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logical education as really meaning little or nothing more than this, that a man is to pass decently and safely through a certain prescribed carriculum, so as to be qualified to be licensed. That is the idea which some men entertain of a theological education, and they have no sufficient sense of the necessity of there being something very different from that, and of a full provision being made for securing that difference. (Hear, hear.) At the same time, I don't doubt that there are more intelligent friends who have as strong a sense as I have, of the importance of theological education; but the difference lies here; they don't, as I think, take sufficiently into account the importance of what could be easily shown to be of considerable moment, although perhaps it may not be easily embraced in a distinct proposition, although I think experience affords sufficient grounds for entertaining the conviction, that if we are to have more divinity halls than one, somehow or other there will be great practical difficulty in getting good laws made, and getting them enforced. Now, I think this is not a right position to be occupying. There would be far more wisdom in giving serious attention to the consideration of what is a right curriculum, with the view of having it carried into full effect; and then, in these circumstances, considering what we ought to do, or whether we ought to do anything, for increasing the provision for theological education. (Hear, hear.) We are deviating from the idea with which the Church has entered into the scheme of a College. I feel that the community is disposed to consider that we are leaving off our schemes unfinished. Looking to the building of a College and the framing of a curriculum, they see us leaving these things in the dead-thraws, and projecting the setting up of a divinity hall at Aberdeen, merely because it is supposed that we may catch a few additional divinity students. Now, I say there is a loud call,—and the duty of the Church appears to be in that direction, There is a loud call for efforts being directed to increase and improve the quality and extent of the qualifications of the students, rather than merely to swell their numbers. (Hear, hear.) But I must now draw to a close. I have attempted to touch upon a great variety of points. I hope I have said nothing fitted to produce angry feelings-(hear, hear)—and I have now to conclude by reading the motion which I mean to submit:
"The General Assembly, being deeply impressed with the importance of establishing and maintaining a high standard of qualification for candidates for the ministry, approve generally of the theological curriculum for the New College as proposed in the Report of the College Committee; and further, the General Assembly are of opinion that the Church is not called upon at present to make provision for extending the means of theological education by establishing another full Divinity Hall."
Mr DUNLOP, advocate, seconded the motion.
Mr TULLOCH, Aberdeen, contended that their object ought to be the diffusion, and not the centralization of schools. He went into a historical survey of the foundation of the universities of Europe, in order to shew that this was the course which had been pursued by the promoters of learning. He next came to the special case of Scotland, shewing that after St Andrew's University had been founded, that of Glasgow followed; then Bishop Elphinstone founded the University of King's College, Aberdeen, and the result of the education imparted in that quarter was, that in the present day Free Church principles were more widely diffused in Ross, Sutherland, and Caithness, than in almost any other quarter of Scotland. During the last century men of ability had appeared in the University of Edinburgh, but who misused their ability in the promotion of scepticism. It had produced the superior mind of Hume; and in his times they had an eminent Principal at the head of their University in Edinburgh, and many other able men, but where was the theological champion to vindicate the cause of religion? It was from the College at Aberdeen that this champion came forth armed in the panoply of learning for the defence of the truth,-and he was assisted by the elegant genius of Beattie, another Aberdeen Professor. His own belief was that in Aberdeen just now the tide of learning was rising. He held it to be evident that two good schools were better than one. The Free Church was the National Church,-the people's Establishment,-and the people had nobly supported them. There was no superfluity of able men for their pulpits;
the fact was that they could not be got to one quarter without robbing another. The real fear seemed to be that the funds would be wanting, he held that they ought to reflect that the silver and gold were the Lord's, and he repudiated the idea of a minister of the Free Church hinting to the laity that they ought to shut their pockets.
