is used every hour, and is always accompanied with much noise and agitation, and frequently, for negligent want of oil, will on its hinges grate like thunder;' yet the bird sits on, quiet and unmolested. If the handle be lifted up, and she be peeped at longer than she like, she merely puffs, blows, and snorts at the
A similar instance was given in the "Preston Chronicle" some years ago. In a garden belonging to E. Clayton, esq., Bamberbridge, near Preston, a flower-pot was turned down over a tender plant. in the early part of the spring, and shortly afterwards was removed, and placed in the same inverted position on a vacant part of the flower-bed, near the verge of a gravel walk. Two small birds of the tomtit species, having found their way into the pot through the opening at the bottom, made it their habitation. A carpet was laid in an inclined direction over the whole area, of fine fibrous moss, on which was constructed a little nest in contact with the internal side of the pot, and lined with a mixture of hair and feathers. When first discovered there were six eggs in it, which were soon augmented to ten, all of which were in due time hatched, and the birds on the wing.
Mr. Bree gives an account of the nesting-place chosen by a pair of robins. In the parish church of Hampden-in-Arden, Warwickshire, these birds for two years in succession affixed their nest to the church bible as it lay upon the reading-desk. The worthy vicar would on no account have the birds disturbed, and accordingly introduced into the church another bible from which to read the lessons. As if encouraged by this tolerance to commit further audacious acts, the birds actually plundered the rope-ends from the belfry to assist in the construction of their nest. The old women of the village, however, did not fully share the benevolent feelings of the vicar on the occasion; on the contrary, they took it into their heads that the circumstance of the robins building on the bible was highly ominous, and boded no good to their minister. Now, it so happened that the worthy vicar fell ill and died in the month of June