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(Human Hair Magnified.)
THE hair appears to originate within the cellular substance that lies below the skin, where its roots form a sort of bulb; and, from its origin to its emersion beyond the cuticle, each particular hair is enveloped in a small membranous, transparent canal, of a cylindrical form, quite distinct from the hair itself, but of which the origin is unknown. Each hair is composed of two distinct parts, an external or peripheral canal, and an internal or central medullary part. The former resembles the cuticle in its nature, and is, like it, of a white colour, whatever may be the shade of the hair itself. The central or medullary portion of the hair it is which gives this substance its particular colour. And this is conjectured by Bichat to be composed of extremely delicate vessels, containing a peculiar fluid that stagnates within their cavities. This portion is essentially distinguished from the peripheral tube by its possessing vital quali
France, is a remarkable instance), it has become white. This effect can only be attributed to some change in the distribution of that fluid with which the central portion of the hair is filled. Sometimes the quantity of this fluid is greatly increased, and its quality so much changed as to have the appearance of blood. In some cases it is found even to assume a fleshy appearance. These phenomena constitute the character of that formidable disease called plica polonica, in which the hair bleeds on being cut, and then becomes matted together.
Thus a growth of new hair will occur after a The hair is susceptible of renovation when lost. recovery from fevers, during which the patient had become bald; and it is analogous to the process of moulting, that yearly takes place in many quadrupeds as well as birds.
Hair is strong, but is possessed of little extensibility. When drawn between the fingers from root to point, its peripheral surface appears quite smooth, though when rubbed in the contrary direction it gives a sensation of roughness. This is found to be owing to small scales, of which the external tube is composed, which lie over each
other in such a manner that their attachments are | Saviour's parable of the sower, to which I need not towards the root of the hair.
The hair differs in character according to the climate. Europeans have in general long flowing hair, of a fine texture, though seldom harsh or wiry. The hair of the negro is short, woolly, and of a black colour; that of the native Americans and most of the Asiatics, thick, straight, black, and shining.
A microscopic view of the human hair exhibits, curiously and satisfactorily, its natural structure.
WHAT interesting, what awful thoughts ought the return of harvest-time to suggest to the reflecting Christian! To how good account may the farmer turn his avocation, and the reaper his employment at this season! as may the women and children too, who, according to the scriptural injunction, are allowed to glean after the reapers. What spiritual as well as temporal concern ought to be mutually cherished between master and servant in their respective departments, is beautifully illustrated in the book of Ruth. There we read of the pious and cordial greetings between Boaz and his workmen upon his entering the field: "And, behold, Boaz came from Bethlehem, and said unto the reapers, The Lord be with you; and they answered him, The Lord bless thee." Observe, too, how delicately kind and discriminate was Boaz in his encouragement of his humbler kinswoman, the modest and grateful gleaner Ruth, because of the excellent character he had heard of her. Hence, let our poorer brethren and sisters be reminded that, as Solomon says, "a good name is better than precious ointment, and rather to be chosen than riches." Nor is it only to the persons thus immediately engaged in them that these simple rural scenes address themselves; but they likewise, who, as spectators only, behold "the valleys standing thick with corn," may beguile the sultry hours with heavenly contemplations. All, as they view the full ear and the noxious weed intermingled, falling together beneath the sickle, should be reminded that they themselves are now ripening either for heaven or hell, and shall themselves one day be reaped, and gathered, and sorted out, and consigned to their own proper and suitable places. But, besides this, the harvest-field is adapted to recall to our remembrance other scriptural lessons. The mind may naturally revert to the soil in which the grain was sown, to the seed-time, to the growth of the corn, and look forwards after the reaping to the threshing and to the winnowing of it: to each of these stages of its progress scripture attaches a corresponding word of improvement. And these memorials we have the comfort to know will, with their attendant benefits temporal and spiritual, recur to man until the end of the world; for God has promised that, "while the earth remaineth, seed-time and harvest shall not cease" (Gen. viii.): "Break up your fallow ground" (Jer. iv. 3; Hos. x. 12). You must be well acquainted with our From "Harvest-time;" a Sermon, by the rev. T. A. Holland, M.A., rector of Poynings, Sussex. Rivingtons:
further refer. "Whatsoever a man soweth," says St. Paul, "that shall he also reap," &c. (Gal. vi. 7, 8). Hear Isaiah on this point: "Doth the plowman plow all day to sow? doth he open and break the clods of his ground? when he hath made plain the face thereof, doth he not cast in the principal wheat, and the appointed barley and the rye, in their place? For his God doth instruct him to discretion, and doth teach him." And a little after, speaking of the threshing, he says: "This also cometh forth from the Lord of hosts, which is wonderful in counsel, and excellent in working" (Isa. xxviii.; see also 1 Cor. ix. 9, 10). "Grow in grace, and in the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ" (2 Pet. iii. 18). With his fan in hand, we read, the heavenly husbandman will "throughly purge his floor, and gather his wheat into the garner; but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire" (Matt. iii. 12). "The ungodly are like the chaff which the wind driveth away" (Ps. i. 4). The straw and stubble, likewise, which represent the proud and wicked, will be destroyed (Mal. iv. 1; 1 Cor. iii. 12).
In a worldly sense it may not be necessary to exhort the husbandman to be on the watch and ready while the ear is ripening in the summer sun, and not to say, "There is yet" so much time, "and then cometh the harvest;" but in a spiritual sense it is necessary to do so, and to add our Saviour's awakening remonstrance: "Behold, I say unto you, Lift up your eyes, and look on the fields; for they are white already to harvest" (John iv.). Nor, in a worldly sense, may it be necessary to repeat the maxim of the wise man: "He that sleepeth in harvest causeth shame;" but it is right to remind you that, except the Lord be with you in your operations, "it is but lost labour that ve haste to rise up early, and so late take rest, and eat the bread of carefulness;" whereas his presence abiding with you will secure to you, after your toil and anxiety, tranquil and refreshing repose, for so giveth he his beloved sleep" (Ps. cxxvii.). A comfortable promise on this head is given us by the psalmist: "Put thou thy trust in the Lord, and be doing good: dwell in the land, and verily thou shalt be fed" (Ps. xxxvii.); that is, abide with patience and faith in your allotted station, performing all its appointed duties to God and man; and then most assuredly will he, who "giveth fodder to the cattle, and feedeth the young ravens that call upon him," and "clothes the lilies of the field," provide sufficiently for you, who are in his sight of much more value than these. Again, in Ps. lxv.: "Thou_visitest_the earth, and blessest it: thou makest it very plenteous. Thou preparest their corn; for so thou providest for the earth. Thou crownest the year with thy goodness."
It was when Jesus was walking with his disciples through a corn-field on the sabbath-day, that he taught them the spiritual value of this holy day of rest, and rebuked the Pharisees, who made it one of mere rigid formality. How keen a reproof does this incident convey to many among ourselves, brethren! for it is at this very season that even the outward form of keeping the Lord's day holy is most neglected by the agricultural population, for reasons that will not bear to be
THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND MAGAZINE.
brought to the light of God's word. Nehe-
toils or anxieties of the six days of the week, at this very season especially, as the manner of some is," for absenting yourselves from the house of prayer on the seventh, from motives of listless idleness, or even on account of actual fatigue; nor will you be impatient for the morrow, saying, "When will the sabbath be gone, that we may set forth wheat?" (Amos viii. 5), for the Lord's is an unwearying service to the truly religious: much less will you dare further to profane his holy day by performing at home those domestic operations which you could not, or did not, find time for doing during the week. If this, unfortunately, be the habit of any of us, they have no right to expect God's blessing upon their land or upon their labours.
THE DOMINION OF CHRIST ON EARTH*.
