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so by the obedience of one shall many be| CATECHISM OF THE ANCIENT VAUDESE, made righteous."

Thanks be to God, what mighty consolation is there in various blessed promises to the wearied soul of man! O, how sure and

stedfast is this anchor to the soul amidst the

many storms of temptation to which we are hourly exposed, and which we, if unassisted, could never overcome! Like the vessel which wafted the apostle to the Roman shores, we may be tossed and tempest-driven; the sails may be rent, and the rudder gone, neither sun nor stars in many days appearing; in other words, all earthly hopes may be darkened and destroyed; but still there is a Pilot, who can and will conduct us safely through this stormy deep, safe to the haven whither we would wish to steer. Yes; it is my pleasing duty to address you in the language of the same apostle, and declare, "There shall be no loss of any man's life among you, if ye abide in the ship;" if ye only continue in the ark of Christ's church, casting all hopes and cares on him, who rules the storm, and rescues all who look to him for help. "Fear not," he says, "I am the first and the last: I am he that liveth, and was dead; and behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death."

Finally, brethren, you are all, as sinners, in imminent danger. A subtle enemy is ever close hand. A fearful hell is prepared for those at whom he can deceive. Death is rapidly approaching, to transfer you, it may be, to Satan's eternal keeping. O, will you not, then, listen to an invitation, which can protect you from all evil, and prevent every harm? May God give you grace to hearken to his voice of mercy! May God's Spirit impart to you, for time and eternity, the full and unchanging consolations which belong to such pro

mises as these: "Heaven and earth shall pass away; but my words shall not pass away;" and, "Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved."

And now, brethren, let all glory be ascribed to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost, three Persons in one Godhead, as it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.


No. 1.

(From a M.S. bearing the date of the year 1100)*. CHAP. I.

PASTOR.-If thou art asked, Who art thou?

Child.-A creature of God, and mortal.
P.-Why did God create thee?

C.-That I should know him as he is, and wor-
be saved.
ship him, and that, having grace of him, I should

P.-Wherein doth thy salvation consist? C. In three essential virtues, necessarily belonging to salvation.

P.-Which are they?

C.-Faith, hope, and charity.
P.-How canst thou prove this?

abideth faith, hope, and charity, these three."
C.-The apostle writes, in 1 Cor. xiii., "Now

P.-What is faith?

C.-According to the apostle, in Hebrews xi., it is the substance (representation) of things hoped for, and the evidence of things not seen (or which do not show themselves).

P.-How many kinds of faith are there?
C.-Two kinds; namely, living and dead.
P.-What is a living faith?

C.-That which works by charity.
P.-What is a dead faith?

C.-According to St. James, "Faith, if it hath not works, is dead." And again, "Faith is nothing without works." Or it may be said, that is a dead faith which believes that there is a God, has a belief of God, but believes not in God.


P. Of what faith art thou?



Of the true catholic (universal) apostolical

P.-What is that?

C. It is the faith which, according to the teaching of the apostles, is divided into twelve


P.-What is that teaching?

C.-"I believe in God the Father Almighty" (repeating the apostles' creed).

P.-How canst thou know that thou believest in God?

C.-By this: that I know and keep God's commandments.

P.-How many be there of God's command


P.-Ten, as are seen in Exodus and Deuteronomy.

P.-Which are they?

C.-"Hear, O Israel, the Lord thy God. Thou shalt have none other gods before me. Thou shalt not make thee any graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above," &c. (repeating Deut. v. 7-21 inclusive).

P.-To what form may these commandments be reduced (or made to depend)?

Eighty years, therefore, before the appearance of Peter of Lyons, commonly called "Peter Waldo." Long before the times of that celebrated evangelist-preacher, the Vaudese were known by this name, which is derived from "vaudes," a

word in the Romana tongue, signifying "sorcerer, or witch" (Monastier's "History of the Vaudese Church").

C.-Unto two great commandments; that is to say, Love God above all things, and thy neighbour as thyself.


P.-What is the foundation of these commandments, by which every one should enter into life, and without which none can worthily keep (or follow), or fulfil the commandments?

C.-Our Lord Jesus Christ, of whom the apostle saith in I Cor. iii. 11, "Other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ." P. By what means can a man attain to this foundation?

C.-By faith; as St. Peter saith, "Behold, I lay in Sion a chief corner-stone, elect, precious; and he that believeth on him shall not be confounded." And our Lord saith, "He that believeth on me hath everlasting life."

P.-How canst thou know that thou believest? C.-By this; that I know him to be very God and very man, who was born, and suffered, &c., for my redemption and for my justification, &c.; that I love him, and desire to keep his command


P.-By what things (or means) can we attain to the essential virtues; that is to say, faith, hope, and charity?

