« السابقةمتابعة »
lished a book against the Arians, still extant, and some other small treatises. In that book his respect for the scriptures of the prophets, evangelists, and apostles, is very conspicuous. A. D. 359.
Ch. XCIV. C. Marius Victorinus, an African, an illustrious convert to the christian religion, who for a good while had taught rhetoric at Rome, wrote some books against the Arians, and a Commentary upon the apostle Paul's epistles. In his remaining works most of the books of the New Testament are frequently quoted, particularly the Acts, the epistle to the Hebrews, and the Revelation. A. D. 360.
Ch. XCV. Apollinarius, bishop of Laodicea in Syria, a very learned man, besides his Confutation of Porphyry in thirty books, and other works by which he was very useful to the christians in the time of the emperor Julian, published also many volumes of Commentaries upon the scriptures, monuments of his zeal and affection for them, and of his diligence in studying them.
Ch. XCVI. Damasus, bishop of Rome, had a great regard for Jerom on account of his learning and knowledge of the scriptures. At his desire Jerom corrected the Latin version of the New Testament, then in use. In a letter to Jerom he says, 'There can be no higher entertainment than to confer together upon the holy scriptures.' A. D. 366.
Ch. XCVII. Basil, commonly called the Great, bishop of Cæsarea in Cappadocia, besides the gospels and the Acts, has quoted all St. Paul's epistles, particularly that to the Hebrews. He does not much cite the catholic epistles; however, he has several times quoted the first epistle of St. Peter, and the first epistle of St. John. The epistle of St. James is very seldom quoted: the second of St. Peter, the epistle of St. Jude, the first and second of St. John, not at all in any of his genuine works that I remember. Though there is very little notice taken of the book of the Revelation, there is not sufficient reason to say it was rejected by him. See num. ii. vol. iv. For the scriptures of the Old and New Testament he had the greatest regard: he bears witness, that they were read in every assembly of christians for public worship, and he recommends the reading them in private to all sorts of people.
Ch. XCVIII. Gregory Nazianzen. Among his poems is a catalogue of the books of the Old and New Testament. The former is agreeable to that of the Jews: in the latter are expressly mentioned the gospels of the four evangelists, the Acts, fourteen epistles of Paul, seven catholic epistles, without any other. The Revelation is wanting; neverthe
less it may have been received by him, but not reckoned proper to be publicly read. A. D. 370.
Ch. XCIX. Amphilochius, bishop of Iconium, the chief city of Lycaonia, has an iambic poem, in which is a catalogue of the books of the Old and New Testament. The former is agreeable to the Jewish canon: the books of the New Testament are the four gospels, the Acts of the Apostles written by Luke, then fourteen epistles of the apostle Paul. But some say, the epistle to the Hebrews is spurious, not speaking rightly. Then the catholic epistles: of which some receive seven, others three only; one of 'James, one of Peter, one of John: whilst others receive 'three of John, and two of Peter, and Jude's the seventh. The Revelation of John is approved by some; but many say it is spurious. Let this be the most certain canon of the divinely-inspired scriptures.' So Amphilochius. A. D. 370.
Ch. C. Gregory, younger brother of St. Basil, bishop of Nyssa in Cappadocia, quotes the gospels, the Acts, which he ascribes to St. Luke, St. Paul's epistles, particularly that to the Hebrews. Concerning the catholic epistles it may be observed, that the first epistle of St. Peter, and the first epistle of St. John, are quoted by him several times the epistle of St. James may be thought to be quoted in a place, to which I refer below. What respect he had for the other catholic epistles does not clearly appear from his works, so far as I can now recollect. He has quoted the book of the Revelation; though but very seldom. In one of Gregory Nyssen's books against Eunomius are these words, deserving notice: Whence,' says he, did you learn those things, and from whom had you those expres'sions? They are not in Moses: you did not learn them from the prophets, or apostles: the evangelists likewise are silent here: we discern them not in any part of scripture: they must therefore be your own invention.' Certainly this shows, that the scriptures of the Old and New Testament were then esteemed by christians to be the rule of their faith. This passage, now alleged, is additional to P In Cant. Hom. 13. T. i. p. 669. A. Hom. 14. p. 678. A. In diem Nat. Chr. T. iii. p. 348. D. et alibi.
