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NOTES TO SERMONS XVI. AND XVII.
Page 311.-Whether in regard, &c. i de Twv Padμwv βίβλος, τὸ ἐκ πάντων ὠφέλιμον περιείληφε. προφητεύει τα μέλλόντα, ἱστοριας ὑπομιμνήσκει, νομοθετεῖ τῷ βίῳ, υποτίθεται τὰ πρακτέα· καὶ ἀπαξαπλῶς κοινον ταμιεