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least doubt that he has impugned them over and over again. My reason for this opinion is, that I do not believe that any two clergymen in this kingdom agree in their exposition of the articles; and if Mr. Cler. Dunelm differs in any one point he hath as much forfeited his trust, as much violated his solemn pledge as Mr. Stone. I put it solemnly to the conscience of Mr. Cler. Dunelm, whether he is not

who had forfeited his trust." Againt this assertion I enter my protest, I do assert, that neither the bishop of Lincoln nor Mr. Stone, though both impugners of the articles, have violated their trust, or done any thing more than what they solemnly covenanted to do, when in the sight of God and the church they vowed to teach and preach according to the scriptures. It is of importance that this question should be settled. Mr. as guilty as Mr. Stone; and in the

Stone and the Bishop of Lincoln day when the secrets of all hearts have impugned the articles; the are to be revealed, an appeal to one in a sermon, the other in a the authority of the thirty-nine publication. But has not Mr. articles, will be treated with the Cler. Dunelm ever impugned the contempt it deserves. articles? I never read or heard any of his sermons: but I have not the




To the Editor of the Monthly Repository.

Permit me, through the medium nishments. Translated from the of your excellent publication, to French of Petitpierre." It abounds call the attention of your readers' with such excellent remarks on to a book which is not sufficiently the divine goodness, that I am perknown in the religious world. It suaded not any person who will is entitled" Thoughts on the divine read it with attention but will be goodness relative to the government sorry he had not known it sooner. of moral agents, particularly disI am, Sir, yours, played in future rewards and pu OMICRON


The Monthly Reviewers in their of which every man possesses a remarks on a work lately published portion, is superior to the scrip by the Rev. Mr. Clarkson, enti- tures, inasmuch as the one is pri tled " A Portraiture of Quake. mary and the other merely secon rism," having briefly opposed dary; has induced one of their that peculiar opinion of the friends under the signature of Quakers which asserts that the "Philo" to transmit to the re* inward light" or " divine spirit" viewers a paper tending to eluci

date the subject, and which was them from a lapse of time become. inserted in the "Correspondence" quite obsolete; this comparison for the month of July. An opi- goes in these instances to destroy nion so singular and extraordinary the infallibility and permanency impressed the mind of the present of the scriptures, by making the writer, who communicated to former subject to a revision by those gentlemen a few ideas which "human reason," and the latter suggested themselves in reply to to a revision by the " inward light,”. the logical arguments of Philo, or "divine spirit;" neither does, and although the nature of their the analogy hold good with respect publication did not admit a pro- to the doctrinal parts of Christilongation of the argument, through anity, for though it is true that that channel, yet the favourable "the laws" have their origin in opinion they were pleased to ex- "human reason," and by human press of that communication, to- reason are comprehended and apgether with the magnitude of the plied, yet it surely will not be consubject to the Christian world in tended by Pbilo, nor is it to be general, has induced him in as found in Barclay that the doctrinal concise a manner as possible, to parts of Christianity exist inhe lay before the readers of the rently in what the Quakers call Monthly Repository those argue the "inward light," independent ments which appear to militate of the scriptures and the informa against the adoption of such a doc- tion therein contained. trine.

The fairest way of investigating The belief of the Quakers in the the subject now under discussion, superiority of the "inward light" is to consider the effect which a geor "divine spirit" over the scrip- neral assent to this opinion would tures, which it is the aim of Philo most probably produce among the to elucidate and inculcate, is thus various sects professing Christiaexpressed by Barclay. "The spirit, nity; because it not unfrequently and not the scriptures, is the foun- happens that certain principles may dation and ground of all truth and be advanced and acted upon by a knowledge, and the primary rule limited number of individuals of faith and manners." To place whose habits and modes of think this matter in a clearer point of ing are adapted thereto, whereas if view, Philo has thought fit to bring those principles were brought forforward the operation of reason on ward in order to be acted upon those laws by which mankind are generally and universally, they governed and regulated as analo- would, from the very nature of gous to the "inward light" or them,in all probability, fall to the "divine spirit," and the scriptures; ground. The Christian world may and in so doing he has perhaps perhaps with propriety be comgiven as acute an illustration of prized under two distinct classes: that peculiar opinion as the na- the one, and by far the most nuture of the case will admit: he merous, are those who from early should however recollect that as education, (and even among the. the laws frequently undergo an Quakers this sort of hereditary, alteration to suit particular periods faith is not unfrequently found to and circumstances, and some of exist,) from serious investigation

and other circumstances, are at- istence of an inward and superior tached to, and prejudiced in fa- light be generally admitted, it must vour of some particular sect or of necessity tend, as before observ. persuasion; and the other consists ed, to aggravate rather than to reof those whose minds are as yet concile their difference of opinion, undecided, and who have not so and instead of referring as formerly maturely considered the doctrinal to the scriptures, the principal parts of Christianity as to become question would be, as to which the absolute members of any parti- of the controverting parties the cular society. greatest share of the divine Taking it therefore for granted, spirit" was imparted, and this consistently with the opinion of single point being once Barclay and of Philo, that all tained, though in imagination mankind possess inherently a por- only, all other arguments would tion of this "inward light" or naturally fall to the ground.

divine spirit," the effect produced With regard to that denominaby a general coincidence in this tion of Christians whose minds opinion would be that of rivetting are not yet settled respecting the each particular sect more firmly doctrinal parts of scripture, the in their various tenets, many of effect of a belief in the superiority which are in direct opposition to of an "inward light," would in cach other; because each sec- all probability prevent them from tarist supposing himself to be under investigating those abstruse and the influence and teaching of the contradictory passages of scripture, "divine spirit," and having this which appear calculated to harass superior tribunal to apply to in all and perplex, but without which cases of difficulty, would be more investigation the doctrinal parts of than ever convinced of the truth of Christianity can never be discohis separate doctrine, and in pro- vered and arranged so as to form portion to his zeal and diligence in a system, or "a rule” either“ of searching the scriptures, so would faith," or "of manners.” this confidence naturally be. In- persons would not feel themselves stead therefore of uniting the under the necessity of believing various professors of Christianity more than appeared to them to be more closely together, the effect true, or of embracing opinions not would be diametrically opposite; thoroughly understood and comand to use the words of Barclay, prehended by their "inward they would be continually buffetting one another with the scriptures; concerning one verse of which scarce two can be found to agree."


