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other in such a manner that their attachments are towards the root of the hair.
The hair differs in character according to the climate. Europeans have in general long flowing hair, of a fine texture, though seldom harsh or wiry. The hair of the negro is short, woolly, and of a black colour; that of the native Americans and most of the Asiatics, thick, straight, black, and shining.
A microscopic view of the human hair exhibits, curiously and satisfactorily, its natural structure.
Saviour's parable of the sower, to which I need not
WHAT interesting, what awful thoughts ought
station, performing all its appointed duties to God
It was when Jesus was walking with his disciples through a corn-field on the sabbath-day, that he taught them the spiritual value of this holy day of rest, and rebuked the Pharisees, who made it one of mere rigid formality. How keen a reproof does this incident convey to many among ourselves, brethren! for it is at this very season that even the outward form of keeping the Lord's day holy is most neglected by the agricultural population, for reasons that will not bear to be
toils or anxieties of the six days of the week, at this very season especially, as the manner of some is, " for absenting yourselves from the house of prayer on the seventh, from motives of listless idleness, or even on account of actual fatigue; nor will you be impatient for the morrow, saying, "When will the sabbath be gone, that we may set forth wheat?" (Amos viii. 5), for the Lord's is an unwearying service to the truly religious: much less will you dare further to profane his holy day by performing at home those domestic operations which you could not, or did not, find time for doing during the week. If this, unfortunately, be the habit of any of us, they have no right to expect God's blessing upon their land or upon their labours.
THE DOMINION OF CHRIST ON EARTH*.
brought to the light of God's word. Nehemiah tells us (chap. xiii.) that he saw some treading wine-presses on the sabbath, and bringing in sheaves, and selling victuals, and otherwise profaning the holy day; and he testified against them for drawing down thereby God's wrath upon Israel, as they had done in former times. Now, consider the practical ingratitude, and, if we may so speak, the bad policy of desecrating the Lord's day, at this season in particular. The farmer is receiving an abundant return for the expenses of cultivation; and the labourer obtains, what in his station is the gain he has to look for, viz., work, and its due wages, profitable, and if his heart is right, cheerful labour. "Much food," says the wise man, "is in the tillage of the poor." Labour is the poor man's capital or principal; and to get the means of employing this to advantage, is to him what the placing of money in the funds, or purchasing land, is to the richer classes. To all, what they gain for this is the interest upon which they are to live; and all should be thankful who THIS earth has been rightly called a revolted possess this capital, of whichever sort it may be, province of God's empire. The eternal Son of that they have opportunity thus to lay it out, and God has, by a wonderful work of redemption, that this interest accrues to them; remembering gained back this revolted province, and claims it always that God gives both the principal and the as his peculiar kingdom. But its inhabitants are interest, or increase, and that, from whatsoever still in a state of rebellion against the divine laws: secondary source their gains may be derived, it is "We see not yet all things put under" Christ. "the Lord who maketh poor, and maketh rich; Wickedness still prevails: the earth is still under who bringeth low, and lifteth up" (1 Sam. xxvii.). the curse: war, and famine, and pestilence, the What, in fact, are riches, which some may, at first prevalence of sickness, sorrow, and death, still thought, deem to consist of the accumulation of attest that "the throne of God and of the Lamb," 30 much metal called "money"? The coin is not yet set up therein. The sure word of pro(which itself is the produce of God's earth) is of mise tells us, however, that God hath appointed a no intrinsic value in that shape; but it represents day, in the which he will judge the world in rightesome commodity which is useful for our suste- ousness by that man whom he hath ordained" nance or comfort. Take, for instance, out of a (Acts xvii. 31). But, while "a king shall reign host of other things, these two: food and clothing. in righteousness," it is also decreed that "princes Whence are they? Where was the loaf manu- shall rule in judgment" (Isa. xxxii. 