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1. There are other qualifications of a bishop or pastor, which respect his domestic character. He must be the husband of one wife: this does not oblige a bishop or elder to be a married man; nor restrain from a second marriage after the decease of his wife; only that he should have but one wife at a time. Polygamy having been much in use among Jews and Gentiles, the first christians were not easily brought off of that practice; however, the apostle thought fit to enjoin that a bishop or pastor should not practice it, that he might not set an example of it, which might serve to countenance and continue it; there were some peculiar laws respecting the marriage of the high priest among the Jews, and by which it seems he was to have but one wife, Lev. xxi. 13, 14. and much the same laws are directed to for priests or ministers of the word, under the gospel-dispensation, Ezek. xliv. 22. also a bishop or elder must be one that ruleth well his own house, having his children in subjection with all gravity, or reverence of him; obedient to his commands, and who behave respectably to him; and especially he should be careful to lay his commands, upon them to keep the ways of the Lord, and to restrain them from vices, and severely reprove them for them; in which good old Eli was deficient, and therefore blamed and corrected for it: the apostle gives a good and strong reason why a bishop or elder should have this qualification; For, says he, if a man know not, how to rule his own house, or family, how shall he take care of the house of God?

111. There are other qualifications, which respect his personal character, conduct, and behaviour. As, 1. That he must be blameless in his conversation. So the priests under the law were to have no blemish on them, nor any natural defect in them, Lev. xxi. 17-23. though they were men encompassed with moral infirmities. And this rule, respecting a bishop or pastor of a church, does not imply that he must be perfect and without sin, only that he should not be guilty of any scandalous sin, and especially should not live in any known sin; otherwise there is no man, not the best of men, without sin; no, not in the highest office; the prophets of the Old Testament, and the apostles of the New, were men of like passions with others. 2. Such an one must be of good behaviour, and must have a good report of them that are without; he should have a good report of all men, as Demetrius had; not only of the church and its members, of those that are within, to whom he is to be an example in word, in conversation, in charity, in spirit, in faith, in purity, 1 Tim. iv. 12. but of those without the church, the men of the world; that the ministry be not blamed and had in contempt, the ways of God, and doctrines of Christ, evil spoken of, and the ministers usefulness to the souls of men hindered. — 3. He must not be given to any vice; Not given to wine, that is, to excessive drinking of it; otherwise it is no more criminal to drink that than to drink water; and Timothy is advised by the apostle to refrain from drinking water, and to make use of wine, for his health's sake, chap. v. 23. nor given to quarrels, he must be no striker, neither with his fist nor with his tongue; no

calumniator, no brawler, not litigious and contentious; but patient, and bear alt reproaches, indignities, and insults; not greedy of, nor given to filthy lucre, should not enter on his work and take upon him such an office, with a lucra tive view; nor be covetous, but given to hospitality; not insatiably desirous of wealth and riches, and making use of any unlawful way to obtain them; but should, according to his abilities, be liberal in relieving the poor and necessitous; and in entertaining christian strangers and travellers, when well recommended, and by all this set a good example to others; and for which he should be supplied by the church to whom he ministers.-4. A bishop, elder, or pastor, should be vigilant; watch over himself and his flock, and take heed to both: to himself; to his doctrine, that it be sound, pure, and incorrupt, and according to the word of God; and to his conversation, that it be as becomes the gospel of Christ; to his flock, to feed them with wholesome food, to lead and direct them to good pastures, and to preserve them from wolves, from false teachers, that lie in wait to deceive; he is to watch for the souls of men, for their spiritual good and welfare, as one that must give an account with joy, and not with grief; and he should be sober and modest, wise and prudent, and think soberly of him self, Rom. xii. 3. I proceed to consider,

II. How any come into such an office, and are instated into it.

1. There must be a call to the ministry of the word, both inward and out ward, previous to this office; no man, under the law, took to himself the honour of the priest's office, but he that was called of God, as was Aaron, Heb. v. 4, 5nor ought any man to take upon him the office of a prophet, or ministér of the word, without a call; there were some in the times of Jeremiah com→ plained of by the Lord, who were not sent nor spoken to by him, and yet prophesied, Jer. xxiii. 21.