C.-By the gifts of the Holy Spirit.

P.-Dost thou believe in the Holy Spirit? C.-I do believe in the same. For the Holy Spirit, proceeding from the Father and the Son, is a divine Person of the Trinity, and in respect to his divinity is equal to the Father and the Son. P.-Thou believest in God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost, namely, in three Persons; therefore thou hast three Gods?

C.-I have not three Gods.

P.-Notwithstanding thou hast named three? C.-That is true as it respecteth the difference (or distinction) of Persons, but not as it respecteth the essence of the Godhead. For though it may be there are three Persons, they are but one in



P.-How (or in what manner) dost thou worship and serve this God, in whom thou believest? C.-I worship him with adoration, both outward and inward; outwardly, by bending my knees, raising my hands, and bowing down my body, by hymns and spiritual songs, fastings and invocations; but inwardly (I worship him) by pious affection, a will prepared to perform whatsoever shall please him; and I serve him by faith, hope, and charity, according to his command


P.-Dost thou worship any other thing, and serve it, as thou dost God? C.-No.


C.-By reason of the commandment, which he hath given, saying expressly, "Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve." And again: "I will not give my glory to another." And again: "I am alive, saith the Lord; and unto me every knee shall bow." And Jesus Christ saith, "He that worshippeth him must worship him in spirit and in truth." The angel would not receive worship from St. John, neither Peter from Cornelius.

P.-After what manner prayest thou?

C.-I pray (by repeating) the prayer taught by the Son of God, saying, "Our Father, which art in heaven," &c.

P.-What is the other essential virtue that appertaineth necessarily to salvation? C.-Charity.

P.-What is (or of what nature is) charity? C.-It is a gift of the Holy Ghost, by which the soul is formed anew in its will, and enlightened by faith; by the which faith I believe all things which ought to be believed (and I hope for all things which ought to be hoped for). H. S.




Incumbent of Butley, Suffolk.
No. II.

EDWARD White.-I hope, James, that you are not very busy this evening; for, if you are at liberty, I shall be very glad to have a little more conversation with you on the subject we were before talking about.

James Dowell.—I am quite at your service, Edward. We were examining some parts of the prayer-book when you were last at my cottage, in order to see whether the accusation was just, that the clergy of the church of England, or, at least, some of them, do not preach the gospel. I then showed you that, however unworthy or incompetent some of the clergy might be found, they are all obliged to proclaim the truths of the gospel while they are in the reading-desk. The people need not, therefore, go empty away, even when they are so unfortunate as to be placed under an unfaithful pastor. At the commencement of divine service, the attention of the congregation is called to several important doctrines; such as the sinfulness of man by nature; the necessity of repentance and faith; the mercy of God, through Christ, to all who truly repent, and unfeignedly believe the gospel; the operation of the Holy Spirit, &c. Our wants are shown; and we are also directed to him who can abundantly supply them. The disease with which the human race is deeply infected is plainly declared; and, at the same time, we are urged to apply to that divine Physician who is ready and willing to give spiritual health to all that come to him. After proclaiming these important truths to the congregation, the minister exhorts us to pray for true repentance and God's Holy Spirit; that we may live soberly, righteously, and piously in this present world, and be preparing for a heavenly inheritance. And he tells us that all these benefits, pertaining both to this world and to that which is to come, are to be obtained only through Jesus Christ our Lord. Is not this publishing, or preaching, the gospel?

E. W.-Yes, no doubt it is: but men have need of more plain and particular instructions. J. D.-Nothing, surely, can be plainer than

the language of our prayer-book. Considering that it was compiled about three hundred years ago, it is astonishing how few expressions, or even words, are to be found in it that are above the understanding of the people. And it is so truly scriptural in all its doctrines, contains so many plain statements of the way of salvation, inculcates so strongly the utter helplessness of man as to spiritual things, and the consequent necessity of his receiving the aid of the Holy Spirit to cleanse and purify his heart: it has such a tendency to humble the sinner and to exalt the Saviour, and to promote that holiness of life, without which we cannot please God, that no one who pays common attention to what the minister teaches from the reading-desk alone can justly assert that he has not heard the gospel. With regard to your observation, that more particular instructions are necessary than those which our church provides in her liturgy, I can only say that, if men are not instructed by the numerous plain and important truths which are embodied in that excellent book; if they hear to no good purpose the lessons from the Old and New Testaments, which are read whenever our churches are opened for public worship, it cannot be expected that they would be really edified by the preaching of any minister, however eminent he might be for his talents, piety, zeal, and eloquence. If they hear not Moses and the prophets; if they are unmoved by the preaching of Jesus Christ and his evangelists and apostles, can we, without presumption, anticipate that they will receive any good and lasting impressions from the words of an uninspired preacher?