↑ De Vit. Mos. T. i. p. 220. D. In Cant. Hom. 7. T. i. 526. A. Hom. 12. p. 657. De Scop. Christian. T. iii. p. 302, et alibi.
In 1 Cor. xv. 28. Orat. T. i. p. 19. B.
• Ποθεν ταυτα μαθων, και παρα τινος τα ῥηματα; Μωϋσης εκ ειπε προφη των και αποτόλων εκ ήκεσεν ευαγγελίται τας τοιαύτας φωνας σεσιγηκασιν. Ουδεμιας επι γραφης ταυτα διδασκησης μαθειν, κ. λ. Contr. Eunom. Orat. 12. T. ii. p. 794. B.
another to the like purpose formerly quoted from another work of this writer.
Ch. CI. Didymus, master of the catechetical school at Alexandria, wrote Commentaries upon divers books of the Old Testament, and upon the gospels of Matthew and John, and brief notes upon the seven catholic epistles. He received the epistle to the Hebrews, and, probably, the book of the Revelation. A. D. 370.
Ch. CII. Ephrem, called the Syrian, deacon in the church of Edessa, wrote Commentaries in Syriac upon many books of the Old Testament. He has frequently quoted the four gospels, the Acts, and St. Paul's epistles, particularly that to the Hebrews: he has quoted likewise the first epistle of St. Peter, and the first of St. John. Whether he received any of the five catholic epistles, which were sometimes doubted of, does not appear from his Syriac works, which are more to be relied upon than the Greek and Latin translations. Whether he received the book of the Revelation, may be determined by those who are pleased to observe what is said, in loc. vol. iv. His respect for the scriptures is manifest. A. D. 370.
Ch. CIII. Ebedjesu, a learned Syrian writer of the sect of the Nestorians, bishop of Nisibis, called also Soba, in the thirteenth century, flourished about the year 1285. He has a catalogue of the books of the Old and New Testament: that of the New has the four gospels, the Acts written by Luke, three catholic epistles, and fourteen epistles of St. Paul, without any notice of the Revelation. They who are desirous to know more of the canon of the Syrian christians, may do well to observe also the chapter of St. Chrysostom, a native of Antioch, and for a good while presbyter in that church and the chapter of Severian bishop of Gabala in Syria, and likewise the chapter of Cosmas of Alexandria.
Ch. CIV. Pacian, bishop of Barcelona, has quoted in his remaining works the commonly received books of the New Testament, particularly the Acts of the Apostles, and likewise the book of the Revelation: but I have not observed in him any quotation of the epistle to the Hebrews, nor any plain reference to it. A. D. 370.
Ch. CV. Optatus, a convert from Gentilism, and bishop of Milevi in Africa, beside the gospels has quoted the book of the Acts, and several of St. Paul's epistles, and the first and second epistles of St. John: whether he received the epistle to the Hebrews, is not certain. A. D. 370.
Ch. CVI. Ambrose, bishop of Milan, expressly rejects the gospel according to the twelve, the gospels according
to Basilides, Thomas, and Matthias; and says, that the church has one gospel in four books, spread all over the world, and written by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. He often quotes the Acts, as written by St. Luke: he likewise received all St. Paul's fourteen epistles, and the seven catholic epistles, and the Revelation; consequently his canon of the New Testament was the same as ours: for there appears not in his works any particular regard to the writings of Barnabas, or Clement, or Ignatius, or to the Recognitions, or Constitutions: from whence it may be reasonably concluded, that these writings were not esteemed of authority by himself, or other christians at that time. His respect for the sacred scripture is very manifest: he wrote Commentaries upon divers of the Psalms, and upon St. Luke's gospel: he speaks of it as the practice of the christians in ancient times, as well as in his own, to form their belief by the holy scriptures.
