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chosen, and much occurring to foster the hope that redemption is drawing nigh to the land where Satan has long had his chief throne erected.

"II.-AFRICA.

"1. Capetown.-Rev. E. Millar and Rev. William Gorrie have been labouring at this station since the period of their removal there. The reports received from time to time indicate considerable progress in the schools connected with the mission, and by the labours of the missionaries, some measures have been adopted for organizing your mission there. The Committee, however, are under the necessity of reporting, that, owing mainly to the want of funds, they have not been able to follow up the measures proposed, or indeed commenced, by the missionaries, with a view to the requisite buildings. In consequence of this, the operations at the Cape have been considerably impeded, and the Committee are not at present prepared to report as to any exact adjustment of the difficulties.-But, in considering the whole circumstances of the Cape Mission in all its bearings, keeping especially in view the direction which the labours of the missionaries had taken, it appeared to your Committee that, in part at least, the operations at the Cape should be under the direction of the Colonial Committee. Under that impression, the Foreign Missions Committee opened a negotiation with the Colonial. The proposal was favourably entertained, but the final adjustment of it was delayed till the mind of the Assembly should be known regarding the African missions in general. On this subject, therefore, the Foreign Missions Committee have to ask the deliverance of the Assembly. It is their unanimous opinion, that the operations in Cape Town should be mainly carried on in connection with the Colonial department.

"2. The Kafir Mission.—It is known to the Assembly that the correspondence in this department has long been carried on by Dr Macfarlan of Renfrew. He has furnished the following notice of the present position of the missions there :- Previous to the late war in Kafirland, four stations were occupied by your missionaries and their native assistants. At one of these, namely, Lovedale, there was a seminary for the education of native teachers and preachers, with a church, school, and other missionary buildings; and here three of your missionaries and two native assistants were employed. At another, namely, Burnshill, there was a church and two schools, with two missionaries and two native assistants. At a third, namely, Pirrie, there were similar buildings, with one missionary, a female teacher from this country, and a native assistant. And at a station but recently formed near the shores of the Indian Ocean, there were two native catechists. All of these stations were more or less damaged during the war, and some of them were so damaged as to be left in ruins. But the missionaries and several of their native assistants again occupy two of them; and they would all have been in a state of repair and missionary operation long ere now, had your Committee felt warranted in laying out the necessary expense. At Lovedale, the missionaries-Messrs Laing, Macdiarmid, and Weir-have the use of the seminary buildings which were occupied during the war by Her Majesty's troops, and have, in consequence, been repaired at the expense of Government. And here the work of the mission is going on with every prospect of success, and with opportunities much greater than were formerly enjoyed. At Pirrie they are also partially renewed; the devoted missionary of the station, Mr Ross, and his wife, having gone thither some considerable time ago, although they had nothing to shelter them but roofless walls; and now they are living in a native hut erected for the purpose-a habitation as characteristic of their devotedness as of the necessities of the mission. A letter was received about a week ago from another of the missionaries returning from a mountainous district, where he had been instructing other natives since driven from his station. The following extract will, from its simple devotedness, show the condition of all, and generally their feelings:- Twenty-seven years ago, this very month, I left Glasgow for Kafirland. I was then young and strong. I had no grey hairs, nor did I require spectacles. But particularly the last two years have wrought great changes. And, blessed be God, these are not confined to the body: my mind has been the subject of changes still greater. Oh to grace how great a debtor! The ways of God are all right and all gracious. I am on my way back to Lovedale, with my wife and six children, earnestly beseeching God that he may be with us. I leave this place without being

in debt to any; but so very great have been our expenses during these troublesome times, that I have only ten pounds on which to subsist for ten months, unless I either borrow or obtain some extraordinary help. The Lord, whose I am, and whom I desire to serve, has hitherto provided for me and mine richly in all things; and He will still provide, I have no fear. I hope that by this time the brethren have obtained permission to erect buildings at our old stations, or at other suitable places, that the work of the Lord may be carried forward. At all events, we can obtain the shelter of native huts, timber and thatch being within our reach.' It is due to add, that while the dangers, privations, and losses, sustained by the brethren of the mission during the late troubles, have been such as few in this country can well understand, they are without exception devoted to the work, on account of which they left their country and their friends, and are at this moment as much resolved on living and dying at their posts as ever. And they are all of opinion that if means are afforded for repairing the missionary buildings, and otherwise forwarding the work of God in that dark land, there are now opportunities and securities which did not before exist. The whole of the country within which they have been labouring, is now under British protection, and the principal fort and seat of Government for conducting native affairs, is within a mile of the seminary buildings at Lovedale. The number of converted natives available for teachers is also considerable. The following is the Government notice on the subject of future operations: Whereas the proclamation of the 23d December 1847, defines the future condition and rule of the Kafirs in British Kaffraria,' and the Kafir chiefs have submitted thereto; all missionaries are invited to return to their missions; and, that no misunderstanding or misconception may arise, Her Majesty's High Commissioner gives notice, that the land of their mission stations shall be held from Her Majesty, and not from any Kafir chief whatever. Every facility will be given, and every aid afforded to the missionaries, conducive to the great objects in view-namely, conversion to Christianity and civilisation; and these laudable gentlemen may rely upon the utmost support and protection the High Commissioner may have it in his power to afford.'

