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pardon. He was degraded from his rank as an officer, and heard of no more.




The next morning, an Albanian General was ordered into the mountains, with a party of cavalry, to act against the Druses. Djezzar, Further who sent for us to inform us of this cir- with Djezzar. cumstance, further told us, that he entertained some apprehensions on account of our journey to Jerusalem; but, said he, "I have already sent messengers into the country, that every precaution may be used among the Chiefs, in the villages." He spoke also of the news he had received from Egypt, by which he understood that the Vizier had retreated from before Caïro, owing to the plague. "This conduct," said he, "might be justifiable in a Christian General, but it is disgraceful in a Turk1." He then informed us, that upon Mount Carmel he had found several thousand large balls, and and never could discover a

(1) Alluding to the predestinarian doctrines of the Moslems, who consider all endeavours to escape coming events as impious and heretical. (2) We supposed that, by these balls, Djezzar alluded to mineral concretions, of a spheroidal form, found in that mountain. As the Turks make use of stones instead of cannon-shot, it is probable that Djezzar, who was in great want of ammunition, had determined upon using the stalagmites of Carmel for that purpose. Maundrell, however, speaks of having seen, in the fields near Acre, “large balls of



CHAP. cannon to fit them; but that a peasant had — found a field-piece, which Buonaparté had concealed previously to his leaving the country, capable of receiving every one of those balls. During this conversation, which lasted about an hour, interlarded, on the part of Djezzar, with a more than ordinary allowance of aphorisms, truisms, and childish stories, he was occupied, as usual, in cutting paper into various shapes; such as those of coffee-pots, pipes, cannon, birds, and flowers. At last, his engineer coming to consult him concerning the improvements he imagined himself making in the fortifications of Acre, we took that

opportunity to retire. Some notion may
be formed of his talents in fortification, by
simply relating the manner in which those,
works were carried on. He not only repaired
the memorable breach caused by the French,
and so ably defended by Sir Sidney Smith, but
directed his engineers to attend solely to the
place where the breach was effected, regardless
of all that might be wanted elsewhere.

stone, of at least thirteen or fourteen inches diameter, which were part of the ammunition used in battering the city, guns being then unknown.” See Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem, p. 54. Oxf. 1721. Egmont and Heyman saw, within the walls of the castle, "several large stone bullets, thrown into it by means of some military engine now unknown." Trav. through Part of Europe, &c. vol. I. p. 395. Lond. 1759.

persons," said he, putting his finger to his CHAP. forehead, have a head for these matters,

and some have not. Let us see whether or not Buonaparté will make a breach there again. A breach is a breach, and a wall is a wall!"


of Acre.

The Bath of Acre is the finest and best built of any that we saw in the Turkish empire. We all bathed here, during our stay. Every kind of antique marble, together with large pillars of Egyptian granite, might be observed among the materials employed in building it. A great quantity of cotton is exported Commerce from this place. The country abounds in cattle, corn, olives, and linseed. In almost every town of Syria there is a fabric for the manufacture of soap; but every thing depends upon the will of the Pasha: the produce of the land was exported, or not, as it pleased Djezzar, who cared very little for consequences. His avarice, it is true, prompted him to increase the income of his custom-houses; but his ignorance, as it was observed of him by Baron de Tott', prevented his discovering, that speculations of revenue, when they strike at industry, cannot, for that reason, ever be calculated on any principles of commerce."

(1) Memoirs, vol. II. p. 326. ed. Lond. 1785.

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THE HOLY LAND-ACRE TO NAZARETH. Commencement of the Author's Journey in the Holy Land -Camp of Djezzar Pasha's Cavalry-Cavalcade for the Expedition- Syrian Tents-River Belus-Plants -SHEFHAMER-Reception by the Agha-Grave of an Egyptian form - Plain of Zabulon-SAPPHURA, of SEPPHORIS-Medals-Druses-State of Christianity in the Holy Land-Church of St. Joachim and St. Anne -Gothic Remains-Discovery of Antient Pictures Their probable Age-Country between Sephoury and Nazareth-Dress of the Arabs-Alarm of the Plague— NAZARETH-Condition of the Inhabitants-Fountain of


the Virgin
-Custom illustrating a saying of our
SAVIOUR-Franciscan Convent - Pretended Miracle
Superstitions of the Country-Empress Helena - Other
Objects of Reverence in Nazareth-Mensa Christi—
Environs of the Town-Ordinary Penance of Travellers
in the Holy Land.



ment of the


UPON the third of July, we began our journey CHAP, to Jerusalem; intending first to visit all those places in Galilee rendered remarkable by the life and actions of JESUS CHRIST. We left Acre', by the southern gate of the city, at four o'clock P. M. It would be curious to ascertain when this place obtained a name so near to its antient appellation, after bearing that of Ptolemais, not only down to the time of Strabo, but to that of Pliny, who also calls it Colonia Claudii*. It is moreover named Ptolemaïs in the

Journey in the Holy


(1) Brocardus maintains that Acre was never included among the places properly belonging to the HOLY LAND. (Vid. Loc. Terr. Sanct. Desc.) Nunquam fuit terræ sanctæ connumerata, nec a filiis Israël unquam possessa: tametsi tribui Aser in sortem ceciderit.”

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It may

therefore be considered with regard to Phoenicia, which he describes as a part of the Holy Land, what Gibraltar now is with reference to Spain. He makes it the centre of his observations concerning Terra Sancta; taking his departure" always from that city. It was, moreover, the rallying place of the Christians, in every period of the Crusades.


(2) About the same hour, 63 years before, Pococke set out upon the same journey.

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