1). And who factured which the contented, ay, and the discon- are these princes, that shall share with the true tented (Matt. v. 45) labourer is enabled to pur- Melchizedek, the "King of righteousness," and chase, with the fruits of his toil, for the subsistence "Priest upon his throne," the government and of his family? Did it originate in the bakehouse dominion of a regenerated world? Are they angels or the mill? Surely not. Trace it then back- and archangels, the highest of those unfallen inwards to the thresbing-floor, to the stack, to the telligences "who excel in strength," who have harvest-field, even till you come to the clod of the ever done "his commandments, hearkening unto valley, wherein you find the grain lying dead for the voice of his word"? No: the glorious riches a season, and which "is not quickened except it of the mystery of this present dispensation consists Who draws it up alive out of the earth? in this-that, out of those very rebels and ene“God giveth it a body, and to every seed his own mies, God is, by his almighty power and love, body" (1 Cor. xv.). In like manner search for training "a royal priesthood" to share in the the original source of our clothing: the homely honours of his Son's kingdom; out of these garb of the peasant, the gay attire of the wealthy, weak and fallen sinners, these "babes and suckthe embroidered robe of nobles, and the gor-lings," has he "ordained strength because of his geous purple of emperors and kings, come from some plant that grows out of the earth, or from some animal, both alike creatures of the same almighty One, whose "are the beasts of the forest," whose "the cattle upon a thousand hills," and who "knows all the fowls upon the mountains" (Ps. 1.): their colours, too, that please and dazzle the eye, are from the vegetable or mineral produce of the earth, or from the repositories of the great deep. Thus might every article of necessary use or luxurious enjoyment be ultimately traced to God the Creator, the Giver, and the Distributer, as he sees fit, of all things in heaven and earth. If then, my brethren, you understand the Christianity you profess, or feel rightly towards God, you will not presume to plead the beneficial
enemies, that he might still the enemy and the avenger" (Ps. viii. 2). The enemy who sought to mar the work of creation, who apparently succeeded in marring it (I may add, who has marred it, if it is never again to be "very good"), shall be foiled by his own weapons, shall be bruised under the feet of those whom he thought to enslave, through the glorious redemption wrought by him who was made a little lower than the angels for the suffering of death," "that through death he might destroy him that had the power of
* From "The Mystery of the Gentile Dispensation, and
By R. H. Herschell. London: but there is much that is interest
Aylott and Jones. 1848. We cannot agree with the author
the Work of the Messiah."
death, that is, the devil" (Heb. ii. 9, 14). If it were a mighty work of omnipotence out of stones to raise up children to Abraham, surely it is a yet more glorious work of love to raise up children of God from among rebellious sinners, to adopt them into the royal family of heaven, to make them "heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ!" "Behold what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called the sons of God!" "Now are we the sons of God; and it doth not yet appear what we shall be" (1 John iii. 1, 2). "The manifestation of the sons of God" is an event yet future, for which the creation waiteth with "earnest expectation." As Jesus was openly declared to be the Son of God by his resurrection from the dead (Rom. i. 4), so our manifestation as sons of God shall be when we are raised from the dead, and thus shown to be "the children of the resurrection" (Luke xx. 36). Christ assumes not the government of his kingdom, until those he has ordained to share it with him are all trained and prepared for that glorious work, by which, throughout "the ages to come," they will show forth the exceeding riches of the grace of God. For this period" the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together until now. And not only they, but ourselves also, which have the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body" (Rom. viii. 22, 23). Then the earth, that was cursed for man's sake, is delivered from the curse, through "the second man, the Lord from heaven" (1 Cor. xv. 47). "And there shall be no more curse; but the throne of God and of the Lamb shall be in it" (Rev. xxii. 3). Then shall all these glorious predictions, which the prophets connected with the advent of the Redeemer, be fulfilled; man shall glorify God instead of dishonouring him; the will of God shall be done on earth as it is in the heavens. From the throne of God and of the Lamb a healing power shall go forth to all the nations; and in the administration of this "health and cure," the glorified saints, the church, the bride of Christ, shall share with her King and Lord. Then shall the "good matter touching the King," indited by the heart of the royal psalmist (Ps. xlv.), receive its accomplishment: the time shall then come "when the saints possess the kingdom," and shall reign with Christ over a renovated and a happy world.
THE OLD PATHS.
BY THE REV. J. B. PRATT, M.A. QUESTION.-What do you consider to be the great advantage, or the urgent necessity, of seeking and asking for the old paths?
