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HISTORY AND SURVEY
London & its Environs.
SURVEY OF THE OUT-PARISHES, FORMING THE SUBURBS OF LONDON AND WESTMINSTER..
St. Mary-borne.--The ancient Village of Tyborne.-City Conduits and Banqueting-house.-Marybone Gardens and Park.--Oxford-street.-Portman-square.--Manchester square.--Stratford.place.-Oxford Chapel.--Ca vendish-square.-Portland-place.-Portland Chapel.Middlesex Hospital.--St. Giles, in the Fields.-coln's-Inn-Fields.-St. George, Bloomsbury.-BedfordSquare. British Museum.-Bloomsbury-square.-Russel-square.-Tavistock-square.
THE several parishes which constitute the suburbs of this great metropolis, having no common government, may be considered as so many distinct villages, and must be treated of separately. In order
to do this in the most connected manner, we shall begin with the parish of St. Maryborne, at the western extremity, and speak of them in succession, until the circuit is completed.
The parish of St. Maryborne, or, as it is commonly styled, Mary-la-bonne, and Marybone, owes its rise to the decay of the village of Tyborne, and is situated in the hundred of Ossulston, and liberty of Finsbury.
The village of Tyborne appears to have been nearly where the north-west part of Oxford-street now is; Marybone court-house being supposed, from the number of human bones dug up there, in 1729, to stand upon the site of the old church and cemetery belonging to it. This church, which was dedicated to John the Evangelist, being left alone by the high-. way side, in consequence of the decay of the village, was robbed of its books, vestments, bells, images, and other decorations; wherefore, the parishioners petitioned the Bishop of London for leave to take down their old church, and erect a new one elsewhere; which being readily granted, they, in the year 1400, built a church, where they had for some time had a chapel, and the structure being dedicated to the Virgin Mary, received the additional epithet of borne, or bourn, from the neighbouring brook.
This brook was called Tyborne, and gave name tɔ the village which stood on its banks, and was of great antiquity; for it is mentioned, in Doomsday-book, as a manor at that time belonging to the abbess and nuns of Barking, in the county of Essex; and in the decretal sentence of Stephen, Archbishop of Canterbury, in the great controversy between Eustace, Bishop of London, and William, Abbot of Westminster, in the year 1222, this rivulet is expressly called Tyburn.
There was formerly a bridge over this rivulet, in Oxford-road, and at the east end of it stood the lord mayor's banqueting-house, in the neighbourhood of which the citizens of London had nine conduits, that were erected about the year 1238, for supplying the city with water; but, having been since better supplied from the New River, the citizens, in the year 1703, let the water of these conduits on lease, for seven hundred pounds per annum.
While the water for the use of the city was derived from these conduits, it was usual for the lord mayor and aldermen, on horseback, accompanied by their ladies in waggons, to ride thither, occasionally, to view them; after which they were entertained at the banqueting house. Stow gives the following account of one of these visitations, on the 18th of September, 1562. "The lord mayor (Harper), aldermen, and many worshipful persons, and divers of the masters and wardens of the twelve companies, rid to the conduit heads, for to see them, after the old custom: and afore dinner, they hunted the hare, and killed her, and thence to dinner at the head of the conduit. There was a good number, entertained with good cheer by the chamberlain. And after dinner they went to hunting the fox. There was a great cry for a mile; and at length the hounds killed him, at the end of St. Giles's. Great hallowing at his death, and blowing of hornes. And thence the lord maior, with all his company, rode through London, to his place in Lumbard-street." This banqueting-house, under which were two cisterns for the reception of the water of the conduits, having been many years neglected by the citizens, was, in the year 1737, taken down, and the cisterns arched
The old church, which was a very mean edifice, was pulled down, and the present edifice erected, in
1741. It is a plain brick building, on each side of which is a series of small arched windows; and the only ornaments belonging to it, are a vase at each corner, and a turret at the west end.
The church of Tyborne appears to have been anciently a vicarage, in the gift of the Prior and Convent of St. Lawrence de Blackmore, in the county of Essex, who converted it into a curacy; the advowson of which continued in them till the dissolution of their priory. In the year 1553, Edward VI. granted it to Thomas Reve, to be held in soccage of the manor of East Greenwich; since which it has come into the possession of the Earls of Oxford; in whose hands it still remains.
At a short distance from the church, in the New Road, is the workhouse for this parish, which is one of the largest and most commodious establishments of that description, in or near the metropolis. It was erected in the year 1775, and, with the infirmary adjoining, is fitted up with every convenience which philanthropy could suggest, for the comfort of those whose age or infirmities compels them to seek such an asylum.
To the east of the church was a place of public entertainment, nearly upon the plan of Vauxhall, called Marybone-gardens, where were nightly performances of vocal and instrumental music, frequently terminated with a display of fireworks. While the gar dens were open to the fields, no danger was apprehended from these amusements; but when the population of the neighbourhood increased, much uneasiness arose in the minds of the inhabitants, lest some accident should be occasioned by them; which produced frequent complaints to the magistrates, and, at length, about the year 1773, they were suppressed. The site of them is now covered with several good