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"That all the prophecies and revolutions forespoken of, concern England; and that they may make any stir to fulfil these prophecies all that they did, being, as they said, nothing but God's pouring out his vials on the beast, &c.* The whole Scripture being understood, not according to the inward sense, but according to the outward sound; and as the fool thinketh, so the bell tinketh.

"AGAINST THE KING, THE LAW, AND RELIGION, were a company of poor tradesmen, broken and decayed citizens, deluded and priest-ridden women, discontented spirits, creeping, pitiful and neglected ministers, and trencher-chaplains; enthusiastical factions, such as Independents, Anabaptists, Seekers, Quakers, Levellers, Fifth-Monarchy Men, Libertines, the rude rabble that knew not wherefore they were got together; Jesuited politicians, tailors, shoemakers, linkboys, &c.; guilty and notorious offenders, that had endured or feared the law; perjured and deceitful hypocrites and atheists, mercenary soldiers, hollowhearted and ambitious courtiers, one or two poor and disobliged lords, cowardly and ignorant neuters, here and there a Protestant frighted out of his wits. These were the faction's champions. "ON THE KING'S SIDE, there were all the Bishops of the land; all the Deans, Prebends and learned men ; both the Universities; all the Princes, Dukes and Marquisses; all the Earls and Lords, except two or three that stayed at Westminster to make faces one upon another, and wait on their MASTERS the Commons, until they bid them go about their business, telling them they had nothing to do for them and voting them useless; all the knights and gentlemen in the three nations, except a score of sectaries and atheists that kept with their brethren and sisters for the cause; the judges and best lawyers in the land ;t all the statesmen and counsellors; the officers and great men of the kingdom; and all the Princes and States of Europe.

*The following extract from Dr. Heylin is a good attack apon the Calvinistic prophets of that age; it is fighting them with their own weapons:

"Others with no unhappy curiosity observing the number of words which make up this covenant, abstracted from the preface and conclusion of it, found them amounting in the total to six hundred and sixty-six, neither more nor less, which being the number of the beast in the Revelation, pursued with such an open persecution and prosecuted to the loss of so many lives, the undoing of so many families, and the subverting of the government both of church and state, may very justly entitle it to so much of Antichrist, as others have endeavoured to confer on the Popes of Rome. For if the Pope shewed any thing of the spirit of Antichrist by bringing Cranmer, the first protestant Archbishop of Canterbury, to the stake at Oxford; this covenant and the makers of it did express no less in bringing the last Protestant Archbishop to the block in London."

+ In the long and respectable list of "the judges and best lawyers in the land," who were persecuted for righteousness' sake, was Judge Jenkins, whose very judicious and extensively circulated pamphlets gave vast umbrage to the republican usurpers. Lloyd gives as the following account of this excellent man :

"David Jenkins, upwards of 58 years a Student in Grays-Inn near London, of so much skill, when a private and young man, that my Lord


"The Earl of Strafford gave his Majesty safe counsel in the prosperity of his affairs, and resolute advice in extremity, as a true servant of his interest rather than of his power. So emiBacon would make use of his collections in several cases, digesting them himself; and of so much repute in his latter years, that Attorney Noy, Herbert, and Banks, would send the several cases they were to prosecute for his Majesty, to be perused by him, before they were to be produced in court. All the preferment he arrived at, was to be Judge of South-Wales, a place he never sought after, nor paid for the patent, being sent him without his knowledge, and confirmed to him without his charge; in which capacity, if prerogative of his dear master, or the power of his beloved church, came in his way, stretching themselves beyond the law, he would retrench them; though suffering several checks for the one, and excommunication for the other: Notwithstanding that, he (heart of oak) hazarded his life for the just extent of both; for being taken prisoner at the surprise of Hereford, and for his notable vindication of the King's party and cause, by those very laws (to the undeceiving of thousands) that were pretended against them, as the violators of the law; and for increasing the feud between the Parliament and the army, and instilling successfully into the latter principles of allegiance, (by shewing them that all the parliamentary ordinances for indemnity and arrears, were but blinds for the present, amounting not to laws which they could trust to for the future, without his Majesty's concurrence; whose restoration he convinced them was their unavoidable interest, as well as their indispensable duty,) he was carried first to the Chancery, secondly, to the Kings-bench, and at last, to the bar of their House, the authority of all which places he denied; and though he and the honourable Lewis Dives were designed sacrifices for Ascham and Dorislaus, he escaped with his life in eleven years' durance, out of which he got 1656, not by creeping out of the window, by cowardly compliance, but going forth at the door, fairly set open for him by Divine providence, hazarding his life for that which was the life of his life, his conscience. He died at his house at Cowbridge, (his age having some years before given him a quietus est from public employments,) Dec. 6, 1663"

The worthy old lawyer accounted it a great honour to be a sufferer for his royal master. In the short preface to his LEX TERRE he relates a circumstance highly to the eredit of the unfortunate monarch. After stating, that in the beginning of the long parliament he himself "lay under three excommunications, and the examination of seventy-seven articles in the High Commission Court, for opposing the excess of the bishops", &c; he adds, "In the time of the attorneyships of Mr. Noy and the Lord Banks, they were pleased to make often use of me, and many references concerning suits at court upon that occasion came to my knowledge; and, as I shall answer to God upon my last account, this is truth, that all or most of the references which I have seen in that kind (and I have seen many) were to this effect, that his Majesty would be informed by his council if the suits preferred were AGREEABLE TO THE LAWS, and NOT INCONVENIENT TO HIS PEOPLE, before he would pass them. What could a just and pious Prince do more?"