Answer. The numerous and strange innovations, which have originated in various ages, are sufficient to convince any sober-minded Christian of both the necessity and the advantage of continuing stedfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship. The doctrines and institutions of the gospel differ from all others in this, that they are perfect, and adapted to the circumstances of every time and place. They are catholic verities; and
every attempt to improve or alter them must inevitably deteriorate them. In the church of God, that which was first ought also to be that which is last. Of the doctrines and institutions of our blessed Lord, there should be no attempt at change or alteration. Whatsoever is added or taken away, whatsoever is altered or mutilated, must tend to deteriorate, not to improve (Rev. xxii. 18, 19). The truth will admit of no change. Now, let even those who are fondest of walking in new paths say what has been the general result of such predilection; and the distracted state of the Christian world, the innumerable systems of doctrine and modes of worship, the bold speculations and general indifference, the endless variety of sects and parties, and the "envying, strife, and divisions" which immediately rise up to view, will dictate such an account as the sincere Christian must be ashamed to repeat, and grieved to contemplate. It is in the "old paths," marked out by our Lord, trodden by his apostles, and frequented by the faithful in the purest ages, in which I am told to seek for rest to my soul, and in which I am assured that I shall find it (Jer. vi. 16).
Q.-But may not newer ways, equally good and equally safe, be found? In other words, may there not be many ways through this world, yet all leading directly to heaven?
A.-When the people of the Lord marched through the wilderness, they were told of the rich inheritance that lay before them; but they were not permitted to take the way thither which might have appeared to themselves as the best and shortest: they were to pursue that one route which God himself pointed out, and not impiously to suppose that others nearer or better might be found. Nearer roads they might have found; but in these will any one venture to say that the presence of the Lord would have directed their steps, or that by them they would have found ready access to the promised land? In like manner we know of our inheritance only by report, the report of him who has purchased it for us and we must submit to be proved, and to be led thither in the way of God's appointment, and not in that which to ourselves might appear shorter or better. We cannot even tell why it should be necessary to try us at all, nor can we say what the particular purpose of many temptations to which we are exposed may be; but this we know, that every one is to be made perfect through sufferings of some kind (Heb. ii. 10; 1 Pet. iv. 13), and his fidelity put to the test by trials of some description. Under such circumstances, strict adherence to the path in which God leads us on is the only safe course. If there are nearer or easier roads to heaven, it is doubtful whether the divine Presence watches over them. But that there are any such paths is merely matter of unauthorized conjecture. Our blessed Lord speaks of only one way; and this he describes as both narrow and straight. Our whole Christian course is just as mysterious as that of the Israelites through the wilderness. must follow the path which the Lord points out, and not venture into bye-ways of our own choosing; for, although new ways may appear plain and safe, it is only in the old narrow path where we are assured of finding rest for our souls. Ways of men's choosing may, peradventure, lead to
heaven; but of this we have no assurance: that narrow path, for which we are commanded to ask, and in which we are advised to walk, is that alone with which any sure promise is connected. Every doctrine and ordinance of our blessed Lord and his holy apostles must, on this account, command the utmost respect of all who are willing to be led onward by the Spirit of God, through this wilderness of probation to that glorious inheritance which is promised to the faithful. Thus, I cannot listen to the common saying, that "there are many paths to heaven:" the word of God speaks but of one; and, although this may turn and wind in directions contrary to what some might suppose to be the best, yet I have full confidence in him who leads the way; and, therefore, how mysterious soever it may be, how humiliating soever to presuming reason, how contrary soever to popular opinion, how condemnatory soever of prevalent practice, this one way of God, narrow and strait though it be, is that which I must prefer as safer and surer than any of the thousand ways of human device. To those who prefer these ways I can have nothing to object; but I dare not go along with them: I dare not trust myself to these new paths, crowded though they be. Glad shall I be, yea, sincerely glad, if they lead to heaven; and in charity I am bound to hope that they may do so; but, as an episcopalian, I must venerate the old paths, where is the good way"-paths distinctly known by the unchanging and unchangeable marks of truth. The pillar of the Lord conducted his people through the desert: "the pillar of the truth" (1 Tim. iii. 15) will still lead on the hosts of God to their home and their inherit
