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tentio. Tacete, O Parkere, Twissi, cæterique Metaphysico-verbipotentes Logodædali, ut audiantur JESUS NOSTER in æternum benedictus, et a SANCTO SPIRITU acti Prophetæ, Evangelistæ, et Apostoli. ILLE ex ÆTERNI PATRIS sinu ab intima inibi secretorum intuitione prodiit. Hi ab Eo, quicquid apud Patrem viderat et audiverat didicerunt; cumque ecclesiâ, qua sermone qua scripto, communicarunt, "integrum Dei de nobis consilium secundum beneplacitum;" (Act. xx, 27; Eph. i, 9;) omne voluntatis suæ circa salutem humanam mysterium, etiam " cundum propositum." Hoc de uno S. Paulo, qui utrobique ad Ephesios verba facit, in sacris literis affirmatur. Quid attinet reliquos Spiritus Sancti amanuenses commemorare ?


Denique rationum momento artificialium, et testimonia humana, si hîc adsint, non respuo; si absint, non desidero. Decidi autem quæ de hominum salute et interitu lites incidunt, ex Sanctis præsertim Literis, nominatim Evangelio, et posse et debere, hoc est quod contendo. Vale, mi Parkere, et vivere malimus quam disputare; aut saltem sacris scripturis magis quam futilibus cerebri nostri argutiis rixisque mulieribus, amice colloquamur.




silence, Parker, Twisse, and the rest of the tribe of potent metaphysical verbalists and expert fabricators of learned phraseology! Let our JESUS be heard, who is blessed for evermore; and let the Prophets, Evangelists, and Apostles be heard, who were actuated and influenced by the Holy Spirit. Christ proceeded from the bosom of the Eternal Father, from the intimate inspection, in that [favoured] place, of his secrets. His Prophets, Evangelists, and Apostles learnt from him whatever He had seen and heard while with the Father; and have, both by their discourses and writings, communicated to the church the whole counsel of God' concerning us according to his good pleasure;' (Acts xx, 27; Ephes. i, 9 ;) all the mystery of his will' respecting human salvation, even according to his own purpose.' This is affirmed in the sacred writings concerning St. Paul alone, who, in both the passages which we have quoted, addresses himself to the Ephesians. To what purpose is it to recount the rest of the Holy Spirit's amanuenses?

LASTLY. If the powerful motives of artificial reasons, and if human testimonies, be here presented, I do not refuse them; if they are absent, I do not desire them. But for this one thing I contend,-that these controversies, which arise about the salvation of men and their destruction, both may and ought to be decided by the sacred writings, and particularly by the Gospels.

Farewell, my Parker, and let it be our choice to live [well], rather than dispute: Or at least let us hold friendly colloquies together out of the Holy Scriptures, rather than indulge in foolish and subtle devices or in feminine squabbles.

Written in much haste.




A.-Page 166.

THE history of these Theses is very curious. To understand it aright, the reader must previously be introduced to the hero, John MAKOWSKI, [or Maccovius, of dubious celebrity.

Maccovius was born in 1588, at Lobzenick in Poland. His studies were neglected in early life; but after he had seriously applied himself to them, he soon repaired that defect, by intense assiduity and the natural acuteness of his genius. He made himself acquainted with the Latin language, and passed through a course of Philosophy, at Dantzic. Under the instructions of the famous Keckerman, his progress in academic lore was considerable: Among his fellow students, he became particularly distinguished for his skill in the management of extemporaneous arguments, or regular scholastic disputations. On his return from Dantzic to his father's house, he was appointed tutor to some young gentlemen, of the name of Sieninski. With them he travelled into several parts of Europe; and, at every opportunity, cultivated his talent for popular argumentation. At Prague, he attacked the Jesuits in a public disputation. At Lublin, he frequently entered the lists against the Socinians. While he was pursuing his studies at Heidelberg, he went to Spire to dispute with the Jesuits, instead of Bartholomew Coppenius, to whom they had transmitted a scholastic_challenge, but who could not obtain leave from the Elector Palatine to make his appearance on that occasion. Beside the Universities of Prague and Heidelberg, he visited those of Marpurg, Leipsic, Wirtemburgh, and Jena. At length he arrived at Franeker in Friezland, and, upon the 8th of March, 1614, he had the degree of Doctor of Divinity conferred upon him. His peculiar talents were highly appreciated in that University; which was then famous, if not infamous, throughout Europe, for the wrangling disposition, the dictatorial conduct, and the doctrinal vagaries of its Professors. To such men the endowments of Makowski's mind, and the volubility of his tongue, were at first considered great acquisitions. The Curators of the University therefore resolved to retain him in their service; and accord