Ch. CVII. The Priscillianists, followers of Priscillian bishop of Abila, prevailed chiefly in Spain: they received all the canonical books of the Old and New Testament, making use likewise of some apocryphal books. Herein they differed from the Manichees, who rejected the scriptures of the Old Testament. It is generally supposed likewise, that some of the Manichees rejected the Acts of the Apostles if they did, here is another thing in which the Priscillianists differed from the Manichees, whom they are said to have resembled very much; for we know from Augustine, that the Priscillianists received that book. A. D. 378.
Ch. CVIII. Diodorus native of Antioch, and bishop of Tarsus in Cilicia, wrote many books, most of which are now lost. He is said to have written Commentaries upon divers books of the Old Testament, and upon the four gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, and St. John's first epistle. A. D. 378.
Ch. CIX. A Commentary upon thirteen of St. Paul's epistles, by many ascribed to Hilary deacon of Rome. In this work are quoted the four gospels, the Acts of the Apostles written by Luke, the first and second epistle of St. Peter; the first and the third epistle of St. John, and the Revelation. Whether the writer received the epistle to the Hebrews, may be justly questioned, as he did not write any Commentary upon it.
Nec illud moveat, quod Priscillianista, Manichæorum simillimi, ad jejunandum die dominico solent testimonium de Apostolorum Actibus, adhibere, cum esset apostolus Paulus in Troade. Sic enim scriptum est, Act. xx. 7 Ad Casulan. Ep. 36. cap. 12. n. 28. T. ii.
Ch. CX. Philaster, bishop of Brescia, author of a work concerning Heresies, received the same books of the New Testament that we do, but we learn from him that there were then some who did not receive the epistle to the Hebrews, nor the Revelation. A. D. 380.
Ch. CXI. Gaudentius, successor of Philaster in the bishopric of Brescia, appears to have had the same canon of scripture as his predecessor. A. D. 387.
Ch. CXII. Sophronius, a learned man, friend of St. Jerom, who translated several of his works into the Greek language, and was himself likewise an author. A. D. 393.
Ch. CXIII. Theodore, native of Antioch, bishop of Mopsuestia in Cilicia, wrote Commentaries upon divers books of the Old Testament, and upon the gospels of St. Matthew, St. Luke, and St. John, and St. Paul's fourteen epistles; which of the catholic epistles were received by him, and whether he received the book of the Revelation, are things not certainly known. There is a fragment of one of his works containing a noble testimony to the four gospels; where he supposeth the first three gospels not to have been written till after St. Paul had openly preached the doctrine of the gospel to the Gentiles, nor till after the other apostles had left Judea to go upon the same service. A. D. 394.
Ch. CXIV. St. Jerom's canon of the Old Testament was that of the Jews; and he received all the books of the New Testament which are now received by us, and no other. However, he lets us know that in his time many Latins did not receive the epistle to the Hebrews as St. Paul's, and that many Greek churches rejected the book of the Revelation. In him are histories of the several writers of the books of the New Testament, and many observations upon the scriptures, with testimonies of high respect for them, and exhortations to read and study them, and, indeed, many other things deserving notice; to which the reader is referred, for they cannot be repeated here.
That chapter concludes with a passage, wherein Jerom triumphs on account of the remarkable progress of the gospel. I here add another passage to the like purpose, from a letter written" in 396, in which he says: Until the re" Vid. Pagi ann. 396. n. 3, 4.
Adde, quod ante resurrectionem Christi, notus tantum in Judæâ erat Deus, in Israël magnum nomen ejus. Ubi tunc totius orbis homines, ab Indiâ usque ad Britanniam, a rigidâ septentrionis plagâ usque ad fervores Atlantici Oceani, tam innumerabiles populi, et tantarum gentium multitudines? Quam variæ linguis, habitu tam vestis, et armis: piscium ritu et locustarum, et velut muscæ et culices conterebantur. Absque notitiâ etenim Creatoris sui omnis homo pecus est. Nunc passionem Christi, et resurrectionem ejus cunctarum