It may likewise be observed, that hitherto the Calvinist and the Arminian havevindicated the truth of their separate doctrines, and combated the errors of each other by arguments drawn solely from the scriptures, but should the ex

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Philo must forgive the writer if he should have the presumption to doubt altogether the existence of this inward light," or "divine spirit,” as inherent in the mind of man, and it would be a difficult matter for him to demonstrate clearly, and to distinguish accurately between what he calls the "inward light," and those reasoning faculties which the Supreme


press those ideas which presented Having thus endeavoured to ex

Being has implanted in the human the Quakers, it certainly gives mind on the one hand, and between them a privilege and advantage bethe "inward light" of the Quakers, yond every other sect professing and the enthusiasm of the various Christianity, and those abstruse sectarists on the other: but until and difficult passages of scripture this task shall be performe 1, it is which frequently torment and impossible that those who are ac- plex others, give to Philo and his customed to think for themselves friends no sort of uneasiness, beon all theological subjects, should cause they are Christians upon be brought to assent to the truth of better terms. what appears so very improbable and problematical, and rendered more so from that want of con- themselves to the mind of the formity in the religious opinions of writer during the investigation of mankind, which could not be the the subject, he earnestly hopes case if they were all taught by the that nothing has escaped him same teacher, and that teacher no which may in the remotest degree other than the "divine spirit," have a tendency to reflect on a class whose power and influence on the of men who are individually an human mind must of necessity honour to society, and who are, overcome all opposition, and im- upon that account, respected and press upon the heart of every indi- esteemed by no one more sincerely vidual one simple and uniform than truth.

As, however, this mode of think


ing is at present confined solely to Oct. 20th 1807.








If our blessed Saviour ever af- the most simple and intelligible fected obscurity in his discourses, terms. it was either when he was encoun- and chief priests, attempted often The scribes, pharisees, tered by captious and malicious to ensnare him in his discourse, persons, or when he had to deal by proposing questions to him, só with stupid, sensual, and incon- artfully contrived, that they imasiderate people, destitute of any gined, whatever answer he should real religious principles or love of make to them, would afford a goodness. But, when the well- pretence, either for accusing him disposed addressed to him sincere to the Roman governor of sedition inquiries after truth, and that dis against the government, and therecovery of it which God had sent by for getting him put to death him to publish to the world, he as a malefactor, or for exposing never failed to explain himself in him to a popular clamour and +

odium, as an enemy to the rights from foreign oppression, a restorer and privileges of the people, or a of their polity, a conqueror of the subverter of the sacred obligations gentile nations, and a prince who of the law of Moses, and thereby should rule over them for ever in effectually ruin that credit and in- great worldly power and grandeur, fluence which his doctrines, mira- and subject the nations to them. cles, and unblemished life, had pro- But they had no conception of cured over the generality. In such him as a divine instructor, who cases, his usual method was to was to establish the moral kingmanifest his own superior wisdom dom of God over mankind, in the by returning such answers to the universal obedience of his laws of questions proposed, as kept per righteousness, purity, and goodfectly clear of the snare laid for ness, or thought that he should him; and then to silence his ad- abolish the ceremonial part of versaries effectually by returning Moses's institution, and reform some other question upon them, and perfect the moral; much less, which they either could not or that he should be the common durst not answer, lest they should saviour of mankind from idolatry have involved themselves in the and wickedness, and their in very dilemma they had intended structor in true piety and unifor him. For examples of this, versal virtue. In short, the whole see 21st and 224 chapters of of their religion consisted in a Matthew, and 20th chapter of zealous attachment to certain preLuke. judices and erroneous opinions, On the other hand, a great and in the punctual observance of part of the common people who rites, ceremonies, and traditions, attended him, though they har- whilst they had little regard to boured no malicious intentions the genuine and substantial duties against him, yet were a thought- of religion; such as reverence, less, inconsiderate, and sensual, love, gratitude, submission, and race; strongly possessed with prejudices concerning the rights and privileges of the Jewish nation, as the seed of Abraham and God's peculiar people, and hence were full of contempt and aversion against all the rest of mankind. They were zealous for the law of Moses, as of sacred and perpetual obligation, and reverenced the rites and ceremonies of the law as the perfection of it, and of all human excellence, and the traditions of the elders as the infallible interpretation of the law. They were at this time full of expectations of the immediate appearance of the Messiah; but only under the notion of a deliverer of their nation

obedience to God, with a conscientious care to know and keep his commandments; little acquaintance with the nature, extent, and obligations, of moral duties, and less attention to practise them; but in fact allowed themselves, without scruple, in many acts of injustice and inhumanity, and indulged in many shameful sensualities.

An open

Now, in what manner must he, who came to seek and to save lost sinners, deal with persons of this temper and character? and direct attack upon their prejudices and errors would but have roused their passions, exasperated them against him as an enemy, and

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