Mr DUNCAN of Peebles said, - Moderator, There are few moral spectacles more imposing than that of a truly great man expatiating in his favourite element. Such a spectacle it has been our high privilege to witness, when listening, as I am sure we all did with intense admiration, to the speech of our respected friend Dr Cunningham. But I am equally sure that I express the sentiments of this House, when I say, that there is something peculiarly gratifying in seeing an elder of this Church, unaccustomed as Mr Tulloch has probably been, to take a prominent part in questions like this, coming forward in so manly a way, urged by conscientious conviction, to take upon himself the responsibility of opening the debate in opposition to the enlightened views advocated by the learned Principal. While, however, I say this, I must at the same time be permitted to express it as my opinion, that he has completely failed in his attempt successfully to meet those views-(hear, hear)-he has not even so much as touched the main point much insisted on by Dr Cunningham. (Hear, hear.) He has been at great pains, it is true, to prove that two colleges would be better than one; but on that, I presume, we are all agreed. Dr Cunningham, I doubt not, holds just as strongly as this gentleman, that it would be of great advantage to the Free Church if we could afford to establish not two colleges only, but more still, always provided that they be well equipped. There can be no doubt, Sir, that two are better than one-nay, that three are better than two, and that four are better than three; or, in other words, that, did our finances admit of it, it would be of advantage to the Church to have a thorough theological institute in Aberdeen as in Edinburgh, in Glasgow as well as in Edinburgh and Aberdeen, and in St Andrews as well as in Edinburgh and Aberdeen and Glasgow. But, from Dr Cunningham's admirably lucid statement, it appears very clear that the means hitherto at the disposal of this Church for such purposes have fallen very far short of such a sum as would warrant our sanctioning an increase in the number of our colleges, unless, indeed, it can be shown that, without presuming too much in regard to Providence, there is something like a fair and reasonable prospect of our being able to realize sufficient college resources in time to come. Mr Tulloch ought therefore to have addressed himself to that great practical difficulty; and, as he has failed so to do, he must be held as having begged the question. There are various other points connected with this important subject on which I could have wished to say a few words; but as the time for adjourning the discussion is at hand, I shall simply content myself with remarking that, in regard to the curriculum as proposed by the Committee, it is sincerely to be hoped that nothing short of that will this Assembly consent to sanction. An adjournment was then proposed, when
Mr DUNLOP said, that if any definite proposal was to be made in opposition to Dr Cunningham's motion, it ought to be tabled before the adjournment, in order that members might know what it was.
Dr BROWN of Aberdeen then submitted the motion which he intended to make in opposition to that of Dr Cunningham.
Mr GIBSON, Glasgow, said he would feel it his duty, if no other member did, to move an addition to this resolution, to the effect of making it embrace a college for Glasgow.
Dr CANDLISH said, that in its substance he would have no hesitation in giving his support to Dr Brown's motion, to the effect of declaring the expediency of the proposals in it. The question, if, or how far, the financial means could be obtained was a matter for farther consideration.
Mr TULLOCH stated, that though he had often addressed large congregations of the Free Church, he had never till now addressed such an assemblage as this, and in his address he happened to leave out the only good suggestion which he had meant to give. It was an elder (Mr Thomson, Banchory) who first suggested the raising of the £100,000 as a manse fund. He (Mr Tulloch) was better versed
in College matters than in manse matters, and he thought there could be no good school learning without the principle of endowment. They must begin to raise £10,000, or £20,000, or £30,000, or say at once £50,000, as an endowment fund, and then they were sure to succeed.
The Assembly then called for Report of Deputation to the
ENGLISH PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.
Mr J. F. MACFARLAN stated, that he had had the honour a few weeks ago, of visiting that Synod, which had met at Newcastle, along with the Rev. Mr Cupples, as representatives from this Church, and had conveyed to them her expression of the deep interest taken in the welfare and progress of that body by this venerable Assembly. He had never felt more sincere gratification or pleasure than he had done on that occasion. He had previously no idea of the rapid progress of the Presbyterian cause, or of the wide diffusion of their principles in England; and looking to the character and to the abilities manifested in discussion by the men assembled there, he had formed the highest estimate of the talents and learning, as well as the personal worth, of the ministers of that Church. He could have wished to have said more, but in the state of the house he would only add, that the Synod, appreciating fully the good wishes and kindly feelings of the Assembly, and reciprocating these, had appointed the Rev. Mr Hamilton, the Moderator of their Synod, along with other eminent ministers and elders, to visit this Assembly. He begged to introduce the Rev. Mr Miller of Newcastle to the notice of the House.
Mr MILLER said,—At this late hour, when all are exhausted with so long a sederunt, and every mind is engrossed with the absorbing subject which has just been submitted to them, I shall not address you at any length. We feel great love for the Free Church of Scotland, and we take a deep interest in all the efforts you are making for the promotion of the glory of Christ in this and in other lands. The Disruption in Scotland has led, in some measure, to the reviving of Presbyterianism in England. There are now Disruption ministers in London, Brighton, Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle, Shields, and Morpeth. They hold the same principles, and preach the same truths, as the Free Church. Your influence among Englishmen is greater, perhaps than you imagine; and the more closely we are iden tified with you in all vital truths, the wider will be our influence, and the greater our prospect of success. (Applause.) I need hardly remind you that Presbyterianism, in bygone years, has suffered in England from the withering influence of Socinianism and the grossest Moderatism. So much so is this the case, that many Englishmen have been led to associate the idea of infidelity with the word Presbyterianism. But their thoughts of what they used to know as the Kirk of Scotland, and now admire as the Free Church, are far different. When they turn their eyes towards your Church, they think of a sound theology, a fervent zeal, and holy selfdenial, prompting the sacrifice of all a man counts dear for the sake of Christ. Such being the mind of many in England towards the Free Church, it is surely of the utmost consequence that our Synod should be identified with this Church in every Bible principle and practice. There seems to be a door gradually opening for the ministrations of a living Presbyterianism among those evangelical members of the Church of England who have not access to spiritual ministrations in their own Church. It may be, Sir, that this door will be thrown more widely open, and it would be a blessed thing for the cause of Christ if many were found ready to enter in. And now, I would say a word on the relationship subsisting between us. We may be compared to an older and younger sister, or perhaps to mother and daughter. We are like a daughter who has left her mother's house, and has established a household of her own. And in the ordering of that household we love to remember the rules and economy which we were taught under the parental roof. We feel grateful for past benefits, for all the labours we have got, and we hope for more. It is not customary, I believe, for us to render thanks to our mother for pecuniary assistance— it is rather the other way. However, in my own case I could have no objections to deviate a little from the ordinary practice. My people in Newcastle are gathering subscriptions for a new church; and should any generous drops from the Free Church fall upon us, they would be most gratefully received. I conclude, Sir, by stating that it is our earnest prayer that all your labours may be abundantly prospered, and
that all your sore bereavements may be rendered very profitable in making you partakers of the holiness of God.
Dr P. M'FARLAN said, that he regretted exceedingly that in consequence of the alteration which had taken place in the arrangement of business, they had not had the opportunity of seeing a greater number of the members of the deputation from the Presbyterian Church in England. At the same time, he thought it very desirable that that alteration should be made; and he trusted that their friends from England would forgive them, and not impute it to anything like disrespect, or a want of affection for them. He was sure that the Assembly had heard with the greatest pleasure the address of Mr Miller, and that they would at once agree to the motion which he had to propose, which was, that the thanks of the Assembly be given to Mr Miller, and that he be requested to carry with him the assurance of the good wishes of the Free Church of Scotland for the welfare and prosperity of the Presbyterian Church in England, of which he was a member.
The Assembly adopted the following motion,
"The General Assembly have listened with pleasure to the address of Mr Miller, and request their Moderator to convey to him, and through him to the Synod, the expression of the warm interest which this Church takes in the prosperity of the Presbyterian cause in England, and of their earnest desire for the increasing usefulness of their brethren in that country."
The Moderator accordingly addressed Mr Miller in suitable terms.
The Assembly having met, was constituted with devotional exercises.
DR CHALMERS'S OBSERVATIONS ON BURSARIES.
Mr J. M. HoG of Newliston said, he regretted exceedingly that he did not respond to the call made to-day for the Bursary Report, as he happened to be absent at the time. He had no observations of his own to make, but he held in his hand a paper containing the last words-literally the last words-that were written by their revered and lamented father, Dr Chalmers, upon the subject of bursaries-(hear, hear)—and intended by him to form a prominent part of the Report which he intended to submit to the Assembly, as part of the College Report last year. (Hear, hear.) I think the Assembly will bear with me, when I ask their permission to read this statement, in order that it may be printed as an appendix to the College Report.* Agreed to.
ADDRESS TO HER MAJESTY.
