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as you go through the world. And yet it is worse to have a Christian name that for its oddity shall be in everybody's mouth when you are spoken of, as if it were pinned upon your back or labelled upon your forehead. Quintin Dick, for example, which would have been still more unlucky if Mr Dick had happened to have had a cast in his eye. The Report on Parochial Registration contains a singular example of the inconvenience which may arise from giving a child an uncouth Christian name. A gentleman called Anketil Gray had occasion for a certificate of his baptism; it was known at what church he had been baptised, but on searching the register there no such name could be found; some mistake was presumed, therefore, not in the entry, but in the recollection of the parties, and many other registers were examined without success. At length the first register was again recurred to, and then, upon a closer investigation, they found him entered as Miss Ann Kettle Grey. The Leatherheads and Shufflebottoms, the Higgenses and Huggenses, the Scroggses and Scraggses, Sheepshanks and Ramsbottoms, Taylors and Barbers, and, worse than all, Butchers, would have been to Bayle as abominable as they were to Dr Dove. I ought, the doctor would say, to have a more natural dislike to the names of Kite, Hawk, Falcon, and Eagle; and yet they are to me (the first excepted) less odious than names like these, and even preferable to Bull, Bear, Pig, Hog, Fox, or Wolf. What a name, he would say, is Lamb for a soldier, Joy for an undertaker, Rich for a pauper, or Noble for a tailor; Big for a lean or little person, and Small for one who is broad in the rear and abdominous in the van; Short for a fellow six feet without his shoes, or Long for him whose high heels hardly elevate him to the height of five; Sweet for one who has either a vinegar face or a foxy complexion; Younghusband for an old bachelor; Merryweather for any one in November and February, a black spring, a cold summer, or a wet autumn; Goodenough for a person no better than he should be; Toogood for any human creature; and Best for a subject who is perhaps too bad to be endured. Custom having given to every Christian name its alias, he always used either the baptismal name or its substitute as it happened to suit his fancy, careless of what others might do; thus he never called any woman Mary, though mare, he said, being the sea, was in many respects but too emblematic of the sex, it was better to use a synonyme of better omen, and Molly therefore was to be preferred as being soft-if he accosted a vixen of that name in her worst temper he mollyfied her; on the contrary, he never could be induced to substitute Sally for Sarah-Sally, he said, had a salacious sound, and, moreover, it reminded him of rovers, which women ought not to be; Martha he called Patty, because it came pat to the tongue; Dorothy remained Dorothy, because it was neither fitting that women should be made Dolls nor idols; Susan with him was always Sue, because women were to be sued ; and Winifred, Winny, because they were to be won.-Southey's Doctor
The Lectures are five in number, commencing with the commerce of ancient Egypt, Greece, Tyre and Carthage, Rome, and the East Indies, and we shall go through them in the order in which they stand, selecting those portions best suited to our purpose. Egypt was an independent monarchy for a period of 1700 years, and it is of this period alone that the author treats. The chief manufactures of the country were paper, made from the papyrus, and linen, of so fine a texture that the separate threads of which it was woven were imperceptible. These two articles, with corn and horses, formed the whole of native Egyptian exports. The country produced within itself nearly all that was required for the sustenance of the population; the foreign commerce, consequently, was not great. The imports consisted of timber, metals, drugs and spices-commodities which Egypt did not possess. The spices were used in great quantities in the embalming of the dead-a process adopted in consequence of the popular belief in transmigration of souls. As long as the body of a human being was preserved from decay, the soul would not enter into the body of a brute; and to this cause the country owed the chief portion of her commerce. The timber was used in the construction of vessels, and as the water-communications of the country were very extensive, the transmission of commodities gave rise to a large amount of internal trade, notwithstanding the naturally indolent disposition of the people, and their division into hereditary castes. The son of a shoemaker must be a shoemaker; all the sons of tailors must be tailors; and the son of a soldier, however unfit for a soldier, must nevertheless be a soldier.' This system, although perhaps productive of excellence in mechanical arts, must have tended to repress and deaden anything like commercial enterprise.