E. W.-Do you then consider, James, that preaching is useless?

J. D.-By no means. Preaching is a powerful instrument, under the divine blessing, to "bring men from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God." But it ought not to be exalted above the other means of grace. I would not have people consider, as is too much the practice, the sermon as the chief thing, and the prayers as a very inferior portion of the service. It is this grievous error which renders the sermon often unprofitable. The heart should be prepared for the hearing of the word by prayer; and we ought to consider it a great privilege to be permitted to enter, as it were, the presence-chamber of the Most High, and offer up our requests and petitions. If we do not value this privilege, let us not expect that the words of a feeble mortal, like ourselves, will be profitable to our souls. We neglect to seek that which alone can render preaching effectual, the blessing of God; and, therefore, we need not wonder that the word preached falls like seed upon an unprepared soil.

E. W.-When I said that more plain instructions than those contained in the prayer-book were necessary, I was thinking of some churchgoers of my acquaintance, who seem to consider that, as they do no wrong to any body, but are honest in their dealings, sober, industrious, and peaceable in their conduct, they are deserving of heaven. Does not the church fail in her duty when she neglects to point out such errors?

J. D.-Here again, Edward, you are bringing an unjust accusation against our church. If any of her ministers were to sanction, or even to pass over without notice, in their sermons, such an error as

this, the church is not in fault. She clearly and frequently directs the view of her members to man's total unworthiness of God's favour, and teaches that the very best of them are unprofitable servants, and that they can be accepted only through the worthiness of Jesus Christ. The sentences at the commencement of the service, the exhortation, the confession, and the absolution, plainly teach this great truth. Observe, also, that, when notice is given for the celebration of the Lord's supper, it is expressly stated that this solemn ordinance is to be received in remembrance of "Christ's meritorious cross and passion, whereby alone"-not by our sufferings or good deeds-" we obtain remission of our sins, and are made partakers of the kingdom of heaven." And, during the celebration of the Lord's supper, the minister says, in the name of all the communicants: "We do not presume to come to this thy table, O merciful Lord, trusting in our own righteousness, but in thy manifold and great mercies. We are not worthy so much as to gather up the crumbs under thy table," &c. In the collect for Sexagesima Sunday we pray: "O Lord God, who seest that we put not our trust in any thing that we do, mercifully grant that by thy power we may be defended against all adversity, through Jesus Christ our Lord." The same acknowledgment of our dependence upon the grace of God for power to glorify his name is made in the following prayer, which you will find at the end of the communion service: "Prevent (or, go before) us, O Lord, in all our doings, with thy most gracious favour, and further us with thy continual help; that in all our works, begun, continued, and ended in thee, we may glorify thy holy name," &c. I might point out many other passages from the prayer-book, which are totally opposed to a pharisaical, or selfrighteous spirit; but these are enough to show you how groundless is this charge which you bring against our church. Some persons will misunderstand the best instructions; but it is surely unjust and uncharitable to accuse either the church, of which they may be members, or the clergy, in whose flock they may be found, of sanctioning their errors.

E. W.-But, if the clergy were all converted men, their hearers would not be likely to hold such unscriptural opinions as I have just noticed, and much more good might be done by their labours.

J. D.-Did none of those who heard the preaching of the aptles hold false opinions? Nay, did not many, o heard the doctrines of the gospel from Christ himself, still continue in their errors? We need not, then, doubt that, if all the clergy were as well qualified as the apostles, and, like them, under the continual teaching and guidance of the Holy Spirit, multitudes would still be found to disregard their exhortations and instructions. As to the conversion or unconversion of our ministers, that is a matter on which we are not called upon to decide. And it is well that we are not; for, unless we could read the heart, it would be rash and presumptuous in us to say who are and who are not converted characters. We might consider one minister as truly a man of God because he has great talents and commanding eloquence, when perhaps, in the sight of him who searcheth the heart, he is

