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Homily proceeds to shew, that the faith which does not produce good works is dead; which would have been quite needless, if 'justification 'took place at baptism,' whether that of infants, 'who by reason of their tender age' cannot either believe or disbelieve; or that of adults, whether they do truly believe or not. our Articles and Homilies, with faith, and faith only.
The scriptures, and connect justification You have heard
'how we receive justification of him freely, with'out our deserts, through true and lively faith.' 2 And then, after two or three lines, follow the words, baptized or justified.' So far from meaning that the two words convey the same idea, the whole context shews that they were intended to distinguish the two; and to state that some are baptized who are not justified; but that even those who are justified must and will shew their faith and love by holiness and obedience. In respect of those who are baptized adult on a sincere profession of faith, they were "justified by faith previously to baptism; and it was to them (as circumcision to believing Abraham) "a seal of the
righteousness of the faith, which they had" yet being unbaptized. And as to all others, they can no more be said to be justified at the time of baptism, than the descendents of Abraham could be said to have been justified at the time of their circumcision. His Lordship, however, will shew in what follows, that he considers justification as connected (when Christians first find admission to the benefit of the Christian covenant,) with faith as
'Homily on Salvation, Part 3.
its condition; and therefore they who are baptized, but have not faith, cannot be justified when baptized, even by his own allowance.
'Calvin acknowledges that the word faith is ' used in scripture in various senses.'1
Calvin and Calvinists most readily acknowledge that faith is used in scripture in various senses: but in every sense, either a real or a feigned, an effectual or an ineffectual belief of some testimony of God, either received by immediate revelation, or by tradition, or by the written word, is spoken of; and believing a man's own reasonings or conjectures is not one of these senses. 2 But this subject has been already discussed. 3
St. Paul says, "Though I have all faith, and have not charity, I am nothing;" and to the Ephesians he says, By grace are ye saved through faith" in the former passage, faith is 'declared to be an useless qualification; in the latter, nothing less than the power of attaining 'eternal salvation is ascribed to it, through the grace of God. An useless faith, and a saving faith, cannot be the same; and consequently the word is used by this inspired writer in different C senses. The faith which a man may possess, and yet be "nothing," is a bare belief of the truth of 'the gospel, without any love or gratitude to God 'for the blessings it conveys, or any practical re
'Ref. 103, Note.
Ref. 102, Note.
On the case of approved characters before Christ, and on that of the Gentiles. Book I. c. i. § 3, 4.
"gard to the duties it enjoins. The faith which is the means of salvation is that belief of the 'truth of the gospel, which produces obedience to 'its precepts, and is accompanied by a firm re"liance upon the merits of Christ. That there is a species of faith which is of no value, we learn also from St. James: "Faith, if it hath not 'works, is dead, being alone."' 1
It is the general opinion of commentators, that the apostle, in the passage referred to 2 at the opening of this quotation, means by "faith," a special reliance on the promised power of God to enable a man to work miracles in the name of Christ; which it is clear some had who were destitute of that "faith which worketh by love." 'Our Saviour seems plainly to inform us that men might prophesy, and cast out devils, and do mighty works in his name, and yet be workers ' of iniquity, and persons whom he would not own ' at the last day.'3 In other respects the quotation expresses the sentiments of a great majority of Calvinists: especially this sentence; 'The faith 'which is the means of salvation is that belief of 'the truth of the Gospel, which produces obe'dience to its precepts, and is accompanied by a 'firm reliance on the merits of Christ.' To produce is very different from to contain, which many would substitute for it. Good works, which are the fruits of faith and follow after justification'do spring out necessarily of a true and lively faith, insomuch that a lively faith may be as evidently known by them, as a tree discerned by its
3 21 Cor. xiii. 2. Whitby on 1 Cor. xiii. 2.
'fruit.'' 'No man should think that he hath 'that lively faith which the scripture commandeth, 'when he liveth not obediently to God's laws; for 'all good works spring out of that faith.'2-An excellent passage is afterwards quoted in the Refutation from the same Homily, which needs not to be here reprinted, as the reader will do well carefully to peruse the whole in the Book of Homilies. If any of those who are called evangelical clergymen do not approve of this doctrine, thus stated from scripture and the authorized writings of our church; we who do (a very large majority) only request that we may not be confounded with them.
That faith, to which so many and
great things are ascribed in the New Testament, must by no ' means be taken for a single and simple virtue. For in its circuit it comprises all the works of 'Christian piety. But wherever it is taken for a ' work distinct by itself, and disjointed from all ' other virtues; so far is the Holy Spirit from as'cribing to it the first part, that it is placed by St. Paul himself after love, almost in the third place.' 3
passage from Bishop Bull exactly describes what we disapprove, as that before from the Refutation, what we approve. Faith produces,' says the author of the Refutation; Faith comprises,' says Bishop Bull. The former we maintain; the latter we wholly reject, as inconsistent with "sal
1 Art. xii.
2 Homily of Faith, Part 3.
Translation of Note from Bp. Bull, Ref. 105.
"vation of grace," and justification by faith alone. 'St. Paul declareth here nothing upon the behalf ' of man concerning his justification, but only a 'true and lively faith; which nevertheless is the
gift of God, and not man's only work without 'God. And yet that faith doth not shut out repentance, hope, love, dread, and the fear of God, to be joined with faith in every man that is justified; but it shutteth them out from the office ' of justifying. So that, although they be all pre'sent together in him that is justified, yet they. justify not altogether. Neither doth faith shut ' out the justice of our good works, necessarily to 'be done afterwards, of duty towards God: (for we are most bounden to serve God, in doing good deeds, commanded by him in his holy scripture, all the days of our life) but it ex'cludeth them, so that we may not do them to 'this intent, to be made just by doing of them. For all the good works that we can do be imper
fect, and therefore not able to deserve our justi'cation: but our justification doth come freely by 'the mere mercy of God; and of so great and free
mercy, that, whereas all the world was not able ' of themselves to pay any part towards their ransom, it pleased our heavenly Father, of his in'finite mercy, without any of our desert or deserving, to prepare for us the most precious jewels of Christ's body and blood, whereby our "ransom might be fully paid, the law fulfilled, and 'his justice fully satisfied. So that Christ is now 'the Righteousness of all them that truly do believe in him. He for them paid their ransom by his death; He for them fulfilled the law in his