'By the law of Egypt,' writes Mr Gilbart, 'the property of a debtor became liable to pay his debts; but his person was free. It was sometimes customary for people to borrow money upon the security of lodging the embalmed body of their fathers. An Egyptian who did not pay this debt and redeem the body, was declared infamous.' If the creditors of a deceased individual were able to prove that he had been guilty of unworthy acts, the rite of interment was denied to the body, which was cast out into the fields. In addition to their idleness, the Egyptians had the character of being proud, sullen, and gloomy; they looked on other nations as their enemies; and to mark the dishonour in which labour was held, one of the pyramids bore this inscription: 'No native Egyptian worked here'. . . . 'Such a disposition,' pursues the author, 'is quite opposed to the spirit of commerce. A merchant knows nothing of national prejudices. He does not consider any class of men his natural enemies, merely because the place where they were born is separated by a chain of mountains, or a river, or an arm of the sea, from the place where he was born. He is a citizen of the world, and he promotes the happiness of the whole world, by imparting to the inhabitants of every part of it comforts and luxuries, which but for him they could not possess.' It is worthy of remark that the whole, or nearly the whole, of the foreign commerce of Egypt was carried on by strangers.
COMMENTS ON COMMERCE. COMMERCE is so intimately connected with some of the best interests of society-so essential to the progress of civilisation that its history will always be interesting. Whether taken in relation to our physical, intellectual, or moral wants, we are more indebted to commercial exchange, than is at first sight apparent. We avail ourselves of a work lately issued from the press, intended for private circulation, to present our readers with a few facts illustrative of commerce in ancient times. Comparison with the past is always useful in teaching us how to avoid the errors and false principles which paralysed the resources of older communities. The author of the book before us is already favourably known for his works on banking, &c., and the active part taken by him in the establishment of a scientific and literary society in Water-monger, who over-rated his fish, and afterwards took less ford and the metropolis.
Lectures on the History and Principles of Ancient Commerce. By J. W. GILBART, F.R.S.
Although the character of the Greeks was far more favourable to commerce than that of the Egyptians, we meet with frequent instances of laws and customs which rendered all commercial enterprise nugatory: the laws of Lycurgus, for example, which, by preventing every tendency to luxury, made a whole nation content itself with the coarsest fare. Where there is no desire for what are called the comforts of life, there can be no commercial activity. By the laws of Athens, no agricultural or manufactured produce required for home consumption could be exported. Fishmongers were not allowed to put their fish in water, to render them more saleable. A fish
than he had first asked for them, was to suffer imprisonment. No seller of seals was to retain the impression of one he had sold. No man was to exercise two trades. No foreigner was allowed to sell wares in the market,
or to exercise any trade. He who obtained great repute, and was esteemed the most ingenious in his profession, was to receive a mark of honour. Whoever lived an idle life, squandered his father's property, or refused to support his parents when in want, was declared infamous. But if the father had neglected to bring up his son to some trade, the son was not bound to maintain his father, although in want. Collectors attended in the forum, to receive the duties laid on everything that was sold, and magistrates to superintend what passed. There each trade had a separate market-as the baker's market, the fish market, the oil market, and many others; and different hours were appointed for the sale of different commodities.' Readiness of access to the market seems to have been as much an object with the working population of Athens as it is in the large towns of this country. The forum, we are informed, was the most frequented part of the city; workmen of all kinds endeavoured to reside near it, and in it houses let at a higher price than any where else."'
The Egyptians used lumps of solid gold and silver as money, but the Greeks adopted the more convenient form of stamped coin. The pence table of the latter would have run thus:-6 oboles, 1 drachma; 100 drachmas, 1 mina; 60 minas, 1 talent. These were all of silver, the obole being worth about threehalfpence of our money, the mina £3: 15s., and the talent £225. For a long time the Athenians had no copper coinage; it was the same in England. Previous to the year 1344 all our coinage was silver; at that date gold was introduced; but copper formed no part of the circulation until 1609.
toys; cables, made of the shrub Spartum, a kind of broom; all kinds of naval stores; and the colour from them called Punic, the preparation of which seems to have been peculiar to them. So famous was Carthage for its artificers, that any singular invention or exquisite piece of workmanship seems to have been called Punic, even by the Romans. Thus the Punic beds or couches, the Punic windows, the Punic wine-presses, the Punic lanterns, were esteemed the more neat and elegant by that people.' The whole of Carthaginian history testifies to the great benefits conferred upon a community by commerce-by open and friendly relations with other countries. The branch of business called bottomry, lending on the security of shipping, is said to have originated with the Carthaginians; and a suggestion has been thrown out that their leather money might have possessed properties and effects similar to that of modern paper money. The basis of their prosperity consisted doubtless in their probity and love of justice, a desire for wealth associated with habits of prudence and economy, and a high respect for commerce. At this point Mr Gilbart observes, 'No man will excel in his profession if he thinks himself above it, and commerce will never flourish in any country where commerce is not respected. Commerce will never flourish in a country where property acquired by industry is considered less deserving of respect than property acquired by inheritance. Commerce will never flourish in a country where men in business, instead of bringing up their sons to the same business, think it more respectable to send them to professions.'
In the history of Rome, we have striking examples of In the frequent dissensions that prevailed among the the paralysing influence of war upon commerce. During Grecian states the temples were the banks; but a class of each consul's year of office he was anxious to secure popular money-changers, or lenders, lived in the cities, whose favour by some striking exploit; hence the frequent agbusiness fluctuated in proportion to the warlike or peace-gressive wars made by the Romans on their neighbours, able character of the times. They kept accounts with whose territories they overran and devastated. Mr Gilbart their customers in a manner not very different from that regards Rome under three points of view-agricultural, of the present day. The rate of usury was 1 per cent. for warlike, imperial. In the first he shows that commerce every new moon, or 12 per cent. per annum. In the promotes agriculture, and agriculture promotes commerce. absence of bills of exchange, money was lent on the bor- We do wrong when we consider the commercial interest rower's personal security; and in cases where the sum as opposed to the agricultural interest. They both harwas employed to freight a ship, it was usual to charge 30 monise-they are two wheels of the same machine; and, per cent. interest to cover the risk of the sea. The cha- although they may seem to move in opposite directions, racter of the Greeks, however, was not favourable to com- yet each, in its own way, promotes the public wealth, and merce: their word could not be depended on; they were any obstruction to the movement of one would soon revery litigious, kept many holidays, and were deficient in tard the motion of the other.' habits of business, as may be inferred from a passage in the Acts of the Apostles, to the effect that All the Athenians and strangers which were there spent their time in nothing else but either to tell or to hear some new thing.' As Mr Gilbart truly observes-a newsmonger is seldom a good man of business. Habits of business is a phrase which includes a variety of qualitiesindustry, arrangement, calculation, prudence, punctuality, and perseverance. Those who are fond of drawing parallels between ancient and modern nations, have fancied that there is a resemblance between the ancient Egyptians and the modern Spaniards—the ancient Greeks and the modern French-the ancient Romans and the modern English.'
The Tyrians appeared to have been an essentially commercial people; among them all was activity. Tyre was called 'a joyous city, whose antiquity is of ancient days, whose merchants are princes, whose traffickers are the honourable of the earth. The carrying trade of the whole then known world was at one time in their hands; they were skilled in navigation and manufactures, and acquainted with some true principles of commerce. Among the colonies, forty in number, which they planted on the shores of the Mediterranean, that of Carthage became the host important. This city contained 700,000 inhabitants, and held large possessions, including 300 cities, both in Africa and Europe. The government was republican; and it is mentioned, as a proof of the good sense and commercial habits of the people, that during the 600 years that the Carthaginian empire lasted there was no instance of a civil war. Their staple manufactures were utensils;
War, on the other hand, is entirely opposed to the spirit of commerce; and commercial nations generally have been the most reluctant to engage in it; not from want of power or courage, but from a peaceable disposition, and love of justice. They are not led away by a love of glory or a desire for revenge. They take a business-like view of the question; they examine the debtor and creditor side of the account, and calculate beforehand what they shall gain by fighting. But, when once compelled to draw the sword, commercial nations are foes not to be despised.' The resistance offered by Tyre to Nebuchadnezzar and Alexander, for nearly fourteen years-the struggle of Carthage with Rome for several centuries, the wars of Venice, Genoa, England, and Holland, all prove that commercial nations are not deficient in bravery and resolution when circumstances occur to call them forth. War, however, is a waste of national resources. labour and capital which are employed in constructing fortifications, might be employed in building manufactories, or warehouses, or harbours, or bridges, or commodious houses for the people to inhabit; what is consumed in cannons and muskets might be employed in making rail-roads; the food and clothing which are given to soldiers might be given to husbandmen, or to manufacturers; and those men who are employed every day at drill, or in fight, might be employed in cultivating the soil, or in the production of valuable articles, or in the management of ships. A nation resembles an individual. If I have 600 men at work on my land, I have a profit on
The Carthaginians were called Poeni by the Romans.
the labour of 600 men; but if I am obliged to employ 200 of these men as soldiers to defend the remaining 400, then I have a profit only on the labour of 400 men, and out of that profit I must pay the wages of the 200, whose labour is wholly unproductive. In this way war necessarily retards the accumulation of national capital.'
The author shows that the conquests of the Romans were ultimately beneficial to the nations conquered. 'The victors, though despots, were not tyrants. Their widely extended empire and taste for luxury were favourable for commerce. From the simplicity of agricultural life they passed to the most sumptuous and costly style of living. To gratify this desire they pushed their trade into every country that had anything to sell. Corn they obtained from Sicily and Egypt; amber from northern Germany; fine cloths from Malta; silks, spices, and precious stones from India; in addition to the products of their own dependencies. The utmost profusion and luxury prevailed in their repasts: Lucullus gave suppers to his friends that cost £1250; and, according to Pliny, more money was often expended in the purchase of an article of furniture than the whole amount of the treasures taken at the sack of Carthage.'
Direct trade between distant countries was facilitated by their being brought under the Roman dominion. The Romans were a sagacious and methodical people, and well understood the value and importance of free communications. Their public roads extended to the remotest parts of the empire, and were placed under the charge of men of the highest rank. There were banks in Rome somewhat similar to those of the present day, and others for lending money without interest to the poorer citizens. The professions of banker and merchant were, however, not held in respect; the latter were classed with thieves and orators, under the guardianship of the god Mercury. The practice of effecting insurances on ships was introduced by the Romans, in their honourable character, system, method, and gravity. Mr Gilbart obseves, mercantile communities of the present day might learn a useful lesson. The great defect of their policy was its military spirit. The principal objection,' continues the author, in his lecture on commerce with the East Indies, 'to which the Indian trade has been exposed, both in ancient and in modern times, is, that it takes from Europe a large amount of the precious metals. As the imports from India have always exceeded the exports, the balance has necessarily been paid with gold or silver bullion. But this is no objection at all. Gold and silver are nothing more than commodities. If they are found in our own soil, their exportation is no greater evil than the exportation of tin or copper, or any other metal that may be found in our mines. If they are not raised from our own soil, they must be purchased by the exportation of some other commodity. The exportation of gold and silver, therefore, is no more an evil than the exportation of those commodities with which the gold and silver are purchased. If we sell. hardware and cottons to America for gold, and send that gold to India for silks and spices, it amounts to the same thing as though we sent our hardware and cottons to India, and exchanged them directly for silks and spices.'
In the course of his work Mr Gilbart discusses the influence of domestic slavery upon commerce, the means of internal communication, travelling, transmission of despatches, and institutions for buying and selling. He recommends the adoption of uniform standards in all parts of the kingdom with respect to weights, measures, and coinage. In Ireland, for instance, wheat is sold by weight; in England by measure. Other discrepancies might be pointed out, which call loudly for rectification. Sound practical views and principles are scattered through the work; and we conclude our brief sketch by quoting the author's own words, where he says: Let us never forget that the main cause of the prosperity of any country or of any city lies in the mental and moral character of its inhabitants. Every possible advantage of situation may be
With some exceptions.
rendered nugatory by the misconduct of the people. If, instead of availing themselves of these natural advantages, and persevering in the steady pursuits of trade, the merchants neglect their business, or have recourse to swindling, or gambling, or smuggling, they will assuredly bring upon themselves that ruin and degradation which such prac. tices never fail to produce. It is by honesty, by industry, by prudence, by perseverance, and by public spirit, that nations and cities are made to prosper. Every man should endeavour to increase the prosperity of the place in which he dwells, and to improve the character of the population. There is no virtue more noble or more illustrious than public spirit-that spirit which induces a man to sacrifice his interest, his ease, and his inclination, to promote the public good. But party spirit is not public spirit; party spirit seeks the ascendency of a party-public spirit seeks the good of the whole. One is a gilded counterfeit-the other is sterling gold. He who wishes to be a useful man must be an active man. Men who possess only a mediocrity of talents, if they are active men, will often do more good, and acquire greater influence, than other men of far superior attainments, if sunk in indolence. What they are inferior in weight they make up in velocity; and hence they acquire a higher momentum than is obtained by heavier bodies that move more slowly.'