no more than "sounding brass or a tinkling cymbal." We might suppose that another is unconverted because the manner or the matter of his preaching does not please us, who may nevertheless be both a righteous man himself and a chosen instrument to turn many to righteousness. I cannot but think, Edward, that it is our wisest plan rather to try and examine ourselves, whether we have been renewed in the spirit of our minds, than to busy ourselves in prying into the spiritual state of our ministers. Let us remember who hath said, “Judge not, and ye shall not be judged condemn not, and ye shall not be condemned." Instead then of curiously inquiring into the spiritual condition of our ministers, let us charitably hope that they are sincere and faithful servants of Jesus Christ; but, if the conduct of any clergyman be too manifestly evil to allow us to indulge this charitable hope, let us still bear in mind that our church is not to blame, since she has provided a remedy in such unhappy cases, as I have before observed. Let us be careful to pray for our ministers, that they may have "the tongue of the learned, and know how to speak a word in season" to every individual of their flock; and let us pray for ourselves, that we may have wise and understanding hearts, so as to "receive with meekness that engrafted word which is able to save" (our) "souls." Whenever you feel inclined to forsake your church because you see, or fancy you see, something wrong or inconsistent in the life and conversation of your minister, reflect upon these words of our blessed Saviour: "The Scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat; all, therefore, whatsoever they bid you observe, that observe and do. But do not ye after their works; for they say, and do not" (Matt. xxiii. 2, 3). It is plain, from the language used by Christ towards these teachers, that they were much worse characters than any clergyman, who would be allowed to minister in our church, can be; and yet our Lord does not tell the people to withdraw from their instructions, still less to separate from the church in which they have been nourished and brought up. The ministers, you are aware, are merely instruments for conveying God's message to the people. The efficacy of their preaching depends not upon the worthiness of the men, but upon the blessing of God; and that blessing will be given to the devout and faithful worshipper and hearer, notwithstanding any unworthiness in the minister.

That pious and amiable nonconformist, Philip Henry, used to attend his parish church after he was forbidden by law to preach; and he was accustomed to say: "It is a mercy that we have bread, though it be not, as it hath been, of the finest wheat. Those are froward children, who throw away the meat they have, if it be wholesome, because they have not what they would have." But, if it be our duty to hearken to those who "sit in Moses' seat," if we ought to frequent the church, where we are sure to hear the words of Moses and the prophets, and the apostles, and of Christ himself-if we ought to do this, although the minister under whom we happen to be placed does not live so soberly, righteously, and godly as he ought to do, how much stronger is our obligation to attend to the instructions of the minister whom the providence of God has set

over us, when no complaint can justly be preferred against him! Yet, however anxious a clergyman may be to discharge his duty faithfully, however sincere and diligent in his endeavours to be a workman that "needs not to be ashamed," however laborious in searching the scriptures, that he may "bring out of his treasure things new and old" for the edification of his flock, and however circumspect he may be in his life and conversation, how often is it found that some of those who have been committed to his charge are dissatisfied! When, under such circumstances, they will run after new teachers, or listen to new doctrines, or prefer new modes of worship, there is no good reason to expect that any lasting benefit will be the consequence. Their "itching ears" may perhaps be gratified, their heads may become filled with certain religious notions, and their tongues may give utterance to pious phrases and expressions; but we can hardly hope that their hearts and lives will be any better. It is not the speaking the language of Zion, but having the face turned towards Zion, and actually walking in the way to it, that will bring a man to the promised inheritance.

E. W.-You have quite convinced me, James, that I was very wrong in forsaking my church, even for a short time: I ought to have known better; and, if I had only considered what had been the effect of indulging "itching ears" in some of my acquaintance, I should surely never have ventured to make so dangerous an experiment. I happen to know three or four persons who could not rest satisfied under the ministry of their own pious and judicious rector, but would frequently wander to different places of worship. Their minds became so unsettled, and at length so indifferent, that they ceased altogether to attend the means of grace. But I intend from this time to keep to my church and minister; for, to tell you the truth, James, I never felt quite easy in my mind while I was, like a sheep, straying from the fold provided for me; and often would these texts come into my head, and convict me of disobedience to the command, and of ingratitude for the goodness of my God, who has cast my lot in a country where a scriptural church has been established. "We beseech you, brethren, to know them which labour among you, and are over you in the Lord, and admonish you; and to esteem them very highly in love for their work's sake" (1 Thess. v. 12, 13). "Obey them that have the rule over you, and submit yourselves; for they watch for your souls as they that must give account, that they may do it with joy, and not with grief; for that is unprofitable for you" (Hebrews xiii. 17).

