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is that of the gospels; in which are Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John the second is that of the apostles; in which are Paul, in fourteen epistles; Peter, in two; John, in three; James and Jude, each in one epistle; the Acts of the Apostles; and the Revelation of John.'


4. The second chapter of the same book is entitled,' Of the Writers and Phrases of the sacred books. Here he enumerates again the books of the Old and New Testament, and speaks more distinctly and largely of the writers of them, and their titles and design; and then concludes the chapter in this manner: These are the writers of the sacred books, who, speaking by the Holy Spirit, have written for our instruction both the precepts of a good life, and the rule of faith.' Then he adds, that beside these, there are other books, called apocryphal, the writers of which are uncertain; in which there are some truths, mixed with falsehood; but they are of no authority: and he supposes them to be written by heretics: many such books there were,' he says, 'which had been of old written in the names of prophets, and since of apostles: but, after careful examination, they had been rejected, and not allowed to be of canonical authority.'

5. Before I proceed, I would observe here, that at the beginning of the second part of the Allegories of the sacred scriptures, which relate to the New Testament, the four evangelists, with their symbols, are expressly mentioned.

6. Again, in another place, speaking of the four evangelists, and their gospels, he says: Of all the evangelists, Luke, the third in order, is reckoned to have been most skilful in the Greek tongue; for he was a physician, and wrote his gospel in Greece.'

sunt Matthæus, Marcus, Lucas, et Joannes; secundus apostolicus, in quo sunt Paulus in quatuordecim epistolis, Petrus in duabus, Joannes in tribus, Jacobus et Judas in singulis, Actus apostolorum, et Apocalypsis Joannis. Origin. 1. 6. c. 1. p. 44. De scriptoribus et vocabulis sanctorum librorum. 8 Hi sunt scriptores sacrorum librorum, qui per Spiritum Sanctum loquentes ad eruditionem nostram et præcepta vivendi et credendi regulam conscripserunt. Præter hæc et alia volumina apocrypha nuncupantur. Apocrypha autem dicta, id est, secreta, quia in dubium veniunt. Est enim eorum occulta origo, nec patet patribus, ex quibus usque ad nos auctoritas veracium scripturarum certissima et notissima successione pervenit. In iis apocryphis etsi inveniatur aliqua veritas, tamen, propter multa falsa, nulla est in eis canonica auctoritas. Nam multa et sub nominibus prophetarum, et recentiora sub nominibus apostolorum ab hæreticis proferuntur. Quæ omnia sub nomine apocryphorum auctoritate canonicâ diligenti examinatione remota sunt. Ib. cap. 2. p. 46. h P. 351.

Tertius Lucas inter omnes evangelistas Græci sermonis eruditissimus, quippe ut medicus, in Græciâ evangelium scripsit. Orig. 1. 6. c. 2. p. 45.

III. We may now make some remarks, and they are exceeding easy and obvious.

1. Isidore, of Seville, received all the same books of the New Testament which we do.

2. About some of these there were then, or had formerly been, doubts; particularly about the epistle to the Hebrews, the epistle of James, the second epistle of Peter, the second and third of John. This he mentions freely in which I think he is in the right; for it is very fit that the truth of things should be known and acknowledged.


3. There were not any christian writings whatever, beside those of the apostles and evangelists, now received by us, which were of authority: there were, indeed, some books, called apocryphal; but they were so much disliked, and were so contemptible, and so universally rejected and disregarded, that he did not think it needful to mention expressly the names or titles of any of them; nor has he, in any one of the catalogues of the books of scripture, mentioned any writing after the book of the Revelation, which made any claim to be a part of the New Testament, or to be esteemed of canonical authority.

4. The order of the books of the New Testament, as mentioned by Isidore, deserves some notice. There were two parts, or divisions; one called the gospels or evangelists, the other the apostles; and in this last the book of the Acts is placed moreover, in all the catalogues we see this order; first the gospels, then the epistles of the apostle Paul, then the catholic epistles, after them the Acts, and lastly the Revelation; so it is in every chapter, where the books of the New Testament are enumerated by this writer.

5. They who are desirous to see Isidore's catalogues of the books of the Old Testament, placed together, with remarks upon them, may consult H. Hody. Those catalogues would have been here likewise, and with remarks, if I had had room: as I have not, I must forbear; for it is time to hasten to a conclusion.

IV. A word or two will suffice, for showing the respect which he had for the sacred books of scripture. It appears, in what has been already transcribed, where he speaks of the Holy Spirit as their author, they having been written by inspired prophets and apostles; and he expressly says, that they contain the precepts of life, and the rule of faith." Moreover, I shall refer to a chapter in the first book of * De Biblior. Text. Orig. Col. 69-72. p. 653, 654.