THE OUTSIDE OF THINGS. DANIEL DEFOE, in his once popular work The History of Magic,' describes an imaginary individual, by the name of Sir Timothy Titlepage, who knew the first leaf of every thing, and never understood the inside of anything. The sagacious, though singular author, affirms that this character was the representative of a numerous class of his | contemporaries; but it might have been demonstrated by deeper research that the terms were of general application; and even Defoe himself was not beyond the number of those that read first leaves alone. More than a century has elapsed since that specimen skimmer was presented to the public by the Cobbett of his times. Revolutions have occurred in philosophy, politics, and social life, and the present world of thought and action resembles the generation of Defoe no more than its hoops and wigs were assimilated to the costume of our railway travellers; yet Robinson Crusoe is still the delight of the young, and characters like the renowned Sir Timothy continue to abound in every class of mind and condition of fortune. The outside of things is certainly the first that presents itself, yet, considering their natural turn for inquiry, it is strange that it should so frequently engross the attention of mankind. The child breaks up his Jack-in-the-box to learn what makes it spring-the student reads and thinks, to discover moving causes-travellers explore unknown seas and realmsphysiologists experiment at times on life, which they can Beither restore nor recompense; but the views of the great majority are still restricted to the titlepage of life's everincreasing volume.
Wealth, wealth! is the wish of the working millions, whose daily industry alone preserves them from want. They know its presence in city shops and country castles, as something which they could enjoy but may not hope for, and to how many does it appear the sum of all earthly blessings! Yet they have seen sour faces in carriages, and discontented looks from stately windows; and when the account does not include the enervating power of luxury, the languor or derangement incident to energies not necessarily employed, and the indifference to things which habit has rendered familiar, it is evident that this over-esteem of riches is based on observing only the outside of things. Among the sentimental part of the community there prevails a general custom of bewailing some past period of existence, presumed to be happier than the present. With the young it is childhood; with the more advanced, youth; and the light and freshness of life's morning are sung and sighed over, as if it were subject to neither cloud nor storm. Whether the illusion be real or feigned, in a matter of such universal experience, is beyond our capacity to decide; but when the errors of unripened judgment, the Liability to harsh or disqualified guidance, and the fact that all the adversities of outward circumstances are felt with tenfold pressure in our growing and helpless years, have escaped the mourner's memory, we must conclude that his reiterated lamentations arise from a melancholy glance at the outside of things.
History is full of outside views. How often will the glory and patriotism on which her praise is lavished be found synonymous with the enormous sacrifice of a sellingout shop, or a speech from the hustings at a contested election! Erostratus burned the temple of Diana at Ephesus that his name might be remembered, on the very night that Alexander the Great was born, for which he was executed with all the cruelty of his age; but the infant of that night lived to lay nations waste, and burn many a city, for the same purpose, and he was deified; yet both their names are known, and the nations have seen many an example of such historical justice. Mirabeau's last speech was in praise of liberty, to the National Assembly of France, yet his own daily conduct proved him to be a slave to the meanest passions. George Washington gained his fame by fighting for American freedom, but at his death six hundred negro slaves were sold on his estate, his nurse being one of the number; and a useful, upright mechanic, struggling to fulfil his duties and maintain his independence, in spite of the trials and difficulties of life, is a greater hero and a truer patriot than all the Bonapartes or Bolivars that ever the world saw; but historians cannot look beyond the outside of things.
Novelists are said to be the oracles of the multitude, though their works are the mirrors rather than the directors of public taste; but from Boccacio to Panhoe Pan, whose tales still edify the fiction-readers of Pekin, they are che and all deplorably addicted to mere surface measurement Ladies with form and features cast in nature's est mould, characters of angelic goodness, and occasion- | ally transcendent genius, are found in every volume, as if artless vanity, mean selfishness, and despicable poverty find were never the accompaniments of those external attractions so indispensable to excellence in the fiction Word Who ever heard of the heroine of a novel described decidedly plain? though one plain, sensible woman is Worth ten thousand Helens or Cleopatras; and when the yannouncement of superior virtue and elevation of soul altrated by a few flirtations, some rather awkward predicaments, and at last a lucky marriage, we learn that The story-tellers of the world, like their audience, can see no farther than the outside of things.