J. D.-If you go to church, Edward, in a right spirit, there is no doubt but that you will receive good to your soul from your attendance. The sober, rational, scriptural, and truly devotional formularies of our church, afford advantages to the sincere and faithful worshipper, which, as I have before observed, you cannot hope to find in other places. Only remember to seek God's blessing earnestly before and while using the means of grace which are so abundantly supplied to you: "keep thy heart with all diligence:" "be swift to hear, slow to speak, slow to wrath;" and let it be your continual prayer and endeavour

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CAPITAL.-I know that there are some who think that, if all the land in the kingdom were equally divided amongst us, we should all be very comfortable and well off. Well, then, I will try to show you that, if some were not rich, all would be very badly off. Now, suppose all the land had been divided equally amongst us fifty years ago, and that by each man's cultivating it for himself we had been able to grow food enough for everybody (but this I very much doubt, for many reasons which we have not time now to talk about); but suppose the land had grown enough then to feed us all, yet, as the island we live in is no bigger now than it was then, how should we manage now, when there are more than twice as many mouths to feed as there were then? And even if it grew enough now, how should we manage next year, when there will probably be three or four hundred thousand more mouths to feed? or ten years hence, when there will be three or four millions more to feed (for this is the actual rate at which our numbers are increasing every year) while our land remains the same? "But how then," you will ask, "do we actually manage to feed them all now ?" Why, not always quite so well as we could wish; but I will tell you how we manage to do it all, it is simply by means of capital; that is, by means of the money which rich people have saved up, and without which we should be miserably off indeed. And I will now try to show you how this is done. It is by means of money that people are able to till and manure the ground so that it shall produce a great deal more than it did before-enough to feed all the fresh mouths that want feeding; or, if we cannot grow enough ourselves, then to buy corn from other countries to feed them with. But how would people who have got this money be persuaded to lay it out in tilling the land, unless they could sell the corn when they had grown it? And how can they sell the corn unless the people who are to be fed have got money to buy it with? And how are the great body of the people (who have nothing but their labour to live by) to get money to buy it with unless they have got employment? And, as the land cannot employ three or four hundred thousand more people every year, how are all to get employment as our numbers increase? I will tell you how it is by means of capital; for it is by means of those large sums of money which "the rich" have got together (some by their own industry and cleverness and frugality, some by that of their fathers or relations who are dead and gone), it is with this money, which we call capital, that people build large manufactories, powerful steam-engines, wellcontrived and useful machines (which eat very little in proportion to the work they do), by the help of all which the manufacturer of woollen goods, and cotton goods, and hardware, and earthenware, and many other things besides, is able to make and sell

his goods and wares at such a low price that foreigners, people living in other countries, many of them living in the most distant parts of the world, find it worth while to come to England for many of the things that they are in want of, and that we make; and then, with the money which foreigners pay to our merchants and manufacturers for these things, our manufacturers pay the wages of the workman who made them. Some of you indeed, I believe, think it would be better if there were no machinery, and that then there would be more employment for workmen. This is, perhaps, partly true; because what now, by the help of machinery, is done by one man, would then want two men to do it. But where are the wages to come from? Because, if it took two men deal dearer; and, if they were a great deal dearer, to do what one can now do, things would be a great foreigners would not come from other countries to buy them; and, if they would not buy them, the manufacturerer would not get any of the money of these foreigners, as he does now, and out of which he pays part of the wages of his workmen.— From An Address to the Working Classes.

THE ROMISH CHURCH.-In Roman catholic countries religion appears to be entirely an affair of the clergy and the vulgar. The educated classes, at least such among them as are educated to think, are, with some few exceptions, altogether indifferent to this vital essential, unless it be, as far as it is their policy, to impress their inferiors with its importance. Nor can this at all excite astonishment, since it is hardly possible that a thinking man should not be staggered at the palpable absurdities of Romanism, even in its mildest form, and secretly despise what may not always be safe or prudent openly to impuga. I do not dispute that there have been in the Roman church exemplary Christians, who have done honour to it and human nature, and passed their lives with the purity of saints, and sustained its trials; still the virtues of individuals, however eminent they may be, do not atone for the vices, the errors, and corruptions of a system. The extravagances of that system have been too frequently and too ably exposed to render it necessary more than merely to hint at these. Look at saint worship, relic worship, priest worship, image worship, the spells of paternosters, genuflexion, tapers, processions, confessions, the imputed authority of childish legends and ridiculous tales, and priests holding up, with their back turned to spectators in church, a wafer, holding a language none can understand; and to these, and many others I could name, bones of persons called saints, wrapped in old rags under glass and unnatural celibacy of the professed religious of cases, adorned as precious relics; add also the forced both sexes, with the consequent violation of their Vows. In short, if other accusations were wanting, they are readily furnished against a church which prohibits the exercise of reason and rational inquiry in matters of religion, proscribing even doubt as heresy, and whose primary object of a church has secular power. This may be stigmatized as unever been to render religious authority the means of charitable tirade; yet wherefore should the most arbitrary and intolerant of all creeds expect others to exercise that charity towards it which it denies to the to itself by actual coercion?-Rae Wilson's Travels. rest of the world, and which would compel obedience

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