ingly presented him with the honourable appointment of Professor Extraordinary of Divinity, on the 1st of April, 1615. In the following year he was constituted Professor in Ordinary; and fulfilled the duties of that office nearly thirty years-till his death in June 1644. A Funeral Oration was pronounced on him by his colleague Cocceius; who relates it, as a trait of goodness in Maccovius, that he was not one of those dogs which are afraid of barking during the troubles of the Church, but that he fought valiantly for the true faith. He adds, "As this kind of warfare, on account of human infirmity, usually produces suspicions, enmities, and discords, it is not wonderful if this weakness of the flesh caused much trouble to Maccovius. It is peculiar to people of warm dispositions, that, while engaged in defence of the good cause, they seem occasionally to throw themselves into transports of passion. It fares with them as with good dogs, that, while guarding their master's house, bark at all strangers, not excepting the best friends of the family. The defenders of the truth are commanded by the prophet Isaiah (lvi, 10,) to bark well; but while, in this manner, they attack the enemy, and have all their thoughts engrossed with fighting, they are frequently too unguarded in their sallies, and sometimes vent their spleen and animosity on the innocent."Nicholas Arnold, a Polish Divine, who was naturalized in Friezland, and who afterwards succeeded Cocceius in the Professor's Chair at Franeker, published several of his countryman's productions. Among the rest of his curious compilations, is a work entitled, "Пprov Yeudos, sive ostensionem Primi Falsi Arminianorum." It is in allusion to this title, that Bishop Womack says, in his Annotations on the Fourth Thesis, (page 177,) "This is the FIRST of our author's FALSEHOODS."-Indeed, Maccovius himself published very few works, most probably for a very good and sufficient reason-because he was conscious of being a grand plagiarist. Saldenus, who was one of his real admirers, gives the following relation concerning him: Among our Divines, that (otherwise) most acute man, John MACCOVIUS, 'cannot be entirely acquitted of this charge. For if you have no objections to examine his EXERCITATIONS, which he opposed some years ago to the hypotheses of the Remonstrants, your own eyes will teach you, that a very large portion of 'them are compiled from the famous Peter du MOULIN's Anatomy of Arminianism,-not only with respect to the matter, but likewise with respect to the very words in which they are 'composed, and which have been translated for this purpose ' out of Dutch into Latin. I have often wondered at this practice in a Divine who in another respect was entitled to the greatest honour and celebrity for his extemporaneous 'acumen.' (De Libris, p. 156.)—Saldenus has, in this last sentence, given a reason why he should not have evinced the least

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wonder at Makowski's plagiarism: This Professor's excellence lay almost exclusively in his ready enunciation, and in the ability with which viva voce he could form a syllogism or enforce an argument. How dextrous soever he might shew himself to be in the Schools, his productions, when perused in the closet, do not display any of the grand characteristics of an original genius or of an accurate and deep reasoner.

