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Sorrow foregoes its nature there,
WANT OF SLEEP.-Nothing is so hurtful both to the mind and body as the want of sleep. Deprived of the necessary portion, the person gets wan, emaciated, and listless, and very soon falls into bad health; the spirit becomes entirely broken, and the fire of even the most ardent dispositions is quenched. Restlessness, when long protracted, may terminate in delirium, or confirmed insanity; and in many diseases it is the most obstinate symptom we have to struggle against; by it alone all the bad symptoms are aggravated; and as soon as we can succeed in overcoming it, every thing disagreeable and dangerous frequently wears away, and the person is restored to health.
BISHOP LATIMER.-It is related of Latimer, that when he once preached before the tyrant Henry VIII., he took a plain straightforward text, and his sermon assailed those very sins for which the monarch was notorious; and he was stung to the quick-for truth always finds a response in the worst man's conscience. He would not bend beneath the authority of his God; and he therefore sent for Latimer, and said, "Your life is in jeopardy if you do not recant all you said to-day when you preach next Sunday." The trimming courtiers were all anxious to know the consequence of this, and the chapel was crowded. The venerable man took his text, and, after a pause, begun with a soliloquy, thus: "Now, Hugh Latimer, bethink thee, thou art in the presence of thy earthly monarch; thy life is in his hands, and if thou dost not suit thyself to his fancies, he will bring down thy grey hairs with blood to the grave. But, Hugh Latimer, bethink, bethink thee, thou art in the pregence of the King of kings and Lord of lords, who hath told thee, Fear not them that kill the body, and then can do no more; but rather fear him that can kill both body and soul, and cast thee into hell for ever!-yea, I say, Hugh Latimer, fear him." He then went on, and not only repeated what he had before advanced, but, if possible, enforced it with greater emphasis. What was the consequence? Henry sent for him, and said, "How durst thou insult thy monarch so?" Latimer replied, "I thought if I were unfaithful to my God, it would be impossible to be loyal to my king." The king embraced the good old bishop, exclaiming, "And is there yet one man left who is bold and honest enough to tell me the truth!"
CHIMNEY-SWEEPS.-There is no occupation in which the person is so constantly and generally exposed to the influence of a fine and subtle dust or powder as in the case of sweeps; but the miseries which attend the abominable practice of employing climbing-boys are so numerous, so various, and so grievous, that it would be difficult to refer to each the amount of its share of destructive influence. Not only does the general application of the soot to the surface of the body interrupt the natural functions of the skin, but it tends to produce a very serious ulcerating disease in parts of the body which are exposed to friction. As this disease is obviously the effect of soot, it is called chimney-sweepers' cancer. Other ill effects of the soot, to which sweeps are exposed, are not so apparent; but it is probable that the soot has some share in producing the stunted growth, the distorted limbs, and general weakness, so commonly observed amongst this
unfortunate class. The sufferings which chimneysweeps undergo in this metropolis, peopled as it is with those whose benevolence, extending beyond the limits of our own country, reaches to the most distant spots of the globe, would seem fabulous, were they not incontestably proved, and daily taking place almost under our own eyes.-Dr. Hodgkin.
EASTERN SHEEP.-John, x. 3. Having had my attention directed last night to the words, "The sheep hear his voice, and he calleth his own sheep by name;" I asked my man if it was usual in Greece to give names to sheep; he informed me that it was, and that the sheep obeyed the shepherd when he called them by their names. This morning I had an opportunity of verifying, the truth of this remark. Passing by a flock of sheep, I asked the shepherd the same question which I put to my servant, and he gave me the same answer. I then bade him call a sheep; he did so, and it instantly left its pasturage and its companions, and ran up to the hand of the shepherd with signs of pleasure, and with a prompt obedience, which I had never before observed in any other animal. It is also true of the sheep in eastern countries, "that a stranger will they not follow, but will flee from him; for they know not the voice of strangers." The shepherd told me that many of his sheep are still wild; that they had not yet learned their names; but that, by teaching, they would all learn them. The others, which knew their names, he called tame.-Rev. J. Hartley's Journal,
THE CONSERVATIVE.-The true Conservative is one, who, faithful to God and his country, seeks “to do his duty in that state of life to which it has pleased God to call him." Regarding the institutions of his country as designed, not for the aggrandisement of a party, but for the protection and benefit of all, he exults in the blessings they have secured for his native land, and guards them as a sacred trust for posterity. Anxious to remove any blot which may disfigure them, and to promote whatever may render them more effective for the public good, he requires proof that the proposed change is desirable, practicable, and safe. He condemns experimental legislation, which risks substantial blessings for shadows. He refuses to exchange practical systems for untried theories. He will not purchase real advantage at the cost of injustice. Conscience, as well as judgment, teaches him, that however duty and interest may seem to clash, yet that, whether in private, or public, or national concerns, integrity is the true and only path to safety, honour, and success. He knows his rights as a member of a free state, and firmly maintains them. He knows his duty as a subject, and performs it cheerfully. He regards the poor and the helpless, not as burdens upon the land, who have scarcely the right to live, except as they minister to the pride and convenience of the rich, but as a sacred charge, to be He has no idea especially protected and cherished.
