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Judges, i. 31). Gaza, Ekron, and Ascalon, further to the southward, were subjugated (same chap. i. v. 18). We here procured a firman from the pasha, having travelled thus far without any authority from the Syrian governments. This firman was worded very strongly in our favour; it was addressed to all the Agas in the pashalic of Acre, and our horses were ordered to be furnished with fodder, &c. free of expense wherever we might go. October 20.-At one in the afternoon we quitted Acre. Our route lay across the plain of that name, in which there was nothing remarkable to be seen except the extensive aqueduct by which the town is supplied with water. We stopped at Zib, the ancient Achzib (see Judges, i. 31). The inhabitants were dressed for the Mahommedan feast, and crowded round us, and all their sick came for medical aid, but we had nothing to give them but the balsam of Mecca, which had been so useful at Ashdoud. Amongst our patients was the sheikh's son, who had burnt his hand most terribly. He evinced much gratitude for the assistance we rendered to him and the rest of the villagers. He offered our interpreter a considerable sum of money, which he refused. A small medicine chest, with Reece's or some other book on the subject, would be a truly valuable article in the trunk of a traveller in these countries, and would be the surest means of conciliating the

natives.

guished the Echinus moulding. The material used in these buildings is the natural stone of the country, which is calcareous and very porous. Beyond these ruins we distinctly traced the remains of the ancient paved way towards Tyre, and we afterwards ascended what is called the ladder of the Tyrians; it is a picturesque spot, the road being cut in the side of the perpendicular cliff on the sea-shore, to the height of several hundred feet above the level of the water. This, according to Maundrell (page 52), was the work of Alexander the Great. After descending from this elevated spot, we passed the ruinous heaps of another ancient city and some picturesque rivulets, and arrived at Tsour at one in the afternoon. Here we put up at the house of an Arab, who called himself a Christian archbishop; he was not at home, and, at first, his wife, daunted by our rough Arab attire, was unwilling to receive us, but our conductor assuring her that we were Englishmen travelling for pleasure, she treated us with great civility and attention. The establishment was a very humble one, as might be expected in so mean a place. The prophecies of the fall of Tyre in Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, seem to be fulfilled in the present appearance of Tsour, there being no vestige remaining, but mere rubbish, of the ancient city (so called from Tiras the son of Japheth). The city, formerly built on an island, is now on a peninsula; the isthmus, which Alexander caused to be made for the prosecution of his attack on the city, has now the appearance of natural ground. The walls and castle are visible, but I should strongly suspect they are not the same which existed at the time when Tyre was in its glory, and the port is much choked up with mud.

October 21.-We were mounted and on our route at daylight, and in about an hour's time reached Cape Blanco. The descent on the north side reminded us, in its numerous windings, of the mountain roads of Switzerland; and the sea dashing against the rocks below us had a fine effect. The road was execrable. About three hours October 22.-At sun-rise we probefore we reached Tsour, the ancient ceeded on our journey. We saw the Tyre, we stopped to visit some ruins remains of the ancient aqueduct, and on a small eminence on our right; crossed the mouth of the Kasmia; the they consisted of the remains of a banks of this winding river, which large city, and the ruins of a temple proceeds from an extensive valley bein a most dilapidated state. Only two tween the mountains, are very piccolumns are standing. In the lower turesque. There is a bridge with one part of the capital of one we distin-arch over it, a little below which is a

