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having offended a pretty woman in the neighbourhood, by some indiscreet proposals, she drew a pistol and shot him dead on the spot. Indeed the Mainiot ladies are altogether most formidable personages. Not content with love's artillery,' which Mr. Morritt describes as being by no means of an inefficient description, they were seen by him slinging stones and bullets at a mark, with great expertness.

Mr. Morritt describes an interesting visit to Zanetachi Kutuphari, a capitano of consideration, and his niece Helena, a young widow and a wealthy capitanessa. At an audience with which she honoured our travellers, this lady wore a light blue shawl-gown embroidered with gold, a sash loosely tied round her waist, and a short vest, without sleeves, of embroidered crimson velvet; over these was a dark velvet Polonese mantle, with wide and open sleeves, richly embroidered. On her head was a green velvet cap, also embroidered with gold. A white and gold muslin shawl fixed on the right shoulder, and passed across her bosom under the left arm, floated over the coronet and bung to the ground behind her. Her uncle's dress was still more magnificent. Mr. Morritt was informed, that in case of necessity, the Mainiots can bring 12,000 men into the field.

From some remarks of Dr. Sibthorp, upon the natural productions of the same district, we learn that the white mulberry-tree is called poúgia, the black cuxapiva. This fact may, perhaps, throw some light upon the names συκάμινος and συκομορέα, (both applied by St. Luke to a tree which was probably the mulberry-tree,) about which the commentators have been a good deal puzzled. Dr. Sibthorp observes that caprification is still practised. We should have been glad to meet with a clear explanation of the principle of this operation.

The long debated question relating to the treasures of ancient literature, supposed to be concealed in the libraries of the Seraglio, the Mosque of St. Sophia, and the Colleges of Dervises at Constantinople, has at length been settled by the researches of Dr. Hunt and the late Professor Carlyle; and the result of their inquiries is, that 'in none of those vast collections is there a single classical fragment of a Greek or Latin author, either original or translated. The volumes were in Arabic, Persian, or Turkish; and of all of them Mr. Carlyle took exact catalogues.' Surely this is too sweeping a sentence. It was not possible for these gentlemen, without an examination of the books themselves, to ascertain that they contained no translated fragments of a classical author. We think it, on the contrary, very probable, that some of the Arabic MSS. may contain portions of Aristotle or Galen, or of later Greek writers. It appears from Professor Carlyle's description,


that the library of the seraglio is built in the form of a Greek cross, and is not more than twelve yards in length from the extremity of one arm to that of the other. It contains 1294 MSS., mostly Arabic, with a few of the best Turkish writers. The Professor must have made good use of his time, for during his short stay in the seraglio he is certain that there was not one volume which he did not separately examine; but, he was prevented by the jealousy of the moulahs, who accompanied him, from making out a detailed catalogue of the whole;' and, indeed, if the moulahs had been out of the way, it would have required a quick eye, and the pen of a ready writer, to make out a catalogue of 1294 oriental MSS. in two or three hours. He obtained, however, a catalogue of the library of the patriarchs of Jerusalem, the largest in the empire, and even got permission to carry a few of the most valuable to England. These, together with a large collection of Arabic MSS., were transmitted, we believe, to this country, and deposited in the archiepiscopal library at Lambeth, by the munificence of the present primate. We are, however, not quite certain whether Mr. Carlyle did not misunderstand the permission which he had obtained from the patriarch of Jerusalem; for we have heard it reported, that this venerable dignitary of the Greek church has reclaimed his valuable MSS. And it appears from an expression in one of Dr. Hunt's papers, that the volumes were only lent.

The patriarch behaved to us with the utmost liberality, not only sending one of his chaplains to assist us in making a catalogue of the library, but allowing us to take any of the manuscripts we might wish to send to England for the purpose of being examined and collated. Such as we thought interesting or curious were forwarded to London along with those procured from the Prince's islands; and they are now in the archiepiscopal library at Lambeth'!—p. 85.,

In truth we are not a little surprized at the facility with which the professor was permitted to bring away from more than one library several of what he judged to be the most curious MSS.'as for instance, six from the famous library of St. Saba. We had been led to understand that the alienation of this kind of property was expressly forbidden by the rules of the Greek church. The professor was indefatigable in his researches, for during a stay of three weeks in the convents of Mount Athos, he tells us (p. 196) that he examined almost 13,000 MSS., which is at the rate of about 570 per diem. Of these he made out a' a very detailed catalogue.' Had he lived to publish this it would have been a valuable addition to our Bibliothecæ.

