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man times, and traces the fupreme power of the legislative affembly to the reign of Charles. Such is a faint outline of his argument; in this work he openly accufes Buckingham of having poisoned King James, and afterwards even makes a bolder assertion, that Charles was accessory to the crime.31

The first reply to Milton's Defenfio Populi was published in 1651. Milton, who affifted his nephew Philips in the answer, was willing to confider it as the production of that distinguished prelate, Bramhall, whom he treats with the fame coarseness of sarcasm, and violence of invective which had been employed against Salmafius, imputing to him the greatest exceffes, and the practice of the most degrading vices. Bramhall had disowned the writing imputed to him, but the real author was not discovered till the industry of Mr. Todd brought the secret to light. He proves to be one John Rowland, and calls himself 'Pastor Ecclefiæ particularis.' In this tract the accufation of the death of James the First by poison is repeated.


31 A person named Jeanes or Janes published an answer to Milton's Eikonoklaftes in the year of the Restoration, 1660. This book was brought out again under the title of " Salmafius, his destruction of the Diabolical Rebel Milton"-intending thereby to pass it off as a Tranflation of Salmafius' Pofthumous Work, ad Joannem Miltonium refponfio. It was in fact the fame work and the fame edition as that brought out by Janes, with the exception of the title and a leaf of address to the reader.

32 In the original editions of the Defenfio Populi, and Defenfio Secunda, the name of the author is printed Joannis MiltonI, i. e. Miltonii; he therefore differed from those who would render the English termination on,' by 'onus' in Latin.

23 See extract from Bishop Bramhall's Letter to his Son, May, 1654. That filly book, which he ascribes to me, was written by one John Rowland, who fince hath replied upon him. I never read a word either of the first book or the reply in my life.' v. Todd's Life, p. 83; alfo fee Reimanni Catalog. Bibl. fue. T. iii. p. 781. Job. Rowlandi Polemica et Irenica pro Rege et Populo Anglicano, adverfus Job. Miltonum, 1653, fine loco.

Next year (1652) appeared Regii Sanguinis clamor ad cœlum contra Parricidas Anglicanos:' this work was written by Peter du Moulin, a Frenchman, afterwards Prebendary of Canterbury, but A. More, who had the care of the publication, was treated by Milton as the real author. The mistake was afterwards difcovered, but Milton had exhausted his invective against More, and suffered Du Moulin to escape." Alexander More was a Scotchman by birth, fettled in France, and was the fon of the principal of the Protestant College of Caftres in Languedoc. He was a person of talent and learning, but more eminently distinguished as a brilliant though eccentric preacher. It was an unfortunate hour for him when he threw the shield of his name to protect Du Moulin's writings, for More's personal character was open to remark. He had, it appears, entered into a love-intrigue at Leyden, with an English girl, who is called Pontia, and who was waitingmaid to the wife of Salmafius.35 This occafioned much

34 See Du Moulin's Latin Poems, p. 140; and L'Esprit de G. Patin. p. 64. P. du Moulin, one of the most distinguished paftors of the reformed Church in France, during the 16th and 17th centuries, left an Autograph Memoir, or rather Collection of Anecdotes behind him, which is now in the hands of Monf. Marron of Paris, and will shortly be published. See For. Quart. Rev. No. XVI. p. 512.

35 The wife of Salmafius was a great fhrew, but she had a high opinion of her husband. Il fe laiffoit dominer par une femme hautaine et chagrine, qui se vantoit d'avoir pour mari, mais non pour maître le plus favant de tous les nobles, et le plus noble de tous les favans.' v. Huetiena, p. x. The 88th Letter of Sarravius opens a curious domestic picture of Salmafius's family. He had, it appears, applied to Sarravius to procure him fome maid-servants, and his friend fairly answers him. Timeo ne itineris difficultates, cum uxoris tuæ moribus multas deterreant.' Salmafius was presented with the order of St. Michael by Louis XIII. hence Milton calls him Eques.'-The biographers of Milton have taken their account of Salmafius chiefly from N. Heinfius, without keeping in mind that Heinfius was his bitter and implacable enemy. Not wishing to give offence, ftill I must fay, that not one of those who have

domestic dispute and jealoufy in the house of the learned profeffor, and became the fubject of raillery in the correspondence of the friends of Salmafius. It appears also, that a fimilar adventure with a fervant maid, of the name of Claudia Peletta, with whom More is accused of intriguing before and after her marriage, was the occafion of his leaving Geneva; and a third amour, with a young female domestic of the name of Tibaltiana, is also mentioned. Milton did not fpare his enemy on the fide where he was so much exposed; and More shrunk from the bitter storm of invective, farcasm, and irony, that his indignant antagonist poured on all fides upon him.3

The Second Defence' is one of the most interesting of Milton's writings.37 Johnson has quoted from it the eloquent eulogy on Cromwell: the character of Bradshaw is drawn with all the skill and power of Clarendon, and presents a noble portrait of the intrepid regicide; and the addrefs to Fairfax has for ever exalted the character, and dignified the memory of that illuftrious foldier. I fhall

written on this controverfy, feems to me to be really acquainted with the works or character of Salmafius. See also N. Heinfii Poem. Lat.