small island. We continued our route
through a country nearly barren, very
thinly populated, and very uninterest-
ing, with mountains on our right, des-
titute of either beauty or vegetation.
We passed through the ruins of five
or six large cities, now mere rubbish,
and only distinguishable as sites of
towns, by numerous stones much dila-
pidated, but still showing marks of
having been cut square with the chisel,
with mortar adhering to them, and here
and there were fragments of columns.
The only place marked in the map in
this quarter is the ancient Sarepta or
Zarephath, remarkable by the miracles
wrought there by Elijah (see 1 Kings,
xvii.) In the afternoon we crossed
the dry beds of several torrents, and
a river by a bridge of five arches; the
banks of all these streams were covered
with wild-flowers, amongst which was
the oleander, in full bloom and beauty.
As we approached Saida we observed
that the sides of the hills were covered
with vineyards, but their appearance
is not at all picturesque. Half an hour
before we arrived, we passed the ruins
of another ancient city; also a frag-
ment of a granite column, and a Roman
mile-stone, like that near Cesarea, and
having upon it an inscription of the
time of Septimius Severus. The im-
mediate neighbourhood of Saida (the
ancient Sidon) is pretty. The place
derived its name from Sidon, the first-
born of Canaan (see Genesis, x. 15).
The plain at the foot of the hills is
entirely appropriated to extensive and
shady groves and gardens, with narrow
and pretty lanes between them. There
is no English consul or agent at Saida,
we therefore went to the convent, but
found no friars there, and the church
was shut up. The French consul had
entire possession of all the apartments;
he was now on a tour to the Holy
Land. We had seen him at Acre; he
was then with his wife going to Naza-Saida by a wretched rugged road, and
reth. We had some difficulty in ob-
taining a room in this convent, but at
last we got one belonging to one of
the absent servants. We were now
in the neighbourhood of Lady Hester
Stanhope, and as we were entrusted
with a letter from Mr. Salt, a packet

of English letters from Acre, and a
book from Jaffa, we deemed it our
duty to wait on her, and therefore set
out for her usual residence, an old
deserted convent in the mountain,
about one hour and half distance from
Saida, called Mar Elias Alza; but her
ladyship had removed from thence on
account of the heat to a more elevated
spot in the mountains, called Castle
Jeba: we therefore forwarded the
letters, &c., together with a note, re-
questing permission to wait on her.
The following morning we received a
letter, saying, that she had made her
mind up not to receive any more
Englishmen, with the exception of
officers of the army and navy, “all
fine fellows," as she was pleased to
express herself; at the same time she
strongly dissuaded us from undertaking
the trip to Palmyra, and recommended
us to make a short tour of fifteen or
twenty days round the vicinity of
Saida, and then to return and pass
twenty days with her in her convent.
This, at the present season of the year,
with the winter and rainy season fast
approaching, would have been the most
impolitic plan we could have pursued,
and therefore we returned a polite
answer declining her civilities with as
good a grace as we could. She is
always dressed in the Turkish costume
as a man; her generosity we heard
spoken of in all directions. Saida
possesses as few relics of its ancient
magnificence as Tyre. The port, al-
though it may once have been exten-
sive, is now small, and nearly filled up
with mud. The castle, connected to
the main land by a bridge, is an old
building, but the same remark which
I made on the ancient edifices at Tyre
is applicable to those of Sidon, viz., that
they are more recent than the time
when the city was in its splendour.

October-25. At 9 A. M., we left

through an uninteresting country. We met occasionally with the remains of the ancient paved way. In the afternoon we passed the ruins of an ancient town and burial-ground; here are many stone sarcophagi, some never opened; their lids are high and massy,

and terminate in an angle. A little beyond them are two arches in the mountain's side, the ruins either of a bridge or an aqueduct. Shortly afterwards we quitted the sea-coast and passed over the hills which form the promontory of Bayruth; here we had a fine view of the plain, covered with groves of olives, and of several villages on the mountain's side. Descending, we passed through plantations of figs, and of young mulberry trees for the silk-worm, and from thence through gardens neatly inclosed by walls, where we met occasionally with fragments of antiquity. It was dusk before we entered Bayruth, the ancient Berytus. It stands well, and like all the other towns of Syria that we have seen, has pretty environs and rich gardens at the back of it; but these beauties are always confined to particular spots, and an hour's ride usually conducts you again into an uninteresting and rocky country. There is a fine view of the sea from the marina, and the jetty is built on foundations of antique granite columns. There is also an ancient bath within the town, We were at the house of Mr. Laurella, the English agent, a very good fellow.