Dr. Sibthorp's papers contain some interesting details upon the present state of Attica, its statistics aud natural history; and a pleasing account of the monasteries on Mount Athos is given by


Dr. Hunt. Upon his setting out from Constantinople to visit the Holy Mountain, the dragomen spoke much of the ignorance and vices of the Greek caloyers; but Dr. Hunt observes that their representation was very incorrect. He considers that the kind of religious republic, which subsists there, contributes to preserve the language of Greece from further corruption, and checks the defection of Christians to Mahometanism. Most of the Greek didascaloi, or schoolmasters, and the higher orders of the clergy, are selected from that place. If it sometimes hides a culprit who has fled from public justice, yet that criminal most probably reforms his life in a residence so well calculated to bring his mind to reflection. A better defence would be, that the manner in which justice is administered in Turkey, makes it very probable, that, in five instances out of six, the culprit who seeks an asylum at Mount Athos may be an innocent person.

In a paper of the late Mr. Davison's, and in the editor's note, we are presented with some interesting particulars relative to Pompey's pillar, as it is called-an appellation, which, of late years, has been the subject of considerable discussion. By means of an accurate measurement with the theodolite, the pillar was found to be ninety-two feet in height, without taking into account the separate stones, by which it is raised four feet from the ground. Its circumference, at the base, is twenty-seven feet and a half. The support of the column is an inverted obelisk, covered with hieroglyphics; a circumstance, says Shaw, which may induce us to suspect that the pillar was not erected by the Egyptians, who would not have buried their sacred inscriptions, but by the Greeks or Romans, nay later perhaps than Strabo. The suspicion is probably just: but the reason assigned for it is not very forcible. By some of the Arabic writers this pillar is called Amoud al Sawary,' the pillar of the colonnades,' an allusion to the porticoes with which it was surrounded as late as the twelfth century.

It appears, from some observations of M. Quatremère, that there was a prefect of Egypt named Pompeius in the time of Diocletian, which, as Mr. Walpole observes, is a strong corroboration of the opinion, that this column was erected in honour of Diocletian by a magistrate of the name of Pompeius. Major Missett informed Mr. W. Turner that the letters AIOK. H. IANON were considered, by those who had lately visited Egypt, as discernible; and Colonel Leake gives the word Diocletian' as the result of the examination made by himself and Colonel Squire. Dr. Clarke, however, proposes to read AIONAAPIANON. So far the Editor. The fact is, that the inscription was clearly deciphered by our officers in Egypt to the following extent.




Lord Valentia, by the help of scaffolding and plaster, made out more of it, but unfortunately lost his copy. Scarcely any part of it can be discovered without intense attention. Mr. W. Turner, at noon, which is the most favourable time for inspecting the inscription, distinguished AIO, and under that, ПO-and felt no doubt that the character following the AIO was a mutilated K. Upon the whole, then, Dr. Clarke's opinion seems to be untenable; and we may conclude, with great probability, that this celebrated pillar was in fact erected by Pompeius, a prefect of Egypt, in honour of Diocletian.

