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Nationality of Literature..
New Poetry in New-England.-Poems. By R. W. Emerson; Do. by Wm. Ellery
Poems for the People.-No. 1. Song. By D. Drysdale................
No. 2. The Knighting of Robert Burns...
No. 3. Our Flag..
Political Portraits with Pen and Pencil.-Edmund Burk..
Poets and Poetry of Europe.-Poets and Poetry of Europe. By H. W. Longfellow. 121
Punishment and Penalty.—Argument of Edw. Livingston against Capital Punishment 300
Researches on Magnetism. Researches on Magnetism and Certain Allied Subjects.
Scenes from the Life of Diderot. By Miss Annie Middleton..
Sonnets. By the author of the "Yemassee," "Guy Rivers," &c....
The Mexican War-Its Origin and Conduct..
The Natural Justice of War. By W. M. Bayard..
The Natural History of New-York.—Natural History of New-York. By Authority.. 22
Par M. Anguste
...145, 254, 321, 440
The Pleasures of the Pen....
The Rationale of Crime.-Rationale of Crime and its Appropriate Treatment, &c. By
The State of the Country-Peace or War?....
The Battle of the Operas; with a Memoir of Jenny Lind.... ..
The Philosophy of Numeration. By John Gaskell..
The Red Rose; A Tale of the War in La Vendee. From the French of A. Dumas.
By Mrs. St. Simons....
Verse Limnings.-No. 1. The Sensitive. By D. P. Barhydt..
United States Trade and Tonnage.—Annual Report on the Commerce and Naviga-
The Prose Writers of America.-The Prose Writers of America; with a Survey of
the History, Condition and Prospects of Amer. Literature. By R. W. Griswold 384
Times and Life of Machiavelli. By G. F. Secchi de Casali............
The French Revolution and Empire.-Life of Napoleon Bonaparte. By Hazlitt.... 407
Thoughts of a Pensive Hour. By E. T.......
The Mississippi Valley-History of the Discovery and Settlement of the Valley of
the Mississippi, &c. &c. By John W. Monette, M. D..
I. UNITED STATES TRADE AND TONNAGE. Annual Report on the
Commerce and Navigation of the United States..
III. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF NEW-YORK.
York. By Authority. (Concluded.).
V. THE PLEASURES OF THE PEN....
VI. DON GIOVANNI. Translated from the German. By Mrs. Von Hassel, 36
VII. BRADDOCK'S DEFEAT; OR, THE BATTLE OF THE MONONGAHELA. By
VIII. THE RATIONALE OF CRIME. Rationale of Crime and its Appropriate
IX. POEMS FOR THE PEOPLE.-No. 1. Song..
X. AMERICAN WORKS OF PAINTING AND SCULPTURE. Vanderlyn's
Landing of Columbus-Exhibition of the Art-Union, &c. &c..... 56
XI. ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. Astronomical Observations, &c. &c.
Vol. 1. By authority of Hon. Geo. Bancroft, Sec. of the Navy... 66
XII. CAPITAL PUNISHMENT. Report from the Select Committee on Cap-
ital Punishment. In Assembly, May 4, 1846............
XIII. POLITICAL PORTRAITS WITH PEN AND PENCIL.-Edmund Burke.. 73
XIV. FOREIGN POLITICS..............
XV. FINANCIAL AND COMMERCIAL REVIEW...
XVI. NOTICES OF NEW Books......
UNITED STATES TRADE AND TONNAGE.*
THE year 1846 is remarkable as the commencement of a new era in the commercial intercourse between the United States and Great Britain, as well as between the latter nation and the countries of Europe generally. The liberal policy adopted in Great Britain, by the government which came into power in 1842, could not but produce its results sooner or later; and in the active state of the export trade of the United States we recognize not only the legitimate consequences of that policy, but the confirmation of the soundness of free trade principles. Up to 1842, the revenues of Great Britain were derived from taxes on articles of consumption, both imported and of domestic growth. Protective theories having preponderated in the imperial councils, taxes were laid as high as possible. In many cases they were even prohibitory, and in all oppressive. The result was, that for nearly ten years, ending with 1842, the expenditures could not be kept within the revenue. Year after year a deficit presented itself which baffled the skill of the most sagacious Chancellors. Sir Francis Baring, in 1840, proposed and obtained an increase of 5 per cent. on all customs duties-an increase, the proceeds of which it was estimated would meet the deficit. The tax was levied and collected, but the incurable "deficit" seemed rather increased than otherwise-involving a change of ministry. The lesson was not lost on the new minister. He saw clearly enough, that to make taxes yield a sufficiency, the taxed goods must be consumed; and that, if the impositions on trade were so great, and restrictions upon industry so onerous, as to incapacitate the people from consuming, the revenue must of necessity decline. The experiment of the extra 5 per ct. customs proved this conclusively. The increased burden diminished consumption; hence, to recover the deficit, he must undo what had been done theretofore. The income tax being first laid, he began to ameliorate duties; prohibitions upon food were removed; and taxes the most onerous upon trade were relinquished, without respect to protection. With every removal industry received a new impulse; the ability of the masses of the people to consume was evidently increased, and enhanced importations at advanced prices gave indication of the soundness of the minister's views. Year after year the demand for all raw materials of manufactures, tropical fruits, live animals and provisions, increased, as indicated in the quantities taken for consumption, and the revenues of the government recovered the former deficit independently of the direct tax. The process of improvement under diminished protection was so
clearly indicated as the result of free trade, that the minister himself became a thorough convert, and openly and explicitly renounced protection upon food as a principle of government.
Under the financial head of this number, will be found some tables, compil d from official sources, showing the interesting fact of this enhanced consumption of all articles. The increase, for nine months of 1846 over former years, amounts to 25 per cent., and embraces as well tropical productions as imported animal food; also, raw materials and excisable articles of British production-as bricks, paper, malt, &c. ; the whole showing a universal increase of industry, and in the enjoyment of comforts and necessaries by the laboring many. On eight articles, viz.: provisions, butter, cheese, sugar, cocoa, coffee, tea, and tobacco-the increase was gradual, from 446,215,561 lbs. in 1842, to 608,553,257 lbs. in 1846. The consumption of food must naturally be expected to have increased as well as that of other articles; and the foreign demand for food, which has been so visible in the United States' markets, is the evidence of that increased consumption, and not merely of a short crop, as has been supposed. There are no statistical tables which will show the exact quantity of bread-stuffs consumed in England; but the corn laws require to be reported at the 150 principal towns in the United Kingdom, the quantity of each kind of grain sold, weekly, and the price. The average prices reported at these sales, regulate the duty under the sliding-scale. If, now, we compare the quantities of British grains sold at those markets, for a period of this year, with the quantity sold for a like period of a previous year, a good indication of the crop is arrived at. For this purpose we take the year 1844, because that was a year of considerable import, and also of low prices; and we take the eight weeks, ending with Nov. 21st, in each year. The results are as follows:
TABLE OF SALES AT 150 TOWNS FOR 8 WEEKS, ALSO THE QUANTITIES ENTERED FOR CONSUMPTION IN THE SAME WEEKS, ALSO THE PRICES Nov. 21.
Sold. Entered. Total.
Sold. Entered. Total. 8. d. ..1.046.818.. 63.477..1.110.295..45 10....1.120.812..120.913..1.371.939..59 8 971.472..35 2.... 581.013..125.326.. 834.120..42 11 280.243..21 3.... 228.570..126.099.. 17.528..30 9.... 3.488..
Total 8 weeks...1.985.205..491,664..2.476.879..
There has been a quantity equal to 349,767 qrs. more British grain sold in 150 British towns than in the same period of 1844; there has also been an increased quantity entered for consumption, and yet the prices are 333 per cent higher; that is, the average of the six grains, Nov. 21, 1844, was 34s. 9d.; and Nov. 21, 1846, 47s. 8d. If a larger quantity brought this increased money price, the conclusion is inevitable that it is increased demand and not deficient supply, that produces it. Under the approximate free trade movement of the British government, her people obtain a greater share of necessaries and comforts than ever, although they have come to depend on foreign nations for a portion of their food.
The influence of thirty years of peace has broken down the theory of "protection," which may be called the spirit of international warfare. It was the legitimate progeny of that obsolete "balance of power" theory, which taught that it was the duty of one nation, not only to increase its own strength, but to weaken and injure another, by all means in its power. When Lord Bacon announced that "Nobody can be healthful without exercise-neither natural body nor politic; and certainly to a