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written; and derive the fingular benefit from that part of it, which treats of the Evidences of revealed Religion. In compofing this part, Dr. Clarke is faid to have availed himself of the fecond part of Mr. Baxter's Reasons of the Chriftian Religion, published in 1667; and it would certainly be of use to the reader to perufe that excellent difcourfe, and to compare it with this of Dr. Clarke.
A Difcourfe on Prophecy.
This difcourfe is taken from a Volume of Difcourfes by John Smith, formerly fellow of Queen's College, Cambridge. The difcourses were publifhed after his death in 1656, and are all of them very valuable, but this is particularly fo: it was tranflated into Latin by Le Clerc, and prefixed to his Commentary on Ifaiah, &c. The reader will find fomething on this fubject in Vitringa's Obfervationes Sacra; in different parts of the Thefaurus Theologico-philologicus; in Du Pin's Prolegomenes fur la Bible; in Jenkin's Reafonablenefs of Chriftianity; in Prideaux's Old and New Teftament connected; in Bishop Williams's Sermons at Boyle's Lecture; and especially in the first Chapter of Carpzovius Introductio ad libros propheticos; the xxvIII Section of which contains a catalogue of fuch of the Fathers, Rabbins, Lutheran, Catholic, and Reformed writers, as have treated, de Prophetiæ et Prophetarum natura, caufis, differentia, et affectionibus.
An Efay on the Teaching and Witness of the Holy
The late Lord Barrington rendered great fervice to Chriftianity by his Mifcellanea Sacra. In the Effay which is here printed from the firft volume of that work, he has explained the Gifts of the Holy Spirit which prevailed in the primitive Church with more precifion, and fet the Argument in favour of Chriftianity, which is derived from the Witnefs of the Spirit, in a ftronger light than any other Author has done. The Subject has been handled by Whitby in his book, intituled, The Certainty of the Chriftian Faith, and in his General Preface concerning the divine Authority of the Epiftles; by Benton, in his Reafonablenets of Chriftianity, and in other parts of his Works; by Warburten, in his Doctrine of Grace; by Secker, Tilletfen, Chindler, and other Divines, in their Sermons and indeed it is a fubject which deferves all attention; for whatever contrariety of opinion may take place, concerning the Agency of the Holy Spirit on the Minds of the faithful in the prefent ftate of the
Chriftian Church, the extraordinary Gifts which were beftowed on the primitive Chriftans are matters of fact which cannot well be controverted, and which, if admitted, prove to a demonftration the Truth of the Chriftian Religion.
An Effay concerning Inspiration, taken from Doctor
What Dr. Powel has faid in his discourse, intitled, The Nature and Extent of Inspiration illuftrated from the writings of St. Paul, is very fimilar to what Dr. Benfon has advanced in this fhort Effay. Both the Authors fuppofe the Inspiration of the Apostles to have confifted in their having had the Scheme of the Gofpel communicated to them from Heaven; in their having retained, to the end of their lives, the memory of what had been thus communicated to them; and in their having committed to writing, by the use of their natural faculties, what they remembered. This fubject of Infpiration has been difcuffed by Tillotson, Secker, Warburton, and other English Divines in their Sermons; by Le Clerc, in his Letters concerning Infpiration; by Lowth, in his Anfwer to Le Clerc; by Wakefield, in his Effay on Infpiration; by Caftalio, in a fragment printed at the End of Wetstein's Greek Teftament; by Archbishop Potter, in his Prælectiones Theologica; by Dr. Middleton, in the fecond Volume of his Miscellaneous Works; by Jenkins, in his Reasonableness of Chriftianity; by Du Pin, in his Prolegomenes fur la Bible; by Calmet, in his Differtation fur l'Infpiration, printed in the eighth Volume of his Commentary on the Bible: in this Differtation Calmet enumerates the Sentiments of a great variety of Authors on the Manner of Infpiration; and to thofe Authors I would refer the Reader who is defirous of full information on this Subject.
An Efay concerning the Unity of Senfe: to shew that no Text of Scripture has more than one fingle Sense. p. 481.
This is prefixed to Dr. Benfon's Paraphrafe on St. Paul's Epiftles. St. Augustine, in the firft Chapter of his twelfth Book contra Fauftum Manichæum, fays-Fauftus afferted that, after the most attentive and curious Search, he could not find that the Hebrew Prophets had prophefied concerning Chrift; and Celfus, as it is related by Origen, introduced a Jew affirming, that the Prophecies, which were gene
rally applied to Chrift, might more fitly be applied to other Matters: other Enemies of the Chriftian name, in the firft ages of the Church, ftrongly objected to the pertinency of adducing the Old Teftament Prophecies, as proofs that Jefus of Nazareth was the Meffiah.
On the other hand, fome of the ancient Fathers (not content with fhewing, that a great many prophecies refpected the Meffiah, and received a direct and full accomplifhent in the Perfon of Jefus of Nazareth) maintained that almost all the predictions and hiftorical Events, mentioned in the Old Teftament, had an indirect and typical relation to his advent, character, or kingdom.
Grotius is faid (though the fact may be queftioned) to have been the first Interpreter of Scripture, who diftin&tly fhewed, that the greatest part of the Prophecies of the Old Teftament had a double fenfe, and have received a double accomplishment. He maintained that the Predictions, even of the Evangelical Prophet Ifaiah, related in their primary and literal fenfe to the times and circumftances of the Jewith People, but that they refpected the Meffiah iu a fecondary and allegorical Senfe. Limberch, in his Commentary on the Acts of the Apoftles, accedes to the Opinion of Grotius in these words-rectè à doctiffimis interpretibus obfervatum eft, pauciffima effe apud Prophetas vaticinia, quæ directè et fenfu primo de Domino Jefu loquuntur; fed plerifque duplicem ineffe fenfum, literalem unum, olim in typo imperfectè, alterum myfticum, in Domino Jefu plenè et perfectè impletum.
Father Baltus, a Jefuit, in the Year 1737, publifhed his Defenfe des Prophetics de la Religion Chretienne; in this work he purpofely examines and refutes the Opinion of Grotius at great length; and fhews that the most ancient Fathers of the Church, as Juftin Martyr, Tertullian, Origen, &c. never thought of interpreting the Prophecies of the Old Teftament in a double Senfe; but applied them in their literal meaning to the Meffiah. Whifton, in his Sermons preached at Boyle's Lecture in 1707, had fupported the fame fentiment before Baltus: he ftrongly contended that "the Prophecies of the Old Teftament at all appertaining to the Meffiah, particularly thofe which are quoted as Teftimonies and Arguments in "the New Teftament, do properly and folely belong to the Meffiah, ❝and did not at all concern any other perfon.' In 1710, Arcbdeacon Clogget animadverted on this notion of Whifton, and undertook the Vindication of thofe Chriftian Commentators who had ex-plained fome prophecies concerning the Meffiah as not folely relating to him, in a Treatife, intituled, Truth defended and Boldnes in Error rebuked.
In 1724, Collins publifhed, a Difcourfe on the Grounds and Reafons of the Chriftian Religion, in which he revived the Objections of Fauftus, Origen, and fuch other early writers against Christianity, as had endeavoured to prove that the Prophecies of the Old Teftament had no direct relation to Jefus Chrift. I refer the Reader to Exland's View of the Deiftical Writers, and to Fabricius' Lux Evangelica, for an Account of the feveral Anfwers which were pub
lifhed to this and to another work of the fame Author, intitled, The Scheme of literal Prophecy confidered. Bishop Warburton alfo, in the fixth Book of The Divine Legation of Mofes, has anfwered what Collins had objected against a second Senfe of Prophecy laftly, Doctor Fortin, not to mention fome learned Authors who are ftill alive, and who have written very ably on Prophecy, has given us fome very judicious Observations, both con. cerning Prophecy in general, and concerning a double Senfe of fome Prophecies, in the firft Volume of His Remarks on Ecclefiaftical Hiftory.