October 26.-At two in the after. noon we left Bayruth, the road being for a short time very pretty, with gardens on each side of us. We soon crossed the nahr El-Sazib below the junction of the nahr El-Leban, or River of Milk, so called from its foaming when overcharged with water. It

is a pretty rivulet; the bridge has six arches. From hence the road led along the sea-beach until we came to a rocky promontory, the ascent of which reminded us of the ladder of the Tyrians, though it is neither so high nor so picturesque; on reaching the summit, we saw below us on the other side the nahr El-Kelb, or River of the Dog, running beautifully through a deep chasm in the mountains, and a very good bridge over it, which Maundrell describes as being a bow-shot from the sea. The banks are planted with vines and mulberries. There is a Roman inscription on a tablet carved out of

In an

the rock on the side of the road we descended; this was copied by Maundrell, 120 years ago, and appears to record the construction of the road by the Emperor Antoninus. Near the bridge is also another inscription in the Arabic language. We passed the night at the mouth of the river, and at daylight the following morning proceeded along the sea-shore. hour's time we ascended a rocky point of a small bay inhabited by fishermen. At the foot of this promontory, close to the sea, are the remains of a chapel cut out of the rock, which we were informed was the sepulchre of St. George. The old fishermen, whose cottage is situated on the promontory above the chapel, were so superstitious as to believe, and endeavoured to persuade us, that the water of the sea near this spot is a cure for all distempers, and that numerous people came hither for the purpose of being healed by it. We had here a good view of the grand convents of Harissa Soummaar, romantically situated on the summit of the mountain. The valley at the end of this bay is cultivated and studded with cottages. Proceeding along the sea-beach we passed a Roman arch constructed with large stones over the bed of a torrent; from hence the road led over rugged rocks, till we came to a handsome bridge of a single arch, over the nahr Ibrahim, the ancient Adonis, which, like the nahr El-Kelb, proceeds from a deep chasm between the mountains, but the level land is more extensive than that near nahr El-Kelb. We now proceeded by the sea-coast to Gebail. On our way we crossed over one of those natural bridges, over a torrent now dry. This is one of many places where the water meeting with inclined beds, has undermined the intermediate earth, and formed caverns, or natural arches. We reached Gebail, or Gibyle, at two in the afternoon, and stopped at the convent of Maronites, a poor miserable set of people who make a merit of never eating meat, &c. At Gebail, without the town, there are many Roman ruins, and a bridge with several granite columns; within the town,

the castle and some other modern edifices are constructed upon ancient foundations. The Roman name of Gebail is marked in the map as Byblus, but in Ezekiel, xxvii. 9, it is called Gebal, and is mentioned as furnishing the fleets of Tyre with caulkers.

October 28.-We went from Gebail to Tripoli, which we did not reach till dusk, though we started at daylight. We saw nothing of interest except the remains of a Roman temple, and we passed over a very rugged and bad road until we reached Batroun, the ancient Botrys. Here the road turned to the right through a fine valley be tween the mountains, in which we noticed an old picturesque castle standing on a high rock; it is called Temseida, and was probably constructed to defend this pass. The hills on the south of the vale are covered with shrubs, and by the roadside are plantations of mulberries, vines, &c. A small river, which we occasionally crossed by bridges, takes its winding course through the valley. Leaving it, we passed to the north over the mountains by rugged paths, bordered by the myrtle and other wild shrubs, until we again came down upon the coast. At sun-set we reached Tripoli, and not being aware that there was an English consul in the town, took up our quarters in the convent with Padra Hermenigildo. This is the best town we have seen in Syria, the houses being all well built of stone, and neatly constructed within. It is seated at the foot of the mountains, at some distance from the sea-shore, and is surrounded by luxuriant gardens, producing_innumerable oranges and lemons. The town is commanded by two old castles on the heights, built in the time of the crusades; the port is near an hour's distance, on a low point of the sea-coast, it is but an indifferent one, being an open anchorage, only a little sheltered by the Pigeon Islands. Three cities formerly stood here, one subject to Aradus, a second to Tyre, and the third to Sidon; hence the origin of the name Tripoli. There are square towers, apparently of the time

of the crusades, all the way from the port towards Tripoli. On the second day of our arrival we received a message from the English consul, expressive of his regret that we had not come to his house; we immediately waited on him, and explained the circumstance to his satisfaction. He was a fine old man, nearly eighty years of age, and remembered Bruce, who stayed some days at his house; we were delighted with the affable and sensible conversation of this veteran.