1. An internal call; which lies in gifts bestowed, and in the furniture of a man's mind, and in the disposition of it to make use of them in the service of God; for God never calls a man to any service but he gives him abilities for it; which, when a man is sensible of, and it is satisfied God has bestowed a gift upon him, he cannot be easy to wrap up his talent in a napkin, but is desirous of making use of it in a public manner; not by a mere impulse, through vanity of mind, and with ambitious views, and sordid ends; but from a principle of love to the souls of men, and to the glory of God; this is the internal call, of which a man's gifts are an evidence to himself and others. 2. The outward call is not immediately by Christ, as the twelve disciples were called, and sent forth by him to preach the gospel; and particularly, as the apostle Paul was called to be an apostle; not of men, neither by men, but by Jesus Chsist and God the Father, but mediately by the church; it being by some means or another made known to the church, that such an one is thought to have a gift for public usefulness, the church calls him to exercise it before them, and submit it to their examination and trial; and having sufficiently tried it

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and being satisfied of it, the church calls and sends him forth in the name of Christ, to preach the gospel, where he may be directed in providence to do it; and being thus called and sent forth, he is eligible to the office of a pastor of a church who shall think fit to choose him.

11. The procedure of instating him into the office of a pastor, or the ordination of him, is in this manner.

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1. He must be a member of a church, to whom he is to be ordained as a pastor. So an extraordinary officer, an apostle, was chosen and ordained to be one, in the room of Judas, from among the the disciples who had accompanied Christ and his apostles from the baptism of John; and so inferior officers, deacons, were selected out of the church, and appointed to that office, Acts i. 21-23. so Epaphras, a faithful minister of Christ for the church at Colosse, is said to be one of you, a member of that church, Col. i. 7. and iv. 12. one that is not a member of the church, cannot be a pastor of it. — 2. His qualifications, such as before observed, must be known by the members of a church, and must be proved and approved of by them; yea, they must be satisfied that he has gifts for their edification; for a man may have gifts for the edification of one church, which are not for the edification of another; and this should be known, previous to their choice and call of him.-3. After sufficient trial and due consideration of his gifts, to satisfaction, and after seeking the Lord by prayer, for every thing is sanctified by the word of God and prayer, the church proceeds to the choice and call of him to be their pastor; for every church has a right and power to choose its own officers, pastors, and deacons. 4. This choice and call being signified to him, he taking proper time, and seeking the Lord also, accepts thereof, and shews a readiness and willingness to take the oversight, of them, 1 Pet. v. 2. for there must be a mutual consent and agreement in this affair. - 5. To the public instating of him into his office, it is necessary there should be a recognition and repetition both of the church's choice and call of him, and of his acceptance of it, for the confirmation thereof, and for the satisfaction of ministers and churches in communion; who meet to see their order, and to assist, especially the former, by prayer for them, and by giving a word of exhortation to them, if desired. - 6. As every civil society has a right to choose, appoint, and ordain their own officers; as all cities and towns corporate, their mayors or provosts, aldermen, burgesses, &c. so churches, which are religious societies, have a right to choose and ordain their own officers, and which are ordained, aurois, for them, and for them only; that is, for each particular church, and not another, Acts xiv. 23.7. The election and call of them, with their acceptance, is ordination. The essence of ordination lies in the voluntary choice and call of the people, and in the voluntary acceptance of that call by the person chosen and called; for this affair must be by mutual consent and agreement, which joins them together as pastor and people. And this is done among themselves; and public ordination, so called, is no other than a declaration of that. Election and ordination are spoken of as

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the same; the latter is expressed and explained by the former. Christ, that he ordained twelve, Mark iii. 14. that is, he chose them to the office of apostleship, as he himself explains it, John vi. 70. Paul and Barnabas are said to ordain elders in every church, Acts xiv. 23, or to choose them"; that is, they gave orders and directions to every church, as to the choice of elders over them; for sometimes persons are said to do that which they give orders and directions for doing, as Moses and Solomon, with respect to building the tabernacle and temple, though done by others; and Moses particularly is said to choose the judges, Exod. xviii. 25. the choice being made under his direc. tion and guidance. The word that is used in Acts xiv. 23. is translated chosen, 2 Cor. viii. 19. where the apostle speaks of a brother, xeipoтondes, who was chosen of the churches to travel with us; and is so rendered when ascribed to God, Acts x. 41.-8. This choice and ordination in primitive times, was made two ways; by casting lots and by giving votes, signified by stretching out of hands. Matthias was chosen and ordained to be an apostle in the room of Judas, by casting lots; that being an extraordinary office, required an immediate interposition of the divine Being; a lot being nothing more nor less than an appeal to God for the decision of an affair. But ordinary officers, as elders and pastors of churches, were chosen and ordained by the votes of the people, expressed by stretching out their hands; thus it is said of the apostles, Acts xiv. 23. When they had ordained them elders in every church, xgorovnoartes, by taking the suffrages and votes of the members of the churches, shewn by the stretching out of their hands, as the word signifies; and which they directed them to, and upon it declared the elders duly elected and ordained. So Clemens Romanus, who lived at the latter end of the apostolic age, says, the apostles appointed proper persons to the office of the ministry, with the consent or choice of the whole church; and this practice continued to the third century; in which century Cyprian was chosen bishop of Carthage, by the suffrage of the people; and so he says was Cornelius, bishop of Rome, in the same age; as was Fabianus, before him the council of Nice, in the beginning of the fourth century, in their synodical epistle, to the churches in Egypt, ordered, that when any were removed by death, their places should be filled up by others, provided they were worthy, and such as the people chose; the bishop of Alexandria agreeing to and confirming the choice: in the same century Martin was chosen bishop of Tours, by a vast concourse of the people: indeed, the council at Laodicea,