1 Via per quam itur ad Christum, lex est, per quam vadunt ad eum hi, qui, ut est, intelligunt eam

sentences; where he says, that by the law, rightly understood, we come to Christ; and he shows, that the scriptures may be profitably read by all sorts of men.

V. 1. In his Chronicle, under the reign of the emperor Caius Caligula, who died in the beginning of the year 41, Isidore says, 'At this time the apostle Matthew wrote, the first, his gospel in Judea.'

2. Under the reign of Claudius, who died in the year 54, he says, In his reign the apostle Peter went to Rome to oppose Simon Magus. The evangelist Mark also preaching Christ at Alexandria, wrote his gospel:' nevertheless, before he said, that Mark wrote in Italy.

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3. Under Nero, whose reign ended in 68, he says, Inp his time Simon Magus, who had proposed a dispute with the apostles Peter and Paul, and had promised to fly up to heaven, at the prayers of Peter and Paul, was, at noon day, thrown down by the dæmons who had carried him up into the air on account of whose death, by order of Nero, Peter was crucified, and Paul beheaded.'

4. I must not stay to make many remarks: I only observe, that this must be reckoned by all very inaccurate, and also inconsistent. Peter, as before said, went to Rome in the reign of Claudius, to oppose Simon Magus. Here the dispute with Simon Magus, and his death, are placed in the reign of Nero, and near the end of it; for about that time the martyrdoms of the two fore-mentioned apostles are supposed to have happened.


5. Of Domitian, whose reign is computed from 81 to 96, he says, He raised a persecution against the christians. In his time the apostle John, having been banished into the island of Patmos, wrote the Revelation.'

Scriptura sacra pro uniuscujusque lectoris intelligentiâ variatur, sicut manna, quod populo veteri pro singulorum delectatione varium dabat saporem. Juxta sensuum capacitatem singulis sermo Domini congruit. Sentent. 1. 1. c. 18. And see Ja. Basnage Hist. de l'Egl. 1. 9. ch. 3. sect. 11. Matthæus apostolus evangelium primus in Judæâ scripsit. Isid. Chr. p. 268. "Eo regnante, Petrus apostolus, contra Simonem Magnum, Romam pergit. Marcus quoque evangelista. Alexandriæ Christum prædicans, evangelium scripsit. Ibid.

• See p. 367. P Hujus temporibus Simon Magus, cum altercationem proposuisset cum Petro et Paulo, apostolis, dicens se quamdam virtutem esse Dei magnam, medio die dum ad patrem volare promittit in cœlum, a dæmonibus, a quibus in aëre ferebatur, adjurante eos Petro per Deum, Paulo vero orante, dimissus crepuit. Ob cujus necem a Nerone Petrus crucifigitur, Paulus gladio cæditur. Ib. p. 268. His post Neronem secundus, superbia exsecrabilis, Deum se appellari jussit, christianos persequi paganis instituit. Sub quo apostolus Joannes, in Pathmos insulam relegatus, Apocalypsim scripsit. Ibid.



1. LEONTIUS was for some time an advocate at Constantinople, and is generally supposed to have been a native of that city he afterwards retired from the world, and lived a monk in Palestine. By some he is reckoned a writer of the sixth, by others of the seventh century; or said to have lived partly in the one, partly in the other. Caves placeth him as flourishing about the year 590; Fabricius at 610, to whom I refer for accounts of his works.

2. Though he be so late a writer, he deserves our notice, as he has left a complete catalogue of books of scripture, received by christians in that part of the world where he lived.

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3. The books received by the church, says he, are the books of the ancient, and of the new scripture. The ancient scripture is that written before the coming of Christ, the new since. Of the ancient scripture there are two and twenty books ; some historical, some prophetical, some mom ral and poetical.

a Vid. Du Pin, Bib. des Aut. Ec. T. v. p. 85. Hody de Bibl. Text. Orig. p. 648. J. Ens. Biblioth. Sacr. p. 169.

b S. Basnag. Hist. de l'Eglise, l. 8. c. x. p. 445.

H. L. T. i. p. 543.


d Bib. Gr. T. vii. p. 451.