of politics apart from morals; of morals, not founded upon religion; of religion, not derived from revelation. Conservative principles, in short, comprehend every duty to our neighbour, our country, and our king, all with reference to God, as our supreme Ruler and Judge. From Osler's Church and Dissent.
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RELIGION CONSISTENT WITH WORLDLY
ALL errors, on whatever subject, are faults of excess or defect: they are either an exaggerated view of the importance of the matter in question, or too low an estimate of its importance. Whether it be of the one kind or the other, of course, as being error, it is to be reprobated and shunned; and yet there are some subjects in which the error on the one side seems less to deserve reproof than on the other and this is the case with respect to excess in religion: for, although error of this kind may, and does, lead out oftentimes to the most mischievous results; yet those who are guilty of it are less hateful than others, inasmuch as they have formed to themselves higher notions, and have taken up a loftier standard of opinion and duty, than those who, in this matter, err on the side of defect. Religion is the highest good, and the noblest object, of man: to act as if we did not feel it to be such, is inexcusable;-to act as if we were possessed and absorbed by this view, even though it lead us to some immoderate lengths, is surely venial.
A mistaken view of religion, as to its compatibility with the active duties of life, has led to consequences of opposite kinds; but equally injurious to those who have held the respective sentiments. The one description of persons-penetrated with a sense of the transcendent excellence of religion, and resolving that nothing ought to come in the way of its claims, nothing divide its supremacy in their hearts have been led to abandon every pursuit, and quit the necessary occupations of life, that they may give themselves up to spi
VOL. I.-NO. VII.
ritual exercises; the other class, having an indistinct idea of the dignity of religion, as a thing which, to be duly regarded, will demand much time and attention, have decided that their worldly interests will suffer, if they bestow on religion this measure of attention: they determine, therefore, to attend to that, the benefit of which is perceived to be immediate and present. Both these descriptions of persons are wrong in their judgments: the one may remain a citizen of human society, and fulfil the purpose of God in making him a being capable of religion; the other may converse with spiritual objects, without damaging his worldly and lawful interests. No doubt, there are many to be found who would rank under the first of these descriptions of persons, and whose opinions border on what may be justly termed fanatical excess; but such are by far the smaller proportion, inasmuch as the number of those who consider religion to be a thing of paramount value is very small: the great multitude belong to the other class, because the heart of man is naturally indisposed to any communion with spiritual things, and gladly shelters itself under this specious plea, for the entire neglect of them. It is these, then, who have formed no acquaintance with religion, through a fear that, by too much engrossing their care, she will injure their worldly prosperity; it is these, whom we need to convince of their mistake.
Now, there is one argument, which would be sufficient, even if we could find no other, to prove that religion is consistent with worldly business; and it is this, that all men, without exception, are engaged with business; with occupation, that is to say, of some sort or other, arising out of their connexion with the civil
society of which they are members: either, therefore, their relation to this social community must be destroyed (a thing quite inconceivable), or religion must be compatible with this relation, and the duties that grow out of it. The truth is, that man was made for religion, and that the religion which God has appointed is equally made for man. But how can this be made to appear? for, if we look into the world, we see that by far the larger proportion of men are taken up with active duty, which they cannot neglect, if themselves and those dependent on them are to prosper or subsist. In the literal "sweat of their face" do most men eat their bread; ard those classes which are not obliged, as was St. Paul, by their own hands to minister unto their daily necessities, go through much constant mental, and, often, not a little bodily fatigue. Providence seems to have balanced the condition of the several classes of society pretty nearly in respect of the labour imposed on each: "he that will not work, neither shall he eat," will be found to be the law, more or less, under which every man is actually placed. "Man is born for action," says a French writer," as the fire tends upward, and the stone descends. Not to be occupied, and not to exist, is for man the same thing."