THIS earth has been rightly called a revolted province of God's empire. The eternal Son of God has, by a wonderful work of redemption, gained back this revolted province, and claims it as his peculiar kingdom. But its inhabitants are still in a state of rebellion against the divine laws: "We see not yet all things put under" Christ. Wickedness still prevails: the earth is still under the curse: war, and famine, and pestilence, the prevalence of sickness, sorrow, and death, still attest that "the throne of God and of the Lamb," is not yet set up therein. The sure word of promise tells us, however, that God hath appointed a day, in the which he will judge the world in righteousness by that man whom he hath ordained" (Acts xvii. 31). But, while "a king shall reign in righteousness," it is also decreed that "princes shall rule in judgment" (Isa. xxxii. 1). And who are these princes, that shall share with the true Melchizedek, the "King of righteousness," and "Priest upon his throne," the government and dominion of a regenerated world? Are they angels and archangels, the highest of those unfallen intelligences "who excel in strength," who have ever done "his commandments, hearkening unto the voice of his word"? No: the glorious riches of the mystery of this present dispensation consists in this-that, out of those very rebels and enemies, God is, by his almighty power and love, training "a royal priesthood" to share in the honours of his Son's kingdom; out of these weak and fallen sinners, these "babes and sucklings," has he "ordained strength because of his enemies, that he might still the enemy and the avenger" (Ps. viii. 2). The enemy who sought to mar the work of creation, who apparently succeeded in marring it (I may add, who has marred it, if it is never again to be "very good"), shall be foiled by his own weapons, shall be bruised under the feet of those whom he thought to enslave, through the glorious redemption wrought by him who was made a little lower than the angels for the suffering of death," "that through death he might destroy him that had the power of
the Work of the Messiah." By R. H. Herschell. London: From "The Mystery of the Gentile Dispensation, and Aylott and Jones. 1848. We cannot agree with the author of this work in all points; but there is much that is interesting in his book.-ED.
death, that is, the devil" (Heb. ii. 9, 14). If it | were a mighty work of omnipotence out of stones to raise up children to Abraham, surely it is a yet more glorious work of love to raise up children of God from among rebellious sinners, to adopt them into the royal family of heaven, to make them "heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ!" "Behold what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called the sons of God!" "Now are we the sons of God; and it doth not yet appear what we shall be" (1 John iii. 1, 2). "The manifestation of the sons of God" is an event yet future, for which the creation waiteth with "earnest expectation." As Jesus was openly declared to be the Son of God by his resurrection from the dead (Rom. i. 4), so our manifestation as sons of God shall be when we are raised from the dead, and thus shown to be "the children of the resurrection" (Luke xx. 36). Christ assumes not the government of his kingdom, until those he has ordained to share it with him are all trained and prepared for that glorious work, by which, throughout "the ages to come," they will show forth the exceeding riches of the grace of God. For this period" the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together until now. And not only they, but ourselves also, which have the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body" (Rom. viii. 22, 23). Then the earth, that was cursed for man's sake, is delivered from the curse, through "the second man, the Lord from heaven" (1 Cor. xv. 47). "And there shall be no more curse; but the throne of God and of the Lamb shall be in it" (Rev. xxii. 3). Then shall all these glorious predictions, which the prophets connected with the advent of the Redeemer, be fulfilled; man shall glorify God instead of dishonouring him; the will of God shall be done on earth as it is in the heavens. From the throne of God and of the Lamb a healing power shall go forth to all the nations; and in the administration of this "health and cure," the glorified saints, the church, the bride of Christ, shall share with her King and Lord. Then shall the "good matter touching the King," indited by the heart of the royal psalmist (Ps. xlv.), receive its accomplishment: the time shall then come "when the saints possess the kingdom," and shall reign with Christ over a renovated and a happy world.
THE OLD PATHS.
BY THE REV. J. B. PRATT, M.A. QUESTION.-What do you consider to be the great advantage, or the urgent necessity, of seeking and asking for the old paths?