τεως αριθμησωμεθα τα εκκλησιαστικα βιβλια. Των τοινυν εκκλησιαστικων βιβλιων τα μεν της παλαιας εισι γραφης, τα δε της νεας. λαιαν δε λεγομεν γραφην την προ της παρεσίας τε Χρισε, νεαν δε την μετά την παρεσίαν. Της μεν εν παλαιας βιβλια εισιν κβ' ων τα μεν εισιν ίςορικα, τα δε προφητικά, τα δε παραινετικα, τα δε προς το ψάλλειν γενομενα-Τα τοινυν ίτορικα βιβλια εισι ιβ. Και ταυτα μεν ἱςορικα. Προφητικά δε εισι πεντε, ὧν πρωτον εςιν ὁ Ησαΐας, δευτερον ὁ Ιερεμίας, τριτον ὁ Εζεκιήλ, τεταρτον ὁ Δανιηλ, πεμπτον το δωδεκα προφητον λεγομεν, εν ώ δωδεκα προφητων κειται προφητεια. Παραινετικα εισι βιβλια δ. Εισι δε ταυτα τα τρια βιβλια Σολομωντος. Μετα ταυτα ετι το ψαλτηριον. Και ταύτα μεν εισι τα κβ' βιβλια της παλαιας. Της δε νέας έξ εισι βιβλια ων δυο περιέχει της τεσσαρας ευαγγελισας. Το μεν γαρ εχει Ματθαιον και Μαρχον, το δε έτερον Λ8καν και Ιωαννην. Τριτον εσιν αἱ Πράξεις των αποςόλων· τεταρτον αἱ καθολικαι επιτολαι, εσαι έπτα, ων πρωτη το Ιακωβε ετιν, ἡ β', και ἡ γ' Πετρε, ἡ δ', και ε, και 5, τω Ιωαννε· ἡ δὲ ζ' τις Ιεδα. Καθολικαι δε εκληθησαν, επειδαν 8 προς έν εθνος εγράφησαν, ως αἱ το Παυλο, αλλα καθολι προς παντα. Πεμπτον βιβλιον αἱ ιδ τε ἁγιο Παυλο επιπολαι. Εκτον ετιν ή Αποκαλυψις το άγιο Ιωαννω. Ταυτα εςι τα κανονι ζομενα βιβλια εν τη εκκλησία, και παλαια και νεα ων τα παλαια παντα δεχονται Εβραιοι. Leont. Advocat. Byzant. de Sectis. Act. ii. Ap. Bib. PP. Paris, 1644. T. xi. p. 496-498. Conf. Bib. PP. Lugdun. T. ix. p. 662, 663.

The historical books are twelve: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy: and of these books, called the Pentateuch, Moses is universally allowed to be the author: but the names of the writers of the books, which follow next, are unknown. The sixth is the book of Joshua the son of Nun: the seventh is called the book of the Judges: the eighth is the book of Ruth: the two next contain the history of the kingdoms; they are really four books, but are reckoned two only; the ninth and tenth then are the books of the Kingdoms: the eleventh is the Remains, so called, because it contains things omitted by the writers of the books of the Kingdoms: the twelfth is Ezra, [meaning our Ezra and Nehemiah,] containing the history of the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity, in the reign of Cyrus. These are the historical books.

The prophetical books are five: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, and the book of the twelve Prophets.

The moral and poetical are also four: Job, by some supposed to be written by Joseph: the Proverbs, the Ecclesiastes, the Canticles, which three were written by Solomon after them is the Psalter. These are the two and twenty books of the ancient scripture.


The books of the New Testament are six: the first two of which contain the four evangelists: the first Matthew and Mark, the second Luke and John: the third is the Acts of the Apostles: the fourth the catholic Epistles, being seven in number; the first is the epistle of James, the second and third are the epistles of Peter, the fourth, fifth, and sixth, the epistles of John, the seventh is the epistle of Jude; they are called catholic, because they are not written to one nation, as Paul's epistles, but in general to all: the fifth book is the fourteen epistles of Paul: the sixth is the Revelation of John. These are the ancient and the new books, which are received in the church as canonical: all the ancient are received by the Jews.'

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4. I shall add a passage, which is not far below, in the next section, where he says, Again' the times from Christ to Constantine have a threefold division: the first is from the nativity of Christ to his ascension: the next is after his ascension, of which the Acts of the Apostles treat; the third is from that period, and the death of the apostles, to the

f οἱ δε απο της ανηληψεως, περί ών διαλαμβανεσιν αἱ Πράξεις των αποςόλων· οἱ δε απο της περιοδο και τελευτης των αποτόλων, αχρι της αρχής της βασιλειας Κωνςαντινε. Περὶ ὧν διαλαμβανεσι τινες εκκλησιασικοι ισορικοι —ες εξ ανάγκης ου δεχόμεθα. Μεχρι γαρ των Πράξεων των αποτόλων κεκανονιται δέχεσθαι ήμας. Act. 3. p. 503. Α. Β. C.

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