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by the Son; and learn to form the most correct views of ourselves and others; things temporal and things spiritual; the present and the future world. They afford light to the blind, strength to the weak, hope to the desponding, and consolation to the good. They exhibit before us our meanness, and our greatness; our corruption, and our glory. They humble us, to exalt us. They level us to the dust, to raise us to the sky.


Every attempt to illustrate the Sacred Writings, and to assist Christians in the understanding of their important contents, will be duly estimated, by every friend of Divine Revelation, in proportion to the wisdom and utility of the design. It has been generally acknowledged, from time immemorial, that Scripture is its own best interpreter in all cases where it reflects light upon itself. Agreeably to this idea, Scattergood, Lloyd, Blaney, Canne, Brown, Scott, and various other learned and excellent authors, have, from time to time, collected parallel texts, and placed the figures in the margin of the Bible for the assistance of the Biblical student. few years since, Mr. Bagster, a respectable printer, collected a vast mass of references from various authors, and published them in a work, entitled The Scripture Harmony'; or, Concordance of Parallel Passages. Notwithstanding these helps are excellent, yet their utility is very much restricted, on account of the time required for turning to so many passages, as well as the difficulty of keeping open the Bible in several places at once; so that it is almost impossible to get the whole of a copious reference before the mind at one view; for which reason, it is apprehended, the parallels are generally neglected,

or only consulted on very special occasions. A work, therefore, that will place before the reader the parallel passages in words at length, on the same page with the text, will assuredly be considered a valuable acquisition to the libraries of all studious and intelligent Christians Such a work is that now presented to the public in the following pages.

Another object of this work is, to lay before the reader the principal and most important variations from the common version which are to be found in the various translations of the Scriptures by learned and pious men of different religious denominations.

In this compilation all the most respectable performances on Scripture reference, as well as all the most approved translations, have been consulted. The compiler, however, particularly desires to acknowledge his obligations to the labours of a Fox, and a Cruttwell, whose respective merits he has combined, with improved arrangements, and important additions. The writer does not pretend to have introduced much that is new on his own responsibility. His merit consists principally in selection; in the admission of apposite and the rejection of inadequate materials from the miscellaneous mass furnished by others.

It is not a mere pretence that this work is intended for, and adapted to, Ministers and Christians of every denomination. It is compiled with the utmost freedom from all sectarian bias, and with the most studied impartiality; for the sake of which the writer has, in various

instances, waived his own judgment on some peculiar points of controversial theology. Whatever appeared to be fanciful has been rejected; at the same time the spiritual import of various words of Scripture has not been lost sight of. Although all the references may not be deemed strictly parallels, nevertheless the compiler presumes that few will be found but what have some bearing to the text in view. In several instances, the Scriptures reducible to one head are placed under one text of Scripture; and, as often as that subject recurs, reference is given to such place. For example, the texts relating to the love of each other, on which the Gospel lays the greatest stress, are placed under JOHN, xiii. 34. In all those texts, therefore, where this comprehensive duty is mentioned, reference is given to this place in JOHN; as against MAT. xxii. 39, it is said, See on JOHN, xiii. 34. In all such references the reader must bear in mind that the text referred to, as well as those set under it, generally relates to the same subject. As, in the instance above, JOHN, xiii. 34, relates to the duty of loving each other, as well as LEV. xix. 18, &c.

In some cases, when the reference consists of several verses from one chapter, or when the reference is rather remote, or of inferior importance, the words are not given; and, with the same view of shortening the work, when a reference is in the chapter immediately preceding or following the present one, the words are generally omitted, on account of the easy reference to them. In other instances, when the words are not given, it denotes that they are the same, or very nearly the same, with the text to which they refer; as, under JOHN, xii. 19, is set

JOHN, xi. 47; but the words being the same in both chapters, they are omitted in the reference. Again, under JOHN, xii. 38, are set Isa. liii, 1, and Roм. x. 16; but the words are omitted because they are very nearly the same with JOHN, xii. 38.

In these instances the writer has followed the plan of Fox, alluded to above. Fox is the only writer that ever attempted a work of this kind: he lived in the beginning of the last century. His work has been long out of print, and very rare; but the present publication will render it of no further utility. Francis Fox was Vicar of Potterne, in Wiltshire. His Testament was published in 1722. He was also the author of a work on the Duty of Public Worship.

The following judicious observations on the value of Scripture references, from the pen of the late Bishop Horsley, may be properly introduced at this place :

"It were to be wished that no Bibles were printed without references. He who would read the Holy Scriptures with advantage and improvement should compare every text which may seem either important for the doctrine it may contain, or remarkable for the turn of the expression, with the parallel passages in other parts of Holy Writ. Particular diligence should be used in comparing the parallel texts of the Old and the New Testaments. When you read the Old Testament, you should turn to the parallel passage of the New, that you may see in what manner, in what sense, and to what purpose, the words of the more ancient are alleged by

the later writer, who, in many instances, may be supposed to have received clearer light upon the same subject. On the other hand, when in the New Testament you meet with citations from the Old, always consult the original writer, that you may have the satisfaction of judging for yourselves how far the passage alleged makes for the argument which it is brought to support. It is incredible, to any one who has not, in some degree, made the experiment, what a proficiency may be made in that knowledge which maketh wise unto salvation, by studying the Scriptures in this manner, WITHOUT ANY OTHER COMMENTARY OR EXPOSITION THAN WHAT THE DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE SACRED VOLUME MUTUALLY FURNISH FOR EACH OTHER. I will not scruple to assert that the most illiterate Christian, if he can but read his English Bible, and will take the pains to read it in this manner, will not only attain all that practical knowledge which is necessary to his salvation, but, by God's blessing, he will become learned in every thing relating to his religion, in such a degree, that he will not be liable to be misled, either by the refined arguments, or the false assertions, of those who endeavour to ingraft their own opinion upon the Oracles of God. The Bible, thus studied, will indeed prove to be, what we Protestants esteem it, a certain and sufficient rule of faith and practice-a helmet of salvation, which alone may quench the fiery darts of the wicked."

All the marginal references, as well as readings of the common, or authorized version, are incorporated in this work; and it also includes every reading of importance in Cruttwell's Testament.

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