Now, there are two ways in which religion can be cherished in the heart; and each, we think, is consistent with the duties of active life. The first is, by engaging in the express exercises of religion, public or private-in the congregation or the family. It is from these, at all times, that piety derives its principal nutriment. Now, in a country where the Sabbath is recognised as the day of weekly rest, and on which all ranks of men are for that time set free from their labours; where, also, there is, throughout the kingdom, in every one of those districts which we term parishes, a local supply of religious ordinances, none can complain that he has not constantly within his reach one of the most effectual means of spiritual support. measure, at least, of his life, he may devote to the " things that are above."
And, private devotion, whether in the family or closet,-who is he that may not find the time to practise this, with tolerable regularity, if he be sincerely anxious about it? It is, clearly, most easy to do so in the upper and middle classes of society; and there are many instances to be found, both on record and within our own observation, of families in the lowest walks of life, where the will existing-there has been found the way; and where the domestic altar, though formed of rude materials, and standing on rugged ground, is yet habitually raised. Now, in answering to ourselves the question,
whether it is possible to be religious amidst a life of occupations, it is to be particularly remembered, that this first expedient, of which we have spoken, viz. the express exercises of religion, public and private-that this, while, as we have shewn, it is at the command of all, is also the prime means of grace.
But it is when the habit of religion governs the whole life, that its consistency with worldly occupation is most plainly seen. For religion is not one among the many interests of life, which is to have its measure of attention, and then to give way to other pursuits; but it is the single interest of life: it is not a duty to be discharged, but a principle to be felt. To be truly religious, is to breathe the atmosphere of God's presence, at all times, and under all circumstances: it is, to have that perception of him, spiritually, which the heathen had of him for their physical sustenance," in him" to "live and move, and have our being." In a word, it is to have such a sense of God's intimate, pervading presence throughout the world and within ourselves, as shall make us live continually unto him. Surely, this is true religion and yet it is for want of seeing the matter in this undeniable light, that men are so often heard to complain, that to live by the standard of the Bible, and to mix with the business of the world, is a union which they cannot hope to achieve. But, on such persons, we might urge that remark which has been made with regard to religious disputes, that "love settles all controversies ;" and, if the spirit of religion were implanted in their hearts, they would not be perplexed to find a solution of the problem, how they could live in the world, and yet live unto God. Let them look into the diary of good men of former generations, and of good men now living, and they would be amazed to find how many moments in each day-moments of those hours when they were in the midst of busy duties-how many such moments, amounting sometimes to hours in a week, and to weeks in a year, have, under the influence of a devotional spirit, been reclaimed from earth, and given to God; how often, in the midst of worldly turmoil, the soul's aspirings have taken upward flight, and held converse with "the things that are not seen." Holy ejaculations, whether of prayer or praise, have gone forth from the midst of the senate or the exchange, and have nerved the legislator, and the merchant, to discharge a responsible duty, or to meet a trying extremity. The presence of the most august personages, -the pressure of the busiest throng, the intrusion of the most unwelcome visitor,-cannot prevent the truly spiritual man from holding real and precious communion with Him "who seeth in secret:"
there is no need that the lips should utter any sound: the veriest whisper of the soul finds an effectual entrance into His ears, 66 unto whom all hearts are open, all desires known, and from whom no secrets are hid." But we go much farther than this: we not only assert it to be a very possible thing to live in the element of the world and in the element of religion at the same time: we assert that this union is the very essence of piety. Not Not to keep company with the material objects by which we are encompassed, is a thing impossible; "for then we must needs go out of the world:" but to be surrounded by an unholy atmosphere, and yet to breathe celestial air; to be in the world, and not of it, this is precisely the duty whereunto we are calledthe discipline under which we are placed; and if religion be that which it has been defined to be, "the life of God in the soul of man," it will enable us to do this; for "this is the victory that overcometh the world, even our faith." Was not David an instance that religion consists in such a course as this, when, throughout a life unusually busied in "serving his generation," he "set the Lord always before him?" Moses, too, who amidst the duties and temptations of an exalted post, endured, as seeing Him that is invisible?" and Paul, who did all things "as of God, in the sight of God," who trieth the hearts?" Not only did they thus "walk with God" while they walked on earth, but they knew that they were called so to walk, and” thereby "please God."