Answer. The numerous and strange innovations, which have originated in various ages, are sufficient to convince any sober-minded Christian of both the necessity and the advantage of continuing stedfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship. The doctrines and institutions of the gospel differ from all others in this, that they are perfect, and adapted to the circumstances of every time and place. They are catholic verities; and
every attempt to improve or alter them must inevitably deteriorate them. In the church of God, that which was first ought also to be that which is last. Of the doctrines and institutions of our blessed Lord, there should be no attempt at change or alteration. Whatsoever is added or taken away, whatsoever is altered or mutilated, must tend to deteriorate, not to improve (Rev. xxii. 18, 19). The truth will admit of no change. Now, let even those who are fondest of walking in new paths say what has been the general result of such predilection; and the distracted state of the Christian world, the innumerable systems of doctrine and modes of worship, the bold speculations and general indifference, the endless variety of sects and parties, and the "envying, strife, and divisions" which immediately rise up to view, will dictate such an account as the sincere Christian must be ashamed to repeat, and grieved to contemplate. It is in the "old paths," marked out by our Lord, trodden by his apostles, and frequented by the faithful in the purest ages, in which I am told to seek for rest to my soul, and in which I am assured that I shall find it (Jer. vi. 16).
Q.-But may not newer ways, equally good and equally safe, be found? In other words, may there not be many ways through this world, yet all leading directly to heaven?
A.-When the people of the Lord marched through the wilderness, they were told of the rich inheritance that lay before them; but they were not permitted to take the way thither which might have appeared to themselves as the best and shortest: they were to pursue that one route which God himself pointed out, and not impiously to suppose that others nearer or better might be found. Nearer roads they might have found; but in these will any one venture to say that the presence of the Lord would have directed their steps, or that by them they would have found ready access to the promised land? In like manner we know of our inheritance only by report, the report of him who has purchased it for us; and we must submit to be proved, and to be led thither in the way of God's appointment, and not in that which to ourselves might appear shorter or better. We cannot even tell why it should be necessary to try us at all, nor can we say what the particular purpose of many temptations to which we are exposed may be; but this we know, that every one is to be made perfect through sufferings of some kind (Heb. ii. 10; 1 Pet. iv. 13), and his fidelity put to the test by trials of some description. Under such circumstances, strict adherence to the path in which God leads us on is the only safe course. If there are nearer or easier roads to heaven, it is doubtful whether the divine Presence watches over them. But that there are any such paths is merely matter of unauthorized conjecture. Our blessed Lord speaks of only one way; and this he describes as both narrow and straight. Our whole Christian course is just as mysterious as that of the Israelites through the wilderness. We must follow the path which the Lord points out, and not venture into bye-ways of our own choosing; for, although new ways may appear plain and safe, it is only in the old narrow path where we are assured of finding rest for our souls. Ways of men's choosing may, peradventure, lead to
heaven; but of this we have no assurance: that narrow path, for which we are commanded to ask, and in which we are advised to walk, is that alone with which any sure promise is connected. Every doctrine and ordinance of our blessed Lord and his holy apostles must, on this account, command the utmost respect of all who are willing to be led onward by the Spirit of God, through this wilderness of probation to that glorious inheritance which is promised to the faithful. Thus, I cannot listen to the common saying, that "there are many paths to heaven :" the word of God speaks but of one; and, although this may turn and wind in directions contrary to what some might suppose to be the best, yet I have full confidence in him who leads the way; and, therefore, how mysterious soever it may be, how humiliating soever to presuming reason, how contrary soever to popular opinion, how condemnatory soever of prevalent practice, this one way of God, narrow and strait though it be, is that which I must prefer as safer and surer than any of the thousand ways of human device. To those who prefer these ways I can have nothing to object; but I dare not go along with them: I dare not trust myself to these new paths, crowded though they be. Glad shall I be, yea, sincerely glad, if they lead to heaven; and in charity I am bound to hope that they may do so; but, as an episcopalian, I'must venerate the old paths, where is the good way"-paths distinctly known by the unchanging and unchangeable marks of truth. The pillar of the Lord conducted his people through the desert: "the pillar of the truth" (1 Tim. iii. 15) will still lead on the hosts of God to their home and their inherit
