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EAST The past participle of yprian or
SOUTH articulate) it becomes ys; and so it is much used in the Anglo-Saxon. They who cannot pronounce R, usually supply its place by a : hence, I suppose, EAST, which means angry, enraged.
"The wynd Tiffonyk, that is cleped North Eest, "or wynd of tempest." Dedis, chap. 27.
In the modern version,
"A tempestuous wind, called Euroclydon, Acts, chap. xxvii. v. 14.
"Though you untye the windes, and let them fight
"Though bladed corne be lodg❜d, and trees blown downe, "Though castles topple on their warders heads:
"Though pallaces and pyramids do slope
"Their heads to their foundations: though the treasure "Of nature's germaine tumble altogether
"Euen till destruction sicken." Act 4, pag. 144. "YESTY waves (says S. Johnson) that is foaming or frothy.
A little matter always makes the waves frothy. But Johnson knew what the YEAST of beer was; (which comes indeed from the same verb) and the epithet Yesty conveyed to him no stronger idea than that of fermentation. But YESTY here is the Anglo-Saxon yrtiz, Iestig, procellosus, stormy, enraged which much better accords with Shake
pear's high-charged description than the wretched allusion to fermenting beer.
Pereo, Per'd, Pert, or wEST, is the past participle of Feran, macerare, to wet.
NORTH, i. e. Nýppeð, Nýppð, the third person singular of Nyppan: coarctare, constringere. NORD and NORR (as it is in the other European languages) is the same participle of the same verb. "Frosts that constrain the ground, and birth deny "To flowers that in its womb expecting lie.”
Dryden, Astraa redux.
In the Anglo-Saxon Nippo or Nyppð is also a name for a prison, or any place which narroweth or closely confines a person.
SOUTH is the past tense and past participle of Seo dan, coquere, to seethe.
"Peter fyshed for his foode, and hyes fellowe Andrewe, "Some they sold and some they soтH, and so they liued both." Vision of Pierce Ploughman, passus 16, fol. 81, pag. 2. "Nero gouerned all the peoples that the violent wyne Nothus skorcyth and baketh the brennyng "sandes by hys dry heate, that is to say, al the "peoples in the Southe."
Boecius, fol. 230, pag. 1, col. 1.
Dryden, whose practical knowledge of English was (beyond all others) exquisite and wonderful, says, in his Don Sebastian,
"Here the warm planet ripens and sublimes
"The well-backed beauties of the southern climes."
Act 2, sce. 2.
I need not notice to you that the French, SUD, and our English words suds, &c. is the same as sod or sodden.
And now, I suppose, I may conclude the subject.
ΕΠΕΑ ΠΤΕΡΟΕΝΤΑ, &c.
THE SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED.
F. I STILL wish for an explanation of one word more; which, on account of its extreme importance, ought not to be omitted.
What is TRUTH? You know, when Pilate had asked the same question, he went out, and would not stay for the answer(a). And from that time to this, no answer has been given. And from that time to this, mankind have been wrangling and tearing each other to pieces for the TRUTH, without once considering the meaning of the word.
H. In the gospel of John, it is as you have stated. But in the gospel of Nichodemus (which, I doubt not, had originally its full share in the conversion of the world to christianity(6) Pilate awaits the answer, and has it........“ Thou sayest that I am a
kynge, and to that I was borne, and for to declare " to the worlde that who soo be of TROUTH wyll
(a) See John xviii. 38. « What is truth ? said jesting Pilate; ~ and would not stay for an answer.” Bacon's Essays.
(b) Nichodemus was the patron apostle of our ancestors the Anglo-Saxons and their immediate descendants: his gospel was their favourite authority: and it was translated for their use, both into Anglo-Saxon and into old English ; which translations still remain, and the latter of them was one amongst the first books printed. By Wynkyn de Worde. Anno. 1511.
"here my worde. Than sayd Pylate, what is "TROUTH? By thy worde there is but lytell TROUTH "in the world. Our lorde sayd to Pylate, under"stande TROUTH how that it is judged in erth of "them that dwell therin."
Nychodemus Gospell, chap. 2.
F. Well, what say you to it?
H. That the story is better told by John: for the answer was not worth the staying for. And yet there is something in it perhaps for it declares that "TRUTH is judged in erth of them that dwell "therin." However this word will give us no trouble. Like the other words, TRUE is also a past participle of the verb TKANAN, theopan, confidere, to think, to believe firmly, to be thoroughly persuaded of, to trow.
"Marke it, Nuncle.
"Haue more then thou showest,
"Ride more then thou goest,
"Learne more then thou TROWEST." Lear, pag. 288. This past participle was antiently written TREW: which is the regular past tense of TROW. As the verbs to blow, to crow, to grow, to know, to throw, give us in the past tense, blew, crew, grew, knew, threw. Of which had the learned Dr. Gil been aware, he would not, in his Logonomia Anglica, pag. 64, have told us that TRU, ratus, was "verbale "anomalum of I TROU, reor."
Of this I need not give you any instances; because the word is perpetually written TREW, by