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In the Catacombs of Alexandria, Mr. Davison found many remains of Alexandrian painting upon the walls. In the temples of Tentyra, Thebes and Diospolis, the colours are still fresh and vivid. It is well known, both from the testimonies of ancient authors, and from traces of the custom which are still visible, that the Greek sculptures were frequently painted. Several instances are mentioned by Mr. Walpole, who observes, (p. 381,) that there is reason to believe that the word ypápa was applied by the Greeks to express a combination of sculpture and painting.' We believe not: ypas never signifies more than to delineate' or paint;' but since it was customary to paint sculpture, the word Ypapa may have been used of a relievo, taking the previous carving for granted. The passage of Pliny which the learned Editor adduces in support of his opinion is of no force. Fuisse Panænum fratrem ejus, qui et clypeum intus pinxit Elide Minervæ.' Heyne observes, that instead of painting, we should have expected some bas-relief within the shield, consistently with what Pliny relates elsewhere of the buckler of Minerva in the Parthenon, scuti concava parte deorum et gigantum dimicationem coelavit. Heyne supposes, therefore, that Pliny, or the author whom he followed, misunderstood the word ypas, which was employed to signify work in bas-relief; and this is also Mr. Walpole's opinion: that it should be so, surprises us a little, seeing he has mentioned this Pananus as a painter in p. 378. That there was a bas-relief on the interior of the shield, is very probable; but Phidias carved, and Panænus painted it, as he did the statue of Olympian Jove. Strabo, viii. p. 554. πολλὰ δὲ συνέπραξε τῷ Φειδίᾳ Πάναινος ὁ ζώγραφος, ἀδελφιδοῦς ὢν αὐτοῦ καὶ συνεργόλαβος, πρὸς τὴν τοῦ ξοάνου κατασκευήν, διὰ τὴν τῶν χρωμάτων κόσμησιν, καὶ μáλioтa TηS LOOтos. [The MS. author whom Pliny used, had ἀδελφός for ἀδελφιδούς, probably by the inadvertence of the copyist. Pantænus,

Pantænus, for so the name should be written, was the nephew of Phidias].—δείκνυται δὲ καὶ γραφαὶ πολλαὶ τε καὶ θαυμασταὶ περὶ τὸ ¡spóv, éxsívov špya. So Nicias was employed to colour the statues made by Praxiteles. Plin. xxxv. 10. Hic est Nicias, de quo dicebat Praxiteles, interrogatus quæ maxime opera sua probarit in marmoribus, quibus Nicias manum admovisset: tantum circumJitioni ejus tribuit.' This practice, which is altogether adverse to the taste of modern times, seems to have prevailed amongst all the people of antiquity. Sir W. Hamilton, in the accounts which accompanied the drawings made of the discoveries at Pompeii, and presented to the Antiquarian Society, says, that in the chapel of Isis, the image of that goddess still retains the coat of paint; her robe being of a purple hue. Something therefore may be said, on the score of precedent, in behalf of the richly gilt and painted images of saints which decorate the Romish churches, as well as of the gorgeous robes and wigs of many of our English worthies of former times, whose costume still lives in marble and vermilion. Shakspeare, in the Winter's Tale, represents the statue of Hermione as painted by Giulio Romano.

The first instance which Mr. Walpole adduces, is from Ælian, ὡμολόγει τὴν πράξιν τοῦ Γέλωνος τὸ γράμμα,—where, says Cuper, ypappa may mean a statue; which we shall content ourselves with denying.

The second is from Athenæus, οἱ ποιηταὶ καὶ οἱ γραφεῖς πλεῖν αὐτὸν ἐν ποτηρίῳ ἐμυθολόγησαν, where Casaubon says 4 per pictores intellige omnes simulacrorum artifices.' The fact is, that ypusis is a mere Tapadóplaμa of Casaubon. The old and genuine lection is οἱ ποιηταὶ καὶ συγγραφεῖς 4 the poets and historians.

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The third is from an epigram of Antipater, xaт' Evóρo¢ov Yрanτóv Téуos, which Mr. Walpole translates, on the well-roofed pediment, sculptured and painted,' in which version réyo is improperly rendered pediment, and the words in italics are a gratuitous addition. If it be true that the roofs or ceilings of houses were frequently carved and painted, does it therefore follow that there is any allusion to carving in the word ypapa? A roof which was both carved and painted might be called indifferently the carved roof,' or the painted roof.'

The fourth is from an epigram of Perses, Brunck. Anal. ii.
Δειλαία Μνάσυλλα, τί τοι καὶ ἐπ ̓ ἠρίῳ οὗτος

Μυρομένας κούρας γραπτὸς ἔπεστι τύπος;

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where Tunos may perhaps mean a sculptured image, but yparrós certainly means only painted. Mr. Walpole has observed, in p. 378, that the custom of painting tombs was common in Greece. Upon the whole, we assert, that ygudem was never used of a statue or rehevo, except with reference to the painting. The ygantai eixóves,




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