memorated under the latter and more perfect economy. It is, therefore, false to say that there are no specific rules in the sacred record concerning the exact form and constitution of the church of God. The bible, even the whole bible, is the great depository of theology and ecclesiastical history; and to this, in its true and catholic sense, the episcopalian has recourse when he makes inquiry concerning the foundation of the system of doctrine, the means of grace, and the constitution of the church, which he ought to venerate and support. He does not feel himself at liberty to do as many do-appeal to the bible, and then, when the bible is taken as the rule, object to such parts of it as are hostile to pecular notions and newly-invented systems, and rashly assert that what God revealed concerning his church under the Mosaic economy has little or nothing to do with its constitution, doctrines, and ordinances, under the Christian dispensation. But "God is not a man, that he should lie;" and the faithful member of his church cannot venture to imitate those who thus foolishly attempt to mould the everlasting word of God to the form of their own crude inventions, and boldly endeavour to support their cause by inducing men to believe that the older testament may be thrown away. They, who are at liberty to appeal to the whole of the sacred record, will not be surprised that the apostles do not give a definite outline of the foundations of the church this had been done by Moses. Our Lord carefully instructed his apostles concerning the things which pertained to his church, and by his example showed them how the sacred edifice was to be reared. This church they established whithersoever they went; and it ought to be remembered that their writings were not intended to instruct men concerning the form in which the sacred edifice was to be built, but to admonish them to abide in the communion of that church whose foundations had been laid, or to reprove them for interfering with its already established doctrines and economy. The apostles and their successors, to the end of time, are the builders of the church (Eph. A. Such an opinion cannot be entertained for iv. 11, 12; 1 Cor. iii. 10, &c.). The outline of a single moment by one who has right notions of the building is already defined in the Old Testathe divine word. If men take the whole word of ment, and directions for its greater extent are conGod as their guide, and not impiously tear asunder tained in the New. Hence the rule to be observed the Old and the New Testaments, they will find by the faithful builder is in these words: "Let no difficulty in determining the exact form and every man take heed how he buildeth upon the constitution of the church of God. In the Old foundation already laid; for other foundation can no Testament the ground is clearly marked out and man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ" the boundary distinctly defined: the statutes, the (1 Cor. iii. 10, &c.). The apostolic epistles, thereofferings, the sacrifices, the priesthood in its three-fore, speak not of the foundation, but of the danger fold order, are all appointed, appointed by an ordinance for ever. On the foundation thus defined, our blessed Lord erected his church. In many respects the types of the law were fulfilled in Christ, and therefore its ceremonies were discontinued; but the doctrines and laws of the typical economy in every tittle, the sacraments no longer typical but commemorative, the priesthood changed from the house of Aaron, but still preserved in its true character, were each and all continued in the church. God is the same yesterday, to-day, and for ever; and his church, since its foundations were laid on the Rock of Ages, has undergone no greater change than from the shadow to the reality. The self-same events that were prefigured under the former dispensation are com
Q.-But it is a prevalent opinion that the sacred scriptures contain no specific rules concerning the exact form in which the church of Christ is to be built; is there then not a latitude given to individuals, or sects, to rear up the spiritual building according to any plan most suited to their own fancy, or to the circumstances amid which they may chance to be placed?
of separating from that church which was already established (St. Jude ii., &c.), or of the duty of adhering to the "one body," and the "one faith," into which they had already been admitted by "one baptism" (Eph. iv. 4, &c.). The word of God, therefore, gives no latitude to individuals or sects, who have not the Redeemer's commission, to constitute themselves into builders of his church. No man has an inherent power to lay a single stone in the spiritual building; in other words, no man can, on his own authority, introduce a single child of fallen Adam into the holy family of God. The Son of God alone can do this, and they to whom he has delegated his power. Individuals or sects may, like the men of Shinar, rear up buildings according to any plan most agreeable to their