Poets are believed to unfold the deeper meanings of nature, but to what mere title-pages has the practical reading of some of the tuneful brethren been confined. Milton regarded his wife and daughters as so many servants, and then wondered that they had no affection for him; he and Salmasius quarrelled over the divine right of kings, and abused each other for entertaining different opinions, in a style unsurpassed by the cream of modern Billingsgate. Coleridge selected a partner for himself, who, according to his own declaration, understood nothing but pastry; and separated from her four years after because she could not sympathise with his poetical aspirations. Schiller wrote to a friend of his genius, If you could, within a year hence, provide me with a wife, with twelve thousand dollars-one I could live with, and attach myself to-I would then undertake to write you in five years' time a Fredericiad (an epic on the deeds of Frederic the Great).' His friend could not oblige him with the requisite article, and of course the Fredericiad remains unwritten. But how would a similar requisition for carrying on his business look in an English chandler? Are not these instances common enough? and do not the above-mentioned examples prove that sometimes poets also are but lookers on the outside of things? Philosophy itself is apt to become shallow with all the width of its range, and some of its sages have shown but superficial wisdom. Confucius, whom his countrymen of the celestial empire designate characteristically enough 'the undeceivable mind,' to whose understanding temples have been built and josh-sticks burned without number, turned his back on the Empress Nan-See, lest he should see her face, when the sage was exactly seventy-five, and decided against the propriety of drawing his own sister-inlaw out of the water, when she was in danger of drowning. Certain of the Persian magi never cut their nails, and Apollonius insisted on wearing white garments, and never being seen at any manual labour, as the chief distinctions of a philosopher. Voltaire and Frederick the Great filled Europe with a quarrel concerning their respective merits. The historian of Rome's decline and fall exhibited a critical depreciation of all womankind, ever after a certain French damoiselle, to whom he paid his addresses in the kneeling fashion of the age, rang for her footman to lift up Gibbon, the philosopher's rotundity of person having effectually prevented his rising. Some scores of similar sages debated for ten days what should be the name of an assembly, by which they intended to regenerate France, in the days of the first Revolution. These are but scattered instances taken, as it were, by chance from different climes and ages; but how many hollow theories, what an amount of noisy disputation and frivolous distinctions, how much of the contempt for all that is called vulgar and commouplace, and what filling of wordy volumes have their origin in the learned vanity and small knowledge that see only the outside of things!
hence boarding-school time is expended on superficial accomplishments, and literary education in the proportion of two to one-hence social evenings turn to affairs of expense and ennui, and an at home' becomes a scene of exhibition rather than amusement. On this account Mrs Draper dis turbs the peace of her husband's evenings and the comfort of her children's lives for a drawing-room like Lady Dashley's, while Mr Tinsley's relations, and peradventure the good man himself, draw invidious comparisons between his gentle, homely partner, who never frowned on him, and Mrs Shiner, over the way, who leads the ton of the street, on a similar income, gets the cheapest governesses, and is whispered to be a bit of a shrew.
When Columbus and his Spanish crew first landed on the coast of La Plata, they found the natives willing to barter ingots of gold and silver for small looking-glasses and i strings of beads, and when any of them made good the exchange-which we suspect was not a difficult matter-he generally ran off with his purchase, in fear that the Spaniard might repent his bargain. The savages of La Plata have their representatives yet in our social system; the beads and looking-glasses of life are prized above its precious metals. Enter a household, and see which is the child brought forward after dinner, and talked of in all companies! Is it the most generous spirit or amiable character of the nursery? No; it is Louisa, who is a born beauty, or Harry, who says such amusing things at four. Wit and beauty are handsome things in their way, but compared with sound sense and moral worth are they not|| the small dust of the balance? Yet in the grown-up world! the same ideas are at work, and how much of its admiration, its friendship, and even its love, is inspired by distinctions as small and casual as those of the nursery!
