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rusty, olive-coloured velveteen breeches, also decorated with lace; and round his legs were wrapped a pair of dressed deer-skins, tied under the knee by a garter. He had on a pair of country-made shoes; and on each heel was a tremendous iron spur, inlaid with silver, weighing near a pound, with rowels four inches in diameter. On his head was placed a country-made hat, with an eight-inch brim, ornamented with a broad silver band, in the front of which was stuck a large picture of the Virgin of Guadalupe, inclosed in a frame, and protected by a glass. He was mounted on a fine horse, and armed with a brace of pistols, a Spanish Toledo, and an immensely long lance. His men were equipped much in the same style; but were principally clad and armed with the spoils taken from the enemy. Though these Mexican Cossacks were thus singularly and rudely equipped, they were robust-looking fellows, accustomed to hardships and severe privations, and full of courage.'...

The muster rolls of the division on its arrival at Sombrero, a fortress in possession of the patriots, presented a total of 269 combatants; a number which, though too small for any effective purpose, would have served admirably as a nucleus for the formation of a disciplined native army. Unfortunately for Mina, the principal chiefs of the insurrection were not disposed to join him, and the spirit of disunion which actuated them, prevented any co-operation among themselves. Still he was not discouraged; with about 330 men he encountered and defeated at San Juan de los Llanos, 700 royalists under Castanon, who was mortally wounded; and he obtained pecuniary means by seizing the fortified hacienda of Jaral. In the mean time, the Spaniards were besieging the fort of Soto la Marina, where Mina had imprudently shut up more than a hundred of his men, who might have rendered good service had they accompanied him, instead of being left to occupy an untenable fortification. After a spirited defence, they were compelled to surrender. Elated with this advantage, and aware of the danger which still threatened the province from the activity and intrepidity of Mina, the Viceroy of Mexico made extraordinary efforts, and placing a strong division under the orders of general Linan, who is described as a sanguinary ruffian, sent it to lay siege to Sombrero, which was garrisoned by the whole of Xavier's force. Nearly without food, and slenderly provided with ammunition, the besieged soon found their position untenable, and the entire destitution of water compelled them to evacuate the fortress, which had been previously left by their leader. This step completed their destruction. They were pursued, cut up by the royalist cavalry, and, ultimately, only fifty escaped out of two hundred and sixtynine. Mina had proceeded to the strong hill-fort of los Remedios, held by Torres, a patriot chief, who is blamed by Mr.

Robinson as the chief cause of the previous and subsequent disasters. Here he succeeded in obtaining a body of nine hundred irregular cavalry, and immediately took the field. On his march

' he met Ortiz, with nineteen of the division, who had escaped from Sombrero. There were six officers among these nineteen men. The moment the general saw them, he put spurs to his horse, and flew to receive them. He cordially gave them a soldier's embrace, and with great eagerness asked, "Where are the rest?" He was answered, "We are all that are left." The blow was severe: his countenance depicted the anguish of his heart; and placing his leg across the pummel of his saddle, he reclined his head on his hand. His fine eye glistened with the warrior's tear of sensibility; but quickly recovering himself, his countenance resumed its accustomed serenity. The general retained four officers and six soldiers of the nineteen, and ordered the rest to take commands under Ortiz.'

Linan now laid seige to los Remedios, while Mina kept the field, and by way of diversion engaged in enterprises which led to no specific result. He stormed Biscocho, and, in reprisal for the massacre of Sombrero, ordered the garrison to be shot, But the term of his career was now approaching. After repeated disappointments in minor enterprises, he attempted to seize by a coup de main, the large and important city of Guanaxuato, and failing, occupied a post where he was surprised and taken prisoner by the Spaniards under the command of Arrantia. He was not suffered to remain long in suspense; on the 11th of November, 1817,

He was conducted under a military escort to the fatal ground, attended by file of the Caçadores of the regiment of Zaragoza. In this last scene of his life was the hero of Navarre not unmindful of his character; with a firm step he advanced to the fatal spot, and with his usual serenity told the soldiers to take good aim, "Y no me hagais sufrir," (and don't let me suffer.) The officer commanding gave the accustomed signal; the soldiers fired; and that spirit fled from earth, which, for all the qualities which constitute the hero and the patriot, seemed to have been born for the good of mankind.

So anxious was the government that his death should be confirmed, that Linan was instructed to detach a surgeon from each European regiment, and the captain of each company, to attend the execution, who should certify that Mina was dead, and moreover describe the manner in which the balls entered his body, and note the one that caused his death. This was done, and the singular document was afterwards published in the Gazette of Mexico.

Thus perished this gallant youth, in the twenty-eighth year of his age. His short but brilliant career entitles him to a distinguished place on the list of those heroes who have shed their blood in bold and geneVOL. XVIII. N. S.


rous exertions to break the tyrant's sceptre, and to extend the blessings of freedom among the human race.

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No man was ever better calculated to execute an enterprise of hazard than Xavier Mina. His person was slight, but well formed, and about five feet seven inches in height. His physical structure was well adapted for action. His moral qualities were great; and personal valour he possessed in an eminent degree. Serene in the hour of danger, he was always prepared to seize upon any advantages that were offered by the conjuncture of events. At the head of his men, he infused into them bis own spirit. In his diet, he was frugal in the extreme; no privations nor hardships seemed to affect him. He always preferred the simplest beverage. His cloak and saddle were his usual bed; even in the worst of weather, when every accommodation could have been afforded him, he encamped with his troops. He was affable, generous, and candid; his moderation and humanity were alike conspicuous; and to all the qualities of the soldier he united the manners and accomplishments of the gentleman.'

We must refer to the work itself for the subsequent events: the details of a guerrilla warfare are not easily reduced into a narrow compass, and they can be read with interest only in their original form. Los Remedios fell, and with the exception of a body of determined men under Guerrero, all the patriotic bands were destroyed or dispersed.

The concluding chapter contains a variety of speculations on the subject of trade, and on the practicability of effecting a communication between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, through the isthmus of Darien, and other parts of the long and narrow tract which connects North and South America. That the project is feasible, we suppose there can be no question; Mr. Robinson even affirms that it has been so far realized as to allow, until the interference of the government closed the passage, the transit of goods in canoes. Whether the different points of section marked in the map are the best chosen for this important operation, can be determined only by scientific


Art IX. Advice to the young Mother in the Management of Herself and Infant. By a Member of the Royal College of Surgeons. 12mo. pp. 112. London. 1821.

WE regret that we cannot recommend this well-meant work. We can give no better reason for our objections to it, than is supplied by a remark in the Preface.

It is utterly impossible that any one not educated for our arduous profession, can be capable of understanding domestic medicine in all its branches: indeed, the mischief daily witnessed upon the constitution of

numerous individuals, who seize with avidity a remedy before they have ascertained the disease, sufficiently proves the accuracy of the statement. It is better, and deserves deep impression upon the parent's mind, never to trifle with a disease, nor attempt prescribing, when the attack is of a formidable nature.'

After this remark, we hardly expected to find among the Contents, On Croup, on Hooping Cough, on Measles, on 'Scarlet Fever,' and on Small Pox.' These are, it is true, infantile diseases respecting which it is highly desirable that a young mother should have right notions; and had the Author contented himself with pointing out the nature and the incipient symptoms of these complaints, we could not have objected to his including them in his directions. But really, when he proceeds to lecture on their proper treatment at the successive stages of the complaint, and to prescribe an almost ad libitum, or at least indefinite exhibition of powerful medicines; as for instance, Epsom salts and senna, with previous doses of calomel, in scarlet fever;-we must pause before we give our sanction to such indiscreet advice. Scarlet fever, indeed, our Author does not rank among formidable attacks. He says;

"The scarlet fever, when joined with sore throat, is attended sometimes with fatal consequences; therefore, if the patient complains, and deglutition appears difficult, the medical man should be called in.'

This is very disinterested advice on the part of our Member of the College of Surgeons; but ours, more especially to a young mother, would be, to call in the medical man in the first instance, and not to tamper with her child's constitution.

In treating of Croup, the Author does advise that 'imme'diate recourse should be had to the medical man, when the ⚫ disease is suspected or ascertained.' Any other advice would be madness. But having given this useful direction, it was quite unnecessary to perplex the young mother with distinctions between chronic croup, and inflammatory croup; distinctions which, we take leave to say, are by no means sound in themselves, and are likely only to mislead in practice. The name of croup is often misapplied, and its supposed cure has frequently brought no small credit to the practitioner. But croup, properly speaking, is in all cases inflammatory; and as depletion affords the only chance of subduing it, the parent, as she values her own peace of mind, ought not to lose a moment in calling in the aid of the medical practitioner.

We are surprized at meeting with a continual reference to the treatment of Adults. Surely, a young mother has little to do with them. Thus, speaking of measles, our Author says, 'when attacking adults, general bleeding is the very best

remedy.' And again, we have graduated doses of various medicines for adults. The cough in measles is, says the Author, 'best relieved by nauseating doses of ipecacuana, from half a grain to a grain or two, every third or fourth hour, combined with two or three grains of powdered nitre. Or by the following, if that be unpleasant: Take equal parts of milk of almonds, and syrup of white poppies, add a spoonful of paragoric to every ounce of the mixture, and give a little every now and then, as the cough is troublesome.'

Now, a young mother would be misled by this or into the notion, that between these two prescriptions there was little to choose. She would, therefore, naturally decide on the least unpleasant' to the child. In point of fact, the former is an excellent prescription; the latter is to be deprecated: the one is an expectorant; the other sedative and astringent.

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Exercise is, beyond dispute, the best promoter of digestion, and should be taken as often as possible.' Here, again, we are under the necessity of differing from this Practitioner. Exercise is found to suspend the process of digestion: it is rather the promoter of appetite. As to the importance of exercise, there can be but one opinion; and there is not much danger of its being taken too often: but it may be resorted to too soon after a full meal. As to individuals obliged to write 'much,' we could furnish our Author with some experimental hints, but they would be of little use to a young mother.

Our most serious objection to this work, respects the Author's list of Domestic Medicines, and his rules for exhibiting them. And first, admitting the general correctness of his gradation of dose, what has a young mother to do with doses for an adult up to 21 years of age? If nothing more powerful than magnesia were entrusted to her, it might be of service that she should know what dose to take herself. But first on the list of opening medicines, stands

'Adult dose large. Calomel-from ij grains to 10 grains.' Scammony, Epsom salts, jalap, &c., follow, and the most useful of all domestic medicines, castor oil, closes the list. Now, of this adult dose, an infant of twelve months is directed to take one twelfth; but whether, in the instance of calomel, it is to be a twelfth of two grains, or a twelfth of ten grains, the mother is to guess. It is a chance if she does not miscalculate. Why not at once prescribe a proper dose for an infant, or older child, of the more simple and unobjectionable medicines? Calomel and

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