memorated under the latter and more perfect economy. It is, therefore, false to say that there are no specific rules in the sacred record concerning the exact form and constitution of the church of God. The bible, even the whole bible, is the great depository of theology and ecclesiastical history; and to this, in its true and catholic sense, the episcopalian has recourse when he makes inquiry concerning the foundation of the system of doctrine, the means of grace, and the constitution of the church, which he ought to venerate and support. He does not feel himself at liberty to do as many do-appeal to the bible, and then, when the bible is taken as the rule, object to such parts of it as are hostile to pecular notions and newly-invented systems, and rashly assert that what God revealed concerning his church under the Mosaic economy has little or nothing to do with its constitution, doctrines, and ordinances, under the Christian dispensation. But "God is not a man, that he should lie;" and the faithful member of his church cannot venture to imitate those who thus foolishly attempt to mould the everlasting word of God to the form of their own crude inventions, and boldly endeavour to support their cause by inducing men to believe that the older testament may be thrown away. They, who are at liberty to appeal to the whole of the sacred record, will not be surprised that the apostles do not give a definite outline of the foundations of the church: this had been done by Moses. Our Lord carefully instructed his apostles concerning the things which pertained to his church, and by his example showed them how the sacred edifice was to be reared. This church they established whithersoever they went; and it ought to be remembered that their writings were not intended to instruct men concerning the form in which the sacred edifice was to be built, but to admonish them to abide in the communion of that church whose foundations had been laid, or to reprove them for interfering with its already established doctrines and economy. The apostles and their successors, to the end of time, are the builders of the church (Eph. A. Such an opinion cannot be entertained for iv. 11, 12; 1 Cor. iii. 10, &c.). The outline of a single moment by one who has right notions of the building is already defined in the Old Testathe divine word. If men take the whole word of ment, and directions for its greater extent are conGod as their guide, and not impiously tear asunder tained in the New. Hence the rule to be observed the Old and the New Testaments, they will find by the faithful builder is in these words: "Let no difficulty in determining the exact form and every man take heed how he buildeth upon the constitution of the church of God. In the Old foundation already laid; for other foundation can no Testament the ground is clearly marked out and man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ" the boundary distinctly defined: the statutes, the (1 Cor. iii. 10, &c.). The apostolic epistles, thereofferings, the sacrifices, the priesthood in its three-fore, speak not of the foundation, but of the danger fold order, are all appointed, appointed by an ordinance for ever. On the foundation thus defined, our blessed Lord erected his church. In many respects the types of the law were fulfilled in Christ, and therefore its ceremonies were discontinued; but the doctrines and laws of the typical economy in every tittle, the sacraments no longer typical but commemorative, the priesthood changed from the house of Aaron, but still preserved in its true character, were each and all continued in the church. God is the same yesterday, to-day, and for ever; and his church, since its foundations were laid on the Rock of Ages, has undergone no greater change than from the shadow to the reality. The self-same events that were prefigured under the former dispensation are com
Q.-But it is a prevalent opinion that the sacred scriptures contain no specific rules concerning the exact form in which the church of Christ is to be built; is there then not a latitude given to individuals, or sects, to rear up the spiritual building according to any plan most suited to their own fancy, or to the circumstances amid which they may chance to be placed?
of separating from that church which was already established (St. Jude ii., &c.), or of the duty of adhering to the "one body," and the "one faith," into which they had already been admitted by
one baptism" (Eph. iv. 4, &c.). The word of God, therefore, gives no latitude to individuals or sects, who have not the Redeemer's commission, to constitute themselves into builders of his church. No man has an inherent power to lay a single stone in the spiritual building; in other words, no man can, on his own authority, introduce a single child of fallen Adam into the holy family of God. The Son of God alone can do this, and they to whom he has delegated his power. Individuals or sects may, like the men of Shinar, rear up buildings according to any plan most agreeable to their
fancies, and, as nearly as possible, resembling the temple of the Lord; but the temple of the Lord they cannot be, unless the builders humbly consent to receive his commission, and to act as his servants; obeying his will, and revering the means which he has appointed for the accomplishment of the work. The member of the holy catholic church has recourse to the word of God as revealed in the Old and New Testaments; and he finds ample information concerning both the outline of the church, and the way in which it is to be built.