The following is the style in which he concluded one of his pamphlets, and the last paragraph (respecting an act of oblivion, &c.) was the closing burden of all his productions:

"There is no doubt but that many in both Houses are free from this great sin, and that most of the prevailing party had at first no intentions to proceed so far; but the madness of the people, (who are very unstable, and so they will find them,) and the success of their armies (having this great rich city to supply them with all accommodations,) have so elated them, that the evil is come to this height. For myself, to put me to death in this cause, is the greatest honour I can possibly receive in this world: Dulce et decorum est mori pro patria. And for a lawyer, and a judge of the law, to die, Dum sanctis patriæ legibus obsequitur, for obedience to the laws, will be deemed, by the good men of this time, a sweet-smelling sacrifice, and by this and future times, that I died full of years, and had an honest and honourable end. And posterity will take knowledge of these men, who

nent was he, and my Lord of Canterbury, that rebellion de'spaired of success as long as the first lived, and schism of licen❤ tiousness as long as the second stood. Take my Lord of Strafford as accused, and you will find his integrity and ability, that he managed his whole government either by the law or by the interest of his country. Take him as dying, and you will see his parts and piety, his resolution for himself, his self-resignation for the kingdom's good, and his devotion for the Church, whose patrimony he forbade his son upon his blessing.-But these qualities, which rendered him so amiable to his Majesty, represented him formidable to the Scots; so that some who were not well persuaded of the justness of his sentence, thought he suffered, not so much for what he had done already, as for what he was like to have done, had he lived, to the dis-service of that nation; and that he was not sacrificed so much to the Scots' revenge as to their fear. And certainly his fall was, as the first, so the most fatal wound the King's interest ever received; his three kingdoms hardly affording another Strafford, that is, one man his peer in parts and fidelity to his Majesty. He had a singular passion for the government and patrimony of the church: both which he was studious to preserve safe and sound either opining them to be of sacred extraction or at least of prudent constitution relating to holy performances. The first institution of the president's place in the North, was to suppress rebellions; and my Lord's first care in that place was to prevent them. How carefully did he look out honest and wise clergymen, that might instruct and guide,-how prudently did he choose knowing and noble gentlemen, that might govern and awe that rude corner of the kingdom, equally obnoxious to the insinuations of the old superstition that crept thither from beyond the seas, and of the late innovations that stole in thither from beyond the Tweed, both dangerous to the people and troublesome to government!

put some to death for subverting of the laws, and others for supporting of them, &c. Yet mercy is above all the works of God; the King is God's Vicar on earth. In Bracton, who was a judge in Henry the third's time, you shall find the King's oath: To SHEW MERCY, is part of it. You are all his children; say and do what you will, you are all his subjects, and he is your King and parent: Pro magno peccato paululum supplicii satis est patri: [A father is satisfied with a very slight degree of punishment for a great offence and therefore let not the prevailing party be obdurate, out of a desperation of safety. That which is past is not revocable: Take to your thoughts your parents, your wives, your children, your friends, your fortunes, your country; wherein foreigners [the Scots] write, there is Mira aeris suavitas, et rerum omnium abundantia: [a wonderful mildness in the atmosphere, and an abundance of every thing.] Invite them not hither; the only way to be free of their company will be, to restore his Majesty, and receive from him an act of oblivion, a general pardon, assurance for the arrears of the soldiery, and meet satisfaction to tender consciences.-GOD PRESERVE THE KING AND THE LAWS: DAVID JENKINS, Prisoner in Newgate."

"How clearly did he see through the mutinies and pretences of the multitude, into the long-contrived conspiracies and designs of several orders of more dangerous men, whose covetousness and ambition would digest, as he foresaw, the rash tumults, into a more sober and solemn rebellion ! How happily did he divine, that the affronts offered the King's authority on the score of Superstition, Tyranny, Idolatry, Mal-administration, Liberty*, &c. (words as little understood by the vulgar, as the design that lay under them,) were no other than essays made by certain sacrilegious and needy men, to confirm the rapines upon church and state they had made in Scotland, and to open a door to the same practices in England; to try how the King, who had already ordered a revocation of all such Usurpations in Scotland and had a great mind to do the like in England, would bear their rude and insolent attempts,-whether he would consult his power or his goodness, assert his Majesty or yield to their importunity! How nimbly did he meet with the faction by a protestation he gained from all the Scots in England and Ireland, against the covenant of their brethren in Scotland; at the same time, in several books which he caused to be printed, discovering that the Scottish faction, that so much abhorred Popery, *" Pref. 'The books that are left us of the ancients are full of doctrines, sentences and examples, exhorting to the conservation or recovery of the public liberty.'-Here he would fain shelter himself again under the authority of the ancients; who, as I have shewn before, have already turned him out of their society, for his insufficiency and false accusations. The ancients never dreamed of such a liberty as he would inculcate; since it was the main design of their philosophy, to curb all irregular sallies of our nature, and bound our appetites with a prudential restraint. Public liberty, in the mouth of a flaming enthusiastic zealot, is like a naked sword in the hands of a lunatic brother, dangerous and destructive; and the one should no more be trusted alone without a limitation, than the other without a scabbard. It is a licence to kick, bite, swear, and play the libertine through all the various scenes of carnality and lust; to be covetous and, what is worse, to rebel for conscience' sake; to write treason directly or indirectly, and cheat our neighbour with a zealous twinkling of the eye or in saying of a prayer. He that is free-born, is likewise born in a state of subjection to laws; and though, by his birth-right, is entitled to certain privileges and civil rights, yet he is also entitled to some certain measures of obedience, as he is a subject: And whosoever talks so loftily of the one, and industriously conceals the other, does but abuse the multitude into dangerous sentiments, with a nonsensical jingle of words, and is so far from being a true English politician, that he is a down-right shuffling impostor. Christianity, with its dark train of passive doctrines, is a slavish and unintelligible thing in his esteem. Never was any fond man so blind an admirer of his mistress's charms and perfections, as he is a lover of his country's legal liberties, without any regard to the safety of religion : never did good St. Augustine declaim with more vehemence against the salvability of the heathens, than he has done against these slavish opinions suckt in at the schools; and which some have been so unfortunate to carry to their graves, and (he might have added) to heaven.'-He would fain make the wondering world believe, that PASSIVE OBEDIENCE and LEGAL LIBERTIES are inconsistent things; and that one is fatally destructive of the other but that is his want of judgment, and sound understanding. St. Paul, who was undoubtedly as great an assertor of PASSIVE OBEDIENCE as ever was in the world, pleaded such LIBERTIES as these under Nero, and before the Magistrates of Philippi. But he likewise knew, that civil rights can have only a civil defence; and, if that fail, there is no higher appeal or remedy to be expected, but the Divine protection." Commonwealth's Man Unmasked.


proceeded in this sedition upon the worst of Popish principles and practices; and that this godly league which was so much applauded by the people, was a combination of men acting over those traitorous, bloody and Jesuitical maxims of Mariana, Suarez, and Bellarmine, which all good people abhorred. When by the diligence of the King's enemies, and the security and treason of his pretended friends, who made it their business to persuade his Majesty that there was no DANGER, so long until there was no SAFETY, he saw a faction formed into councils and drawn up into armies;-when he saw one kingdom acting in open rebellion, and another countenancing and inclining to it; when he discovered a correspondence between the conclave of Rome and the Cardinal of France, between the King of France and the rebels of Scotland, between the leaders of the Scottish sedition and the agents of the English faction, (one Pickering, Laurence, Hampden, Fines, &c. being observed then to pass to and fro between the English and the Scottish Brethren,) and saw letters signed with the names (though as some of them alleged since, without the consent) of the five members [of the House of Commons, &c. ;-when the government in church and state was altered,† the King's ships, magazines, revenue,

*This is one of the crimes which were alleged, by one of our old historians, against the Duke of Hamilton : "For interceding for Loudon, and hindering Montrose, so as to make the king believe that the Scots would not invade England,' till he himself writes that they were on the borders.' Yet, by a Providence which one calls digitus Dei, (after great overtures of money and of discoveries, to save his life,) he was in 1619 beheaded at Westminster, for the king, by that party whom he was thought to serve against the king." When the king heard that he led the Scots army, (see page 348,) for which he suffered, his majesty said, "Nay, if he leads them, there is no good to be done for me."

He was without doubt a very dangerous man in such a Court as that of Charles the First, whose letters he was accused of taking out of his pockets and of divulging the king's secrets to his enemies. Some of the unjust odium which was bestowed on Archbishop Laud and his royal master, is well described by Dr. Heylin in the following passage:

"Look on them [the Scotch] in the church, and we shall find many of that nation beneficed and preierred in all parts of this country; and, of all these, scarce one in ten who did not cordially espouse and promote their cause amongst the people. They had beside no less assurance of the English Puritans than they had of their own; those in court (of which there was no very small number) being headed by the Earl of Holland, those in the country by his brother, the Earl of Warwick; the first being aptly called in a letter of the Lord Conway to the Lord Archbishop, the spiritual and invisible head, the other, the visible and temporal head of the Puritan faction. And, which was more than all the rest, they had the Marquis of Hamilton for their lord and patron, of so great a power about the King, such authority in the court of Eugland, such a powerful influence on the council of Scotland, and such a general command over all that nation, that his pleasure amongst them passed for law, and his words for oracles; all matters of GRACE and FAVOUR ascribed to him, matters of HARSHNESS or DISTASTE to the King or Canterbury. To speak the matter in a word, he was grown of Scots in fact, though not of title; his Majesty being looked on by them as a cypher only, in the arithmetic of State."

+ Some of the crude notions about civil government which this alteration suggested, in the minds of different conscientious individuals who wished

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