In the details of common life and the practice of everyday people the habit of outside viewing is no less prevalent. Its effects are apparent in private society and public demonstrations, moulding individual conduct, and swaying the opinions of the multitude. Everywhere the useful and the enduring are undervalued, compared with the showy and unsubstantial, and only that which glitters is prized, in spite of the proverbial fact that it is not all gold. Hence, the most requisite employments are generally the least respected. The artisan and the agricultural labourer have been voted low for ages, though their pursuits are absolutely indispensable to society; and an American writer has justly called them the conscripts of the world. Bernardin St Pierre, a somewhat sentimental philosopher of France in the last century, remarks, that the heroes whom mankind delight to honour are the individuals who have rendered themselves most terrible to their species, but everywhere man despises the hand which prepares the garment that covers him, or cultivates for him the fertile bosom of the earth. Doubtless the multitude of those useful workers may be assigned as a cause of this general depreciation-things are esteemed in proportion to their rarity rather than their utility. The diamond, which serves only to cut glass or sparkle in a ring, has the current worth of a thousand tons of the limestone by which our cities are cemented, and the most important of our chemical operations carried on. But this value is conventional and not real; the wisdom of the Great Designer has appointed that what is most necessary to life should be generally most abundant. Yet certain extraordinary circumstances occasionally occur, which not only exhibit the beneficence of that arrangement, but discover to misjudging mortals the balance of intrinsic worth. A pound of gold will in ordinary times purchase a large quantity of corn, but in the city of Milan, when it was besieged by the Emperor Conrad III. of Germany, a pound of gold was at last offered in vain for an equal weight of biscuit. The Arabs have a sad story regarding a famished traveller, who found a bag in the desert, which he opened with joy, supposing it to contain dates; but it was filled with Turkish sequins, and the man expressed his disappointment by exclaiming, Alas! it is only gold!' How often might the gains of a long life's toil and striving be expressed in similar fashion! The Grecian history tells us of an Athenian king who offered his crown to any man in all his army who would refrain from drinking at a fountain to which their Spartan enemies had long barred the passage, but no soldier would accept it on the terms. It were unfortunate for the world if peasants and mechanics were as few in number as poets and philosophers, alarming as the increase of these is said to be in our times. When the Antelope packet was wrecked on the coast of one of the Pelew Islands, in 1783, though the natives received Captain Wilson and the crew, who escaped, with the greatest respect and friendship, the most distinguished men in their opinion were the carpenter and sailmaker, the one having saved a box of tools, and the other some canvass and coarse needles. Thus ordinary abilities and appliances rise in estimation when scarcity makes their value apparent. Fortunately such occurrences are rare, at least among civilised nations; the order of society necessarily assigns different degrees of rank to both persons and things, which are generally recognis-jects, and flung the genie's gift into the river Tigris, whereed, though not unalterable, as circumstances every day illustrate. The peasant, in the cultivation of his natural capabilities and the fulfilment of the duties of his station, is a no less respectable man than the peer. Gold and silver are for coin, plate, and jewels; iron forms the spade, the ploughshare, and the steam-engine; but let us never forget that the one is of intrinsic, and the other of merely conventional utility.
The Parsees have a tradition concerning Janschmid, an ancient king of Persia, celebrated over the East for his wisdom and warlike exploits. They say that his sight grew dim in the midst of his reign, and he prayed three days, with his face to the rising sun, that Mythra would please to restore it; but at the dawn of the fourth day, a genie stood behind him where he knelt alone, and bade him turn to receive a wand, which had power to show the real value of anything it touched by spontaneously lengthening, in the manner of the old Persian balance, adding, that if he chose to fling it away at the end of seven years, his power of vision would be perfectly restored. Janschmid took the wand and the genie departed, but the king carried his marvellous present through city, and court, and harem, and the tradition adds, with Oriental acuteness, all the sages of his kingdom, the greater part of the officers, and some of his wives changed places in consequence. It also informs us that certain of the judges were banished, and many criminals escaped the bow-string; the soldiers were appointed to till the fields in which they had expected to fight, all quarrels were speedily arranged, and justice was done in Persia for the space of seven years; at the end of which time Janschmid's only son and heir, Sapor, returned from his studies among the magi of Armenia, and his father thought proper to apply the test to him, but finding that the wand indicated very little worth, and remembering that Sapor was the only hope of his family, the king was seized with a sudden desire to see like the rest of his sub
upon his sight returned, as it was in the days of his youth. The Parsees say they cannot tell if ever any other monarch of the east or west regained that wondrous wand, but one cannot help regretting that it had only a traditional existence, since the exercise of it would have spared the world the thousand errors and mistakes that have arisen from looking only on the outside of things.
The general propensity to outside viewing is observable TOUSSAINT L'OUVERTURE. in every department of life. Shakspeare says that 'all the world's a stage, and all the men and women merely ToUSSAINT L'OUVERTURE was a negro and a slave, a phiplayers,' and to carry out the simile it may be remarked, lanthropist, a man of genius, and the republican chief of a that the comfort and advantages of the theatre are fre- powerful people. To be a negro is, in the savage idealism quently sacrificed to the desire of stage effect; hence shop- of some men, to be an inferior animal; slavery is a legiti keepers aspire to tigers, and tradesmen sigh after livery-mate punishment for the possession of a dark skin; and man