FOOTMARKS IN SANDSTONE ROCK*.
as that of a calf's-foot; while the impression was so deep-passing, indeed, in some instances, right through the upper stratum, and imprinting itself upon the one immediately below it-as to prove that the animal to which it belonged must have been of considerable weight. Having, by careful inquiries on the spot, and by actual observation, armed himself with a series of particulars, such as he knew could not fail to confound the minds of the most distinguished and learned geologists, and being well aware how great would be the scepticism with which any statement of his own, in regard to these footprints, would be received by scientific men, he resolved to open a private correspondence on the subject with professor Buckland of Oxford, in whose philosophic candour he to the storm of ridicule and opposition which he had some confidence, previous to exposing himself could not help anticipating. In reply to his first communication he received the following cha
dred casts. However much the cavities in question may resemble the prints of an animal's foot, I strongly suspect they must be cavities resulting from the decay of some organic body, probably a shell that was once inclosed in the rock, and has subsequently perished. I know of two species of shells that have been often taken for the feet of animals; but, till I see your specimens, I can, of course, give no farther opinion than a general one,
FOR many years Dr. Duncan had heard reports of the existence of strange footmarks on the sandstone strata at Corncocklemuir, a quarry about fifteen miles from Ruthwell; but, being aware of the generally received opinion, that the new red"Oxford, 17th June, 1827. sandstone, which lies immediately over the coal "Reverend Sir,-I was yesterday favoured formation, must have been deposited at an era with your letter respecting the supposed impreswhen no quadrupeds of a higher order than rep- sions of the feet of animals in the sandstone quartiles existed upon the earth, he long concluded ries of your neighbourhood, and shall have great that these reports must have originated in mere pleasure in examining the casts you propose to imagination. Nor was this impression by any send to London, whence they may be forwarded means weakened in his mind, on learning that a any day, by coach, to Oxford. As soon as I have well-known professor of natural science, who reseen them I will give you, with much pleasure, sided occasionally within a few miles of the my best opinion respecting them; but I had much quarry, so scouted the idea of its being possible rather see one of the actual marks on the stone itthat such footmarks could exist in the new red-self, in a slice cut off from the block, than a hunsandstone, that he refused even to take the trouble of paying a visit to it for the purpose of inquiry. At length, however, having seen a very remarkable specimen of these footmarks at Dormont House, and, being convinced that they were no other than they appeared to be, he resolved to take the earliest opportunity of inspecting the quarry in person. This accordingly be did, one fine day in the summer of 1827; and be returned home convinced that, whatever surprise the announcement might occasion, the fact could not be questioned that, at the remote period when the new red-sandstone was in the act of forming, four-footed animals, of several scecies, had imprinted indelible footmarks on the surface of its strata. In various parts of the quarry he beheld numerous impressions so exceedingly distinct and well defined, and so exactly resembling the prints of such animals, that no room was left to doubt of their identity. Indeed, the writer of this, who accompanied him to the quarry on a subsequent occasion, on seeing some of them, could hardly believe that the stone was not yet as soft as sand, and that the animals had not passed over the face of the rock only a few minutes before, although he was aware that strata, to the depth of upwards of forty feet, had but recently lain above them. Some of the prints were larger than others; but all of them were of rather an uncommon appearance; and one, in particular, was at least as broad * From "Memoir of the rev. H. Duncan, D.D." By rev. G. J. C. Duncan. Edinburgh: Oliphants. London: Hamilton, Adams, and Co. 1848. Dr. Duncan was a clergyman of the kirk of Scotland, who has a claim on public gratitude as the originator of savings'-banks. In his later years he seceded from the kirk. We extract from the menoir an interesting account of a geological discovery.
against even the remote probability of the marks you mention being the impressions of feet. You nion as soon as I have an opportunity of seeing may, however, depend on hearing my farther opiwhat you propose to send up for my inspection. Allow me to thank you for your kind attention, and believe me to remain, sir, your obliged and most obedient servant.
The casts, to which reference is made in the preceding letter, Dr. Duncan had prepared with the utmost care; and, on receiving them, Dr. Buckland, in the true spirit of a philosopher whose mind is open to conviction, wrote: "As far at least as I can judge from the specimens before me, I am strongly inclined to come over in toto to your opinion upon the subject." He could not, in fact, against the evidence of his senses, deny that the marks were those of some kind of four-footed animal. Anxious, however, now to ascertain what the quadruped was, "and being led," as he said, "to look to our recent crocodiles, or tortoises, for the living counterpart of these impressions," he made several curious and somewhat amusing experiments with animals belonging to these genera, by causing them to march over soft dough and wet sand, the result of which led him to refer at least some of the footmarks to animals of