152. 165.

36 In Sarravii Epiftolæ are many addreffed with respect and esteem to Al. More. He feems not to have been permanently injured by Milton's attack, and he would hardly be recognized as the fame perfon in the party-statement of Milton, and the impartial life by Bayle. A copy of Latin verfes by A. More, addreffed to N. Heinfius, is in the Adoptivorum Carmina, p. 19. See also Huetii Carmina, p. 33. ed. Grævii. v. Reimanni Catal. Bibl. fuæ, vol. iii. p. 401.

37 See Talford's Memoirs of Charles Lamb, vol. i. p. 242, à Letter from Lamb to Coleridge, on a paffage in the second Defence on his confolations on his blindness which had been made a reproach to him.

The first Defence is the greatest work among them, because it is uniformly great, and fuch as is befitting the very thought of a great nature, speaks for itself. But the second Defence, which is but a facrifice of fplendid episodes, flightly tied together has one paffage, &c.

add Milton's commemoration of other names, not lefs celebrated in the hiftory of that eventful time. First you, Fleetwood, whom I have known to have been always the same in the humanity, gentleness, and benignity of your disposition, from the time you first entered on the profefsion of a soldier, to your obtainment of those military honours, the next only to the first, and whom the enemy has found of dauntless valour, but the mildeft of conquerors; and you, Lambert, who, when a young man, at the head of a mere handful of men, checked the progrefs of the Duke of Hamilton, attended with the power and strength of the Scottish youth, and kept him at check; you, Desborrow, and you, Whalley, whom, whenever I heard or read of the fierceft battles of this war, I always expected and found among the thickest of the enemy; you, Overton, who have been connected with me for these many years, in a more than brotherly union, by fimilitude of ftudies, and by the sweetness of your manners. In that memorable battle of Marston Moor, when our left wing was routed, the chief officers looking back in their flight beheld you keeping your ground with your infantry, and repelling the attacks of the enemy amid heaps of flain on both fides; and afterwards in the war in Scotland, no fooner were the shores of Fife occupied, under the aufpices of Cromwell, with your troops, and the way opened beyond Stirling, than both the western and the northern Scots acknowledged you for the humaneft of enemies, and the fartheft Orcades for their civilizing conqueror. I will yet add fome, whom, as diftinguished for the robe and arts of peace, you have nominated as your counsellors, and who are known to me either by friendship or reputation. Whitlocke, Pickering, Strickland, Sydenham, and Sydney 38 (an illuftrious name which I rejoice has steadily ad

38 Sydneio Sacrum.

hered to our fide), Montague, Lawrence, both men of the first capacity, and polished by liberal ftudies, befides numberless other citizens, diftinguished for their rare merits, fome for their former senatorial exertions, others for their military services.' A fplendid eulogy rewarded the virgin Queen of the north, the daughter of Adolphus, for the praise she was reported to have given to Milton's defence, and the magnanimity which led her to read and even to applaud what seemed written against her own right and dignity.39

Flushed with his victory," and proud of the great reputation which he had acquired, Milton opened his fecond defence with a triumphant anticipation of the fentence that would be paffed on it: 'He now,' he says, 'feels himself not in the forum, or on the roftrum, furrounded by a fingle people only, whether Roman or Athenian, but as it were by listening Europe, confiding and paffing judgment. He addresses himself to all fittings and assemblies, whereever are to be found men of the highest authority, whereever there are cities and nations. He imagines himself set out on his travels, that he beholds from on high tracts beyond the feas, and wide extended regions, that he beholds countenances ftrange and numberlefs, and all in feelings of mind, his closest friends and neighbours.

39 I would wish to remove the impreffion, if such exists, that Salmafius entered into this controverfy as an advocate of the regal rights, from interested motives, without a conviction of the justice of his cause. The death, if not the dethronement of Charles, excited great horror and indignation in other nations; with what feelings Salmafius came to his tafk, may be judged by the language which N. Heinfius ufes on this fubject, fee his Poemata, Eleg. Lib. ii. 4. p. 43. iii. 1. p. 64. 8. p. 79, x. p. 82. Sylv. Lib. iii. p. 192. Antiphatá dignus Rege Britannus


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40 See Arguments taken from Milton and the writers on James and William III. in Fabricii Centuria Plagiorum, p. 56. 4to.

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