The monk in his monastery, and the nun in her convent, may fancy they are sublime instances of the self-denying power of religion; but such a praise is more truly claimed by those Christians who become the salt of the earth, by preserving the world around them from corruption, themselves being preserved uncorrupt; -who imitate those guardian spirits, who, whilst they have a respect to the things of this lower world, do, yet,"continually behold the face of their Father who is in heaven."
The following remarks from Sir Matthew Hale's Contemplations confirm the above sentiments:
"Whatever you do, be very careful to maintain in your heart a habit of religion. This will put itself into acts, even although you are not in a solemn posture of religious worship, and will lend you multitudes of religious applications to Almighty God, upon all occasions and interventions, which will not at all hinder you in your secular occasions, but better and further you. It will give a tincture of devotion upon all your secular employments, and turn those actions which are materially civil or natural, into the very
true and formal nature of religion; and make your whole life to be an unintermitted life of duty to God. For this habit of piety in your soul will not lie sleeping and inactive, but almost in every hour of the day will put forth actual exertings of itself in applications of short occasional prayers, thanksgiving, dependence, resort unto that God that is always near you, and lodgeth in a manner in your heart, by his fear, and love, and habitual religion towards him. Thus, you doubly redeem your time: 1st, In those natural and civil concerns which are not only permitted, but, in a great measure, enjoined by Almighty God. 2d, At the same time exercising acts of religious duties, observance, and veneration, by perpetuated, or at least frequently reiterated, though short acts of devotion to him. And this is the great art of Christian chemistry, to convert those acts that are materially natural or civil, into acts truly and formally religious; whereby the whole course of this life is both truly and imperatively a service to Almighty God, and an uninterrupted state of religion; which is the best and noblest, and most universal redemption of his time."
ST. IGNATIUS, BISHOP OF ANTIOCH.
Ir is peculiarly refreshing to cast our eyes far upward in the line of Christian history, and contemplate those servants of God, who, in the earliest periods of the Church, witnessed, for his name, a good confession. Such an one was Ignatius, one of the apostolical fathers of the Church, who was born in Syria, educated
under the personal tuition of the Apostle and Evangelist St. John, and became intimately acquainted with St. Peter and St. Paul. St. John, esteeming him to be eminently fitted by his knowledge and piety, ordained him: he was afterwards, on the death of Euodius, appointed bishop of Antioch, about the year 70, by the two Apostles who first planted Christianity in that city,-the place, it will be remembered, where the disciples were first called Christians. In this important seat of duty (for Antioch was both the metropolis of Syria, and the most renowned city of the East) he continued more than forty years, giving honour and protection to the religion of Christ, until the Emperor Trajan came to Antioch to make preparations for a war against the neighbouring people. After making a triumphal entry into the city, in commemoration of his recent victories, he began to inquire into the state of religion there; and finding that Christianity had made great progress in Antioch, he resolved to persecute it here, as he had already done in other parts of the empire.
He seems, however, to have been led, either through humanity or policy, to adopt a modified course of treatment of the Christians; for he directed Pliny to punish those only that were brought before him judicially. Ignatius, "not ashamed of the testimony of
the Lord," and "in nothing terrified by his adversaries," resolved to go, of his own accord, to the emperor, to make open profession of his faith, and of his resolution to stand by the cause, to the support of which he was a consecrated instrument. The conference which took place is recorded in the Acts of Ignatius, a book published by Archbishop Usher from two ancient manuscripts. The Church historian Milner truly characterises this conference as a monument of false glory, shrouding itself under superstition and ignorance, on the one hand; and of true glory, supported by the faith and hope of Jesus, on the other."