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gorov, hic simpliciter vertamus per eligere, decernere, designare, ordinare per electio nem, Vitringa de Synagog. vet. 1. 3. par. 1. c. 14. p. 821. w Of these two ways of choosing officers with the Jews, Philo speaks, de Judice, p. 718. in initio. * χειροτονήσαντες, per sufe fragia delegissent, creassent: so Beza, Erasmus, Vatablus, H. Stephanus, ortum est hoc verbum ex Græcorum consuetudine, qui porrectia manibus suffragia ferebant, Beza in Act. 14. 28. Ep. 1. ad Corinth. p. 100. * Pontii vita Cyprian. p. 2. & Cyprian. ep. 40. p. 75. & ep. 55. p. 115. 116. Ib. ep. 52. p. 97. & ep. 67. p. 163. Euseb. Eccl. Hist. 1. 6. c.ag. Apud Theodoret. Ecel. Hist. 1. 1. c. 9. Vide Sulpicii Severi vit. Martin, p. 224,


Can. XIII. in this century, ordered, that from thenceforward the people should not be allowed to choose their own ministers; which shews it had been practised before: yea, after, in the fifth century, Austin, in his old age, recommended to the people Eradius, to be his successor; which they shewed their approbation of by their loud and repeated acclamations. But, -9. Though there was χειροτονια, a stretching out of the hands ; yet there was no χειροθεσία, imposition of hands, used at the ordination; neither of extraordinary officers, as apostles; nor of ordinary pastors or elders of churches, in the times of Christ and his apostles.

1. Christ ordained the twelve apostles himself; but we read not a word of his laying his hands upon them, when he ordained them; nor on the seventy disciples, when he appointed them, and sent them forth into every city. Matthias was chosen and ordained an apostle in the room of Judas, upon a lot being cas, by the church, which fell upon him; and upon counting the lots he was num❤ bered, σuyxatεngion, chosen, or by the number of lots declared to be chosen, and so took his place, and was reckoned with the apostles; but no mention is made of any hands being laid on him; see Acts i. 22-26.-2. The apostles are said to ordain elders in every church, not by laying their hands upon them, but by taking the votes of the people, on the stretching out of their hands; when they declared the elders duly elected and ordained, as before observed. The apostle Paul directed Titus, chap. i. 5. to ordain elders in every city; that is, in such sort and manner as he and Barnabas had done in the above instance; but gave him no orders and instructions to lay hands upon them; which he would not have omitted, had it been material, and so essential to ordination as some make it to be and if he was to ordain elders by the laying on of his hands, then not by the hands of a presbytery, since he was a single person; and if this was to be done by him as a bishop, which some say he was, though the subscription of the epistle to him not being genuine, which asserts it, is no proof of it, it would justify ordination by a diocesan bishop.3. No instance can be given of hands being laid on any ordinary minister, pastor, or elder, at his ordination; nor, indeed, of hands being laid on any, upon whatsoever account, but by extraordinary persons; nor by them upon any ministers, but extraordinary ones; and even then not at and for the ordination of them, The instance • Inter opera ejus, tom. 2. ep. 110. · fElectionis formula de episcopis & præfectis ecclesia per suffragia populi constituendis, ea semper mihi visa est optima, quam legimus apud Augus tinum de creatione Eradii. Aonii Palearii Testimonium, c. 16. p. 367. This learned Italian was a glorious confessor and martyr of Jesus; who, for the noble witness he bore against popish innovations, and particularly against the popish inquisition; which he said was a sword drawn to cut the throats of learned men", was taken up at Milan, bound, and sent to Rome, where he was adjudged to the flames, and was burnt alive, after he had made a bold confession of his faith, about the year 1566, some say 1570, under pope Pius V. The above Testimonium referred to was written by him, and designed to be sent to the emperor, the christian kings and princes, and the presidents of a general council then deliberating, to be held at Trenti which, when written, was very worthy of their regard, and now to be read by every Protestant. • Vid. Lampe, Synops. Hist. Sacr. & Ecclesiastic. L. 2. c. 13. s. 29. P. 453

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