Dr M'FARLAN of Greenock said,-At the request of several members, I have to bring under your attention a subject which ought not to be overlooked by this Assembly; and that is, the propriety of presenting an address to her Majesty on the present state of this country, and of the Continent of Europe,—an address expressive of our undiminished adherence to her Majesty's throne, and to the excellent Constitution of this country, and of our fixed determination, in dependence upon the help of God, to do all in our power, as ministers and elders of the Free Church of Scotland, to promote the order, the peace, and the happiness of the land. (Great applause.) We have very great cause for thankfulness indeed, that we stand in very different circumstances from many of the other countries of Europe at the present time. With the exception of mere trifling disturbances in some of our large towns-and these disturbances not arising, I hope, from any measure of disaffection on the part of the people in general, but rather from the irregular conduct of the individuals engaged in them, we have seen nothing in this country which shows the slightest disposition to interrupt public order. We cannot say that, as a nation, we have deserved such things at the hand of God; for our sins are many, and our imperfections are great. We have therefore great cause to praise and to bless His name, that He has so much distinguished us in this respect from the other nations of Europe. Whilst we acknowledge Him as the source of every good and perfect gift which we possess, and as the author of that peace and happiness which, as a nation, we enjoy, we at the same time consider that it is mainly owing to the rational and consistent freedom that we enjoy under the institutions under which we
*See Report of College Committee appended.
live, that this peace has been preserved. (Applause.) I believe that, generally speaking, there is a wide-spread attachment to the institutions of the country; and therefore we ought to express our determined resolution, as ministers, each in his own place, according to the opportunity which God has given him, to do all in our power to preserve the peace and order of the community; and more especially we ought to declare to her Majesty our anxious desire to be the honoured instruments of promoting that righteousness which exalteth a nation, and of preventing that which is a reproach to a people. I therefore beg to propose that a Committee should be appointed to draw up a loyal and dutiful address to her Majesty, with respect to the topics to which I have alluded. (Applause, and cries of "Agreed, agreed.")
EXTENSION OF THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION.
Dr BROWN of Aberdeen resumed the discussion on the Report of the New College Committee. He said,-Moderator, in arguing this question with the distinguished and eminent men who so justly possess the confidence of the Church, and who are so well qualified to occupy that particular department to which the Church has called them, I feel all the disadvantages of the position in which I have placed myself. I would beg also to say, at the outset, that in this matter I have no personal interest at all. But, Sir, it may be viewed, and it has been viewed in certain quarters, as a question of a merely local nature. I would respectfully take leave to say, in the presence of this House, and that most solemnly, that if I had regarded it as a mere local question, or as a question in which merely local interests were involved, I would have been ashamed to present myself here; and I would have been ashamed also to take those steps which I have felt myself constrained to take, consistently with a deep sense of what is my duty, to forward those views, the importance of which are deeply impressed on my mind. (Hear.) I take leave to say, that if we have spoken on some occasions of pertinacity in this matter, if we have expressed a hope, that our friends in the north would manifest something of that pertinacity which was, in some respects, characteristic of them, we meant, simply, that they should adhere, with firmness and perseverance to those great principles which they considered to be essential to the promotion of the interests of the Free Church at large. Long were we compelled, under circumstances the most adverse, to struggle with opinions diametrically opposed to the principles of the Free Church, and opinions which we regarded as most injurious to the interests of the Church at large; and trained in that school of perseverance, we maintained our ground until by the blessing of God, those principles became prevalent and predominant, and I trust prevalent and predominant they will long continue. (Applause.) Hence, therefore, when I spoke of pertinacity, I alluded not to that pertinacity which, grounded on the principle of false honour, exhibits a determination to maintain a point, because it has been at first asserted by us, and because we at one time attached some importance to it. I must also vindicate myself, and the friends with whom I have the pleasure of acting, from the charge of doing anything to disturb the peace of the Free Church. Far be it from me that I should on any occasion be the means, in any way, of disturbing the Church's peace. But you will observe that, when views diametrically opposed to those which we hold to be most important in respect to this matter, were put forward and advocated with great ability, as well as sanctioned with the authority of some great names,—views which were not merely speculative, but views upon which it was intended to act with that decision and energy so characteristic of the men by whom they were enunciated-I say, when such views were put forward, if we had taken those steps which we have adopted, if we had not come forward at this time to bring our sentiments before the Church and the public, we might have been held as acquiescing in opinions which we did not hold, and we might have been justly chargeable, at a future time, with disturbing the peace of the Church, if we had so far given assent by remaining silent at a time when the question was under discussion. I therefore hold that we have no alternative at all in the matter. Either we must have declared our satisfaction with the views put forward by our friends in Edinburgh on the subject, or have taken precisely that action which we have taken at this time. So far, therefore, from doing anything that may tend to disturb the peace of the Church from factious or perverse motives, you will observe that we were driven to the neces