"In connection with the subject of the African Missions, the Foreign Missions Committee have to submit a short statement to the Assembly. It will appear from the financial section of this Report that, on an average of some years, the income of the Committee on Foreign Missions has not equalled the outlay by about £2400; in other words, the Committee has been annually contracting debt to about that amount. In consequence of this their operations were exceedingly hampered, and a feeling of uneasiness and anxiety on the subject was gradually spreading in the Church. In these circumstances, it was natural for the Committee to inquire what could be done to disembarrass the funds, or so to augment them as to meet the demands that were made. After various and anxious discussions had been held on the subject, the Acting Committee were generally of opinion that the wisest course to be adopted would be, as already stated, to transfer the Cape Town branch of the colonial departments, and to discontinue the Kaffir Mission, broken up as it had been by the war, employing the missionaries of the latter in such other departments of the Church's labours as they might be able or willing to undertake. Considering the position of the missions in India, keeping in view the financial state of the country, and the annually increasing debt of the missions, this appeared the only course open in the opinion of the Acting Committee. But, at a meeting of the General Committee on Foreign Missions, held on 29th February last, this opinion was not sanctioned; it was, on the contrary, deemed best to carry on the African Missions, and adopt means for raising the necessary funds. At this point, then, your Committee introduce their second division of their Report; or,

"A View of the Financial Affairs of the Foreign Missions Committee.

"Let it be borne in mind, that the Committee refer only to the expense of maintaining the missions altogether, exclusive of the buildings, and then matters stand thus:

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Total fixed annual charge, exclusive of casualties and buildings, £9756 0 4

II. INCOME.

The income of the Committee last year was as follows:-
:-

1. Congregational Collections,
2. Associations, Donations, &c.

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Total Income,

For the year ending March 1846, the income was—

£3976 7 0
3357 11 8

7333 18 8

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From the above view of the annual income since the Disruption, it

will be seen it has kept pretty steadily at about £7300. On the whole, the result seems to be that the certain fixed annual charge on the Committee cannot be less than While the income seems settled down at

Besides the extra charges, such as those connected with buildings,

Thus leaving a yearly deficit of

which from time to time emerge.

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£9700 0 0

7300 0 0

£2400 0 0

£7023 0 11

3000 0 0

£10,023 0 11

"The Committee could not but look with exceeding anxiety on such a state of matters. They thought of the great cause in which they were embarked,—of the zeal and devoted labours of their brethren in distant parts,―and could not but regret whatever might impede their efforts or limit their success. At this juncture, however, relief was obtained through a channel to which the Schemes of the Church have often on former occasions been indebted. When it was known that the Committee was embarrassed, a number of ladies in Edinburgh and elsewhere formed the noble resolution of making an effort to set them free. In the course of a few days, by a movement well-nigh simultaneous over the kingdom, carried on by the aid of the Rev. John Jaffray, to whom all our Schemes owe so much, about £5000 were raised. Of that sum £3000 were voted by the ladies to the Foreign Missions Committee; and by that providential assistance they were for the time set free from debt, with the exception of about £300. The Committee embrace this opportunity of conveying again their thanks to those who thus so promptly and effectively came to their aid. They are sure that the General Assembly will regard them as having at once evinced the power of Christian principle, zeal in the cause of evangelizing the heathen, anxiety to disembarrass the Committee and the missionaries amid their devoted labours, and a proof that at least some among us know the power of the saying, 'It is more blessed to give than to receive.' It is obvious, however, that relief from such a quarter cannot be again expected. Nay, the repetition of such efforts as the ladies have made would be highly injurious, though it were to be attempted. At the same time, owing to the inadequate income of the Committee, debt is again in course of being contracted, at the rate of £600 per quarter; and they feel assured that the Assembly will see it to be the Church's duty to adopt instant measures to remedy that evil. In the hope of aiding, in some degree, in relieving this pressure, the Committee have further to report, that during the past year they made some arrangements for raising funds in England for the requisite buildings. For that purpose, Mr H. Paul was appointed an agent to proceed thither in the month of June last. It will appear from the printed accounts that a considerable sum has been raised; but a majority of the Committee are more and more convinced that our Missions should be mainly supported by the resources and means of our own people. The Committee's attention has also been turned to the subject of retiring allowances for missionaries when disabled by sickness or otherwise, and also the rate that should be allowed during temporary absence from their sphere of labour, and other details of a similar nature. Hitherto the Committee have dealt with each individual case on its own merits as it has occurred; but the time has now come when some general system should be adopted, and a Committee has accordingly been appointed to consider this important matter.

"III. PLANS FOR FUTURE PROCEDURE.

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"To remedy the evils or remove the difficulties now mentioned, the Committee have to report, that the following measures, among others, have been proposed :"1. As already stated, it has been proposed to discontinue the African Missions, employing the missionaries in some other department of the Church's labour. this way the income and expenditure would be more easily commensurate. On this subject, on behalf of the missionaries and other parties, Dr Macfarlan of Renfrew has expressed a wish to be allowed to address the Assembly.

"2. To adopt some means for augmenting the revenue of the Church for missionary purposes.

"But, whatever plan be adopted, it is manifest that the missionary work of the Church cannot continue in its present condition. The Committee humbly think that, to make this plain, they need only remind the General Assembly, that no more of the Church's revenue is devoted to the conversion of the entire Gentile world than is devoted to one of the most limited of the Schemes-that is, one collection per annum. They cannot but conclude, that matters ought not to continue in that condition, and they strongly urge the matter on the consideration of the Assembly. Nor are there wanting strong reasons for this urgency. In the opinion of many, the time is fast drawing on when a mighty religious revolution must occur in India. The old superstitions are in many places crumbling and decaying. Their adherents are ashamed of the errors which they involve; and, under the light of

true science and the gospel, they must at last give way. To a considerable extent the system of caste, which so long stereotyped the Indian mind, is losing its hold upon the people. In short, in many districts that progression is manifest, which the Scriptures warrant us to expect, while they bid us labour and pray for it. Now, were it not unworthy of the Free Church of Scotland to limit its exertions, or even to continue them on their present scale, amid such premonitions and encouragements? Rather let the Church put on its strength-let it realise the grandeur of the object, and the glory that shall accrue to Him who hath done such great things for us. Laying hold of His strength, and taking counsel of His wisdom, it may soon be the Church's privilege to see a nation born in a day, and the grand result accomplished, of which prophecy is so full, but concerning which our efforts have hitherto been so feeble and so faithless. Jehovah is now so manifestly overturning, overturning, overturning, and preparing the way for establishing the Messiah's kingdom, that the Church would be neglecting at once the sure word and the overruling providence of God, were active measures not employed for helping forward the consummation for which the Lord's people have waited for eighteen centuries and more."

Dr MACFARLAN of Renfrew after alluding to his connection with the Caffre mission for the long period of twenty years, said, he naturally felt most deeply interested in it, and was strongly opposed to any proposition to discontinue it. He considered that there was no connection between the mission at Cape Town and the Caffre mission; and he held that, in stating the expense, the Committee ought to have kept the two missions distinct; for there was, in fact, just as much connection between Edinburgh and Cape Town, as between Cape Town and the Caffre Mission.

The one had also existed for twenty-seven years, whilst the other had only been established the other year. Instead of L.1276, the salaries of the missionaries in Caffreland only amount to L.580; but owing to the distress to which they were reduced in consequence of the war, he (Dr Macfarlan) brought this case before the Committee, who agreed to augment the sum given to the five missionaries there, so that what they received this year amounted to L.751. He would take leave to remind his friends in Edinburgh, that at the time this mission was put under the charge of the Free Church Foreign Mission Committee, there were conditions drawn up between the parties formerly responsible and the Committee of the General Assembly, and according to these conditions, property to the value of L.2700, free from debt, was handed over to this Committee. They also received the services of six missionaries, all of whom could speak the Caffre language. The Foreign Mission Committee were therefore under distinct obligations to relieve them of the responsibilities which they had come under to these missionaries. Supposing that the Assembly found it to be expedient to remove them from that country, they were bound to bring them home free of expense. Now, according to his calculations, they could not bring them home at an expense of less than L.100 each; and as they had been stripped of their property, besides narrowly escaping with their lives, they could not allow them to come home without giving them something additional to their mere passage-money. For this purpose he calculated that the lowest sum that could be given them would amount to L.500. The lives of the missionaries had also been insured to the extent of L.500 each, in order that in case of death, a provision might be måde for the wives and children of these devoted men. The Committee were bound to pay that premium of insurance, let the missionaries go where they might. His excellent friends in Edinburgh connected with the Foreign Mission Committee, proposed to employ them in some other field of the Church ;but, he would ask, where would they send them? One of them had been twenty-seven years preaching the gospel in Caffreland, and besides being acquainted with the Dutch language, was the first Caffre scholar in the country. That zealous missionary was now in a condition most unfit for other labour. Perhaps they might think of sending the missionaries to Australia; but the Committee should consider well the expediency of this. Having all acquired a most intimate knowledge of the Caffre habits as well as of the Caffre language, with all their children speaking that language, he held that, from these, as well as other and more important considerations, the Committee were not entitled to send them to Australia. (Hear, hear.) They would forgive him, if he should speak with some feeling regarding this mission, not only from having so long conducted its correspondence, but from

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