"Being come into the emperor's presence," says Milner, "he was thus addressed by Trajan: What an impious wretch art thou, both to transgress our commands, and to inveigle other souls into the same folly to their ruin!-Ignatius answered, Theophorus ought not to be called so; for wicked spirits are departed from the servants of God. But, if you call me impious because of my hostility, I own the charge in that respect; for I dissolve all their snares, sustained inwardly by Christ, the heavenly king.-Traj. Pray, who is Theophorus ?-Ign. He who has Christ in his breast.-Traj. And thinkest thou not that gods reside in us also, who fight for us against our enemies?— Ign. You mistake in calling the demons of the nations by the name of gods. For there is only one God, who made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them; and one Jesus Christ, his only begotten Son, whose kingdom be my portion.-Traj. His kingdom, do you say, who was crucified under Pilate ?Ign. His, who crucified my sin with its author, and has put all the fraud and malice of Satan under their feet, who carry him in their heart.-Traj. Dost thou, then, carry him who was crucified within thee?-Ign. I do; for it is written, I will dwell in them, and walk in them.' Then Trajan pronounced this sentence against him: Since Ignatius confesses that he carries within himself him that was crucified, we command that he be carried bound by soldiers to great Rome, there to be thrown to the beasts for the entertainment of the people.'"
We do not, at once, perceive why Trajan should have sent him to so great a distance as Rome was from Antioch, to suffer the sentence of execution. Would it not have been a more terrific and impressive lesson to scare them away from the profession of Christianity, if they should see "their champion dead" before their eyes? Trajan thought, no doubt, that by using this method he should produce an effect, equally, if not more appalling at Antioch, while he should carry the influence of this example of his displeasure to a far wider extent.
But "the wrath of man shall praise" God: the Lord hath made all things for himself; yea, even the wicked "for the display of his glory." The sequel of the history will illustrate these truths. "The scene before us," says Milner, "is august: the state of Christendom at that time is much illustrated by it. The seven epistles of this great man, undoubtedly genuine as they are, and accurately distinguished from all corrupt interpolations, will come in aid to the acts of his martyrdom; by them, he, being dead, yet speaketh; and, what the Gospel can do for men who
really believe it, and feel the energy of the Spirit of its divine Author, has not often been more illustriously displayed."
He was first conducted to Seleucia, a port of Syria, at about sixteen miles' distance, the place whence Paul and Barnabas set sail for Cyprus. Arriving at Smyrna, in Ionia, he was permitted to visit Polycarp, bishop of that place, who had been his fellow-disciple under St. John; and was himself visited by deputies sent from the various churches of Asia; in return for which kind expression of sympathy, he wrote letters to the churches of Ephesus, Magnesia, Tralles, and Rome, to build them up in the faith.
Any one who should take the pains to read these epistles would derive much instruction from the sentiments of this primitive bishop on subjects of much interest in the present day. And, when we consider the period at which those sentiments were uttered, they must come home to us with peculiar force. At the moment when death is full in his face, what is the subject of which his heart is full? Let the historian we have before quoted give the answer: let every Christian reader weigh it seriously.
Nothing (says Milner) lies more on his heart in all his epistles than to recommend the most perfect union of the members of the Church, and to reprobate schisms and dissensions. He conceives of them as all united to Jesus Christ, all partaking of the same spiritual life. To separate from the Church, and to lose that subordination in which they all stood to their pastors, was to tear in pieces the body of Christ, and to expose themselves to the seductions of those who would draw them from the faith and hope of the Gospel. In modern times, this language is judged not very consonant to the spirit of liberty, on which we are so apt to felicitate ourselves. And I am persuaded, that the strong manner in which submission to the bishop is inculcated, has been the strongest argument with many to encourage themselves in doubts of the authenticity of these pieces. Let no one mistake,' writes Ignatius to the Ephesians; 'if any man is not within the altar, he is deprived of the bread of God. If the prayer of one or two has so much strength, how much more that of the bishop and the whole Church? He who separates from it, is proud, and condemns himself: for it is written, God resisteth the proud. Let us study, therefore, obedience to the bishop, that we may be subject to God. And the more silent and gentle any one observes the bishop to be, the more on that account should he reverence him: for every one to whom the Master commits the stewardship ought to be received as the Master himself.' And, in every age, the same conduct towards godly pastors is doubtless the true wisdom of the Church; and the spirit of schism, ambition, and self-conceit, disguising itself under the specious pretences of liberty of conscience, has produced the most fatal effects."
There is also another of these letters which Ignatius wrote to the churches, to which it is impossible not to allude particularly-that which he sent to Rome, in which he entreats the Christians there not to attempt to rescue him from his impending martyrdom ; thus exhibiting the spirit, and using, in his letter, nearly the very words, of his blessed companion Paul, who