On Thursday, at four in the morning, we left Tripoli, for the purpose of visiting the cedars of Lebanon and Baalbec. Signor Giuseppe Mazolière, the son of a French merchant, accompanied us, at the request of the padre of the convent. The ascent from Tripoli is gradual; the first object of interest is the aqueduct and bridge over the nahr Kavdas, or Abouli river. These structures are overgrown with bushes and weeds, and the river runs picturesquely under them in two channels. At first the road is good, and passes through cultivated plains, groves of olives, and beautiful valleys watered by branches of the river. Afterwards it becomes very rugged, steep, and irregular, and continues so the whole way to the village of Eden, passing between two conspicuous points of the mountain. Eden is delightfully situated by the side of a rich and highly cultivated valley; it contairs between four and five hundred families, who, on the approach of winter, descend to another village only an hour's distance from Tripoli; the families were in the act of removing to their winter habitations when we arrived; and on our return from Baalbec, all those who had not previously quitted their summer quarters descended with us. They have an Arab catholic bishop, a church, and several priests; there is another Christian village, lower down in the vale. We arrived at Eden about two o'clock, which, including stoppages, makes it ten hours from Tripoli. Here Signor Mazolèire's relations received us most hospitably. The wine was delightful;

that of Lebanon has always been esteemed.*

Early on Friday morning, we set out by moonlight for the cedars, and arrived a little after daybreak. The ascent from Eden to the cedars is not considerable, the distance, allowing for the windings of the road, which is very rugged and hilly, may be about five miles. On the right, higher up the mountain, is a larger and deeper vale than that of Eden, with the village of Beshiri in the bottom; this valley is very rich and picturesque. It is surrounded by lofty mountains, and is watered by a winding stream. It reminded us of the vale of the Dive in Savoy, and its "Pont de Chèvres." The famous cedars of Lebanon are situated on a small eminence, in a valley at the foot of the highest part of the mountain. The land on the mountain's side has a sterile aspect, and the trees are the more remarkable as they stand altogether in one clump, and are the only trees to be seen in this part of Lebanon. There may be about fifty of them, but their present appearance ill corresponds with the character given of them in scripture. There was not one of them at all remarkable for its dimensions or beauty; the largest amongst them is formed by the junction of four or five trunks into one tree; according to Maundrell this is 12 yards in girt; but we are much more inclined to agree with Volney than with Maundrell, in the description which they have respectively given of the cedars of Lebanon. Numerous names carved on the trunk of the larger trees, some with dates as far back as 1640, record the visits of individuals to this interesting spot, which is nearly surrounded by the barren chain of Lebanon, in the form of an amphitheatre of about thirty miles circuit, the opening being towards the sea. We thought the toutensemble more resembled the Apennines at the back of Genoa, than any other mountain scenery we had ever

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The words, "All the trees of Eden, the choice and best of Lebanon," Eze kiel, xxxi. v. 16, would seem to imply that the boasted cedars were always near the place in which the few remaining ones now are, as they are not more than five miles distant from the modern village of Eden. In the 2nd Chronicles, ii. 8, the words, "Send me also cedar-trees, fir-trees, and algum-trees, out of Lebanon," clearly prove that formerly other kinds of wood grew on this mountain, none of which are now to be found here, unless the walnut tree of the present day, which is in very high perfection at Eden, is the algum-tree of the ancients. By the first book of Kings, chap. vi. and vii., it appears that much cedar was used in the construction of Solomon's temple. With respect to the village of Eden it appears to stand where of old was the garden of God,' so called throughout the whole of the xxxi. chap. of Ezekiel, particularly in the 8th and 9th verse; but by reference to Genesis ii. verse 8, the position of the garden of Eden, where Adam and Eve were placed, seems very uncertain, for from the 10th to the 14th verses you observe, "A river went out of Eden to water the garden, and from thence it was parted and became into four heads :" the river of Ethiopia (the Nile) appears to be one of the four, and the Euphrates another. Maundrell gives no extracts from scripture concerning Lebanon ; probably because he thought it would be useless, as it is mentioned in so many different places. Volney is also silent on the subject, I mean as far as respects quotations. Eden is called Aden by the natives at this day.

We hired a guide to conduct us across Lebanon into the valley of Bekaa Mathooalis, in which Baalbec is situated. Leaving the cedars about an hour after sun-rise, we ascended to the crest of Lebanon, where we had an extensive view over the hills at its S. E. foot into the valley, with Baalbec in the distance. We beheld also to the westward a considerable extent of sea. Altogether it was a fine view, but scarcely deserving the commendations

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