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the first Article, “AGRICULTURE," the reader will ascertain under it what is said in Scripture as to the Land and Farms of Canaan, the processes of Husbandry, such as Ploughing, Sowing and Reaping, etc., and the allusions to them contained in the Prophets and in the Parables of our Lord, with much more of similar import. Talbot and West only use a verse once, and therefore some of their Sections are brief and scanty; on the other hand we have repeated many verses twice, thrice, and oftener-our only limit being the fear of too large a Volume. Great care has been taken to secure accuracy of reference, and every verse has been turned up, and verified by young eyes and fingers in the retirement of a rural Manse. The technical labour of preparing Copy has been performed by One, whose relationship to the Editor gave her a filial interest in the daily and protracted task. The Work is enriched with a very full Index prepared with characteristic accuracy by a friend, whose labours in a similar field we have elsewhere acknowledged. Another peculiar advantage will be found in the prefixed Synopsis, which is so constructed that it may be read continuously, and it will be found to exhibit a bird's eye view of Biblical Antiquities and Theology. By the employment of Synopsis and Index, every subject of Scripture may be easily turned up, and full information speedily obtained. In fine, while our Book will save time and trouble to the inquirer, yet we counsel the continuous consultation of the Scriptures themselves, and of the verses in their original connection. For there is a living unity in the Bible amidst all its diversity, and it is with it as with the minerals of the globe, which present a more glorious order in the respective positions in which nature has placed them, than when artificially arranged on the shelves of a cabinet. With all the imperfections of this volume, and they belong more or less to every compilation of the kind, we hope that it may be found to be really useful, that the Divine blessing may accompany it, and that it may meet with that cordial and extended welcome which has been, and still is so kindly vouchsafed to its two predecessors.
13 LANSDOWNE CRESCENT, December, 1856,
The Dash-so often introduced, is designed to point out some differences in the Verses following it, such as Allusions and Examples, or Instances and Statements adduced as contrasts to the Verses of the Topic or Section printed above it.
LAND OF CANAAN,
Divided by lot according to the number of families, as commanded by Moses, and performed by Joshua at Shiloh.
Done on floor, thrashing floor, barn-floor, cornfloor, by a rod, or hoofs of unmuzzled cattle, cart-wheels or teethed instruments; straw and grain separated by removing with a fan or con-judgment, etc. fanners; chaff driven by the wind: symbol of
TENURE OF LAND,
Held from God in perpetual entail on dition of military service,-returning,if alienated, to its original owner at the year of jubilee, or redeemable on certain conditions, instances in Naomi, Naboth, etc.
For cattle, green and abundant, refreshed by rain, on house-tops short-lived, soon withered and used as fuel-cast into the oven: emblem
TRANSFER OF LAND,
Bought in patriarchal times, and made over of life, of prosperity, of the wicked, etc. by charter also in Jewish times.
SOIL OF CANAAN, Rich, fertile, and well watered, with hills, and valleys, and minerals underneath.
SPECIAL AGRARIAN ENACTMENTS,
Wilful fire-raising punished by restitution, as also devastations of animals,-landmarks not to be removed,-growing crops might be plucked by the traveller, but not cut with a sickle.
FAILURE OF CROPS,
Of grass,-a terrible visitation, as in days of Ahab;-of grain,-caused by inclement season,-by drought and wet,-by locusts,-by predatory enemies,-often very severe;-hunger or cleanness of teeth, urging to various repulsive Assigned to Adam and to man, as the means balism, and producing blackness of skin, ema elements of food, even during a siege to canni
CULTIVATION OF SOIL,
nation, fainting, and death: the symbol of spiritual destitution,-instances in the days David, Ahab, Elisha, siege of Samaria, of seven of Abraham, Isaac, Joseph, of the Judges, of years, foretold by Elisha, during siege of Jerusalem, after the captivity, in reign of Claudius
METHODS OF CULTIVATION,
Ploughing, performed by oxen, and in winter, -breaking up the clods and fallow ground; the symbol of reformation, of spiritual industry, and of ruin.
SOWING, Divers seeds not to be used,-often trodden into the soil by feet of animals;-a work of hope; and the emblem of increase and spiritual instruction.
OTHER PRODUCTS OF FIELDS,
Beans, bulrushes, flags, flax, gourds, heath, lentiles, mandrakes, mallows, millet, reeds, rushes, rye, tares.
REAPING, Corn cut with a sickle by shearers or harvestmen, and gathered into sheaves, tares into bundles-a season of joy and of industry: the symbol of retribution generally in mercy and judgment.
MEANS AGAINST FAMINE,
Often experienced to an hundred fold: the gift Granaries of Egypt filled by Joseph, and corn imported from other countries.
Corners of fields not to be reaped;-forgotten sheafs not to be fetched, but left for poor, instanced in Ruth.
GOD'S CARE OF HIS PEOPLE
During famine, as in case of Elijah, often promised.
Dry, desolate, waste, and howling, not sown, marshes often wood or forest, filled with wild beasts, and haunted by robbers;-noxious vegetation in it, thorns, thistles, nettles, briars, brambles, these also on scenes of ruin: symbols of spi. ritual sterility and desolation. For names of deserts and forests in Scripture, see under Earth.