The popularity which he gained at Franeker by his ready wit, and by the violent epithets which he bestowed on all adversaries, especially on the Arminians, gave vast umbrage to that morose and bitter old Calvinist, his superficial colleague SIBRANDUS LUBBERTUS. Makowski had been made Professor of Divinity only four years prior to the meeting of the Synod of Dort; and as the Predestinarian Controversy was about that period conducted on both sides with much spirit and ability, some of the Calvinistic Professors, who had been accustomed to utter the wildest and most desecrating opinions that ever escaped from human lips, were compelled to observe greater reserve and caution, lest their adversaries should expose the irreverence or blasphemy of all such expressions. But Maccovius, who appears to have possessed none of the subtilty of Lubbertus, continued to speak and to act in the same fearless and unguarded manner as he had always done; and the Arminians, as might have been expected, quoted several of his expressions in proof of the demoralizing tendency of Calvin's doctrines.

This served as an opportunity to Sibrandus, for venting his private spleen against his colleague, while he discharged a public duty. The whole Calvinistic brotherhood throughout France, Germany, and the Low Countries, had received warning letters to be guarded in the delivery of their opinions; and, as Maccovius had disregarded this caution, the Presbyterian Class of Franeker prepared a charge against him before the States of Friezland, who, apparently desirous to preserve the purity of the Calvinistic Doctrine in their University, finally empowered the Lay Commissioners at the Synod of Dort to bring the case of the accused Professor, for adjudication, before that reverend tribunal. No doubt was entertained by the best-informed members of the Synod of Dort, that Sibrandus was the real mover in this action against his colleague; but when he was charged with it, and publicly invited to come forward as the chief accuser, with consummate art he refused to undertake that odious service, and declared that he had acted ministerially and not personally, when, as President of the Class of Franeker, he had heard the charge against Maccovius, and, in accordance with the votes of the Class, had as their accredited organ pronounced the judgment which they decreed: That is, he wished to make it apparent, that he had been an impartial chairman.

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The whole of the proceedings against Maccovius, as related by that eminent Scotch Calvinist Walter Balcanqual, are given in the Notes to the Works of ARMINIUS. (Vol. I, p. 506, &c.) Among other matters, he states, that " a letter was read in the Synod, from the Professors of Divinity at Heidelberg, to the States of Friezland, in which that learned and reverend body exhorted their Lordships not to suffer such frivolous, metaphysical, obscure, and false propositions to be disputed in their colleges, as had lately been done in the University of Franeker, under the direction of Maccovius, in the Theses on the Traduction (or drawing) of man, as a sinner, to Life.' These were the very Theses which, in the preceding pages, are the object of Bishop Womack's animadversions: And the character which the Heidelberg Divines here attribute to them, will not be found to be inappropriate or overcharged. The same day, the different members of the Synod gave their votes concerning the mode of proceeding to be adopted in the case of Maccovius. Balcanqual says: "When Sibrandus had to deliver his opinion, he inveighed with great immodesty against Festus, upbraiding him with the height of his ingratitude to him. He also recited a new catalogue of the opinions of Maccovius, which were of the same class with the former. Festus, having obtained the President's permission to speak, answered Sibrandus in a modest manner, and stated, that those Theses had not been composed by Maccovius, but by a certain very learned young man of the name of PARKER, who was removed far above the slightest suspicion of heterodoxy. He also said, though Sibrandus might now refuse to sustain the part of a public accuser, yet he had received information, from some persons in every respect entitled to credit, that Sibrandus had pillaged, from those Theses and from some other of his lectures, all the errors which had been objected against Maccovius.When Sibrandus heard all this, he was agitated with a most violent passion, and twice invoked [Deum vindicem, the vengeance of God upon his soul, if there was any truth in those statements! So that the President was compelled frequently to remind him of the sacred modesty and reverence which were due to the Synod."-In Bernard, Birch, and Lockman's edition of Bayle's Historical and Critical Dictionary, the last clause is thus translated: "This put Sibrandus all into a fume, and he swore once and again, that it was not true." Now, though the Latin expressions admit of being thus construed, yet it can scarcely be imagined, that a grave Professor of Divinity, and one of the greatest sticklers for Calvinism, would utter profane oaths and disgrace himself before the whole brotherhood. I am aware, that Balcanqual has represented him as a most passionate man; and, after describing one of "his fits of madness," he adds, "I blame him and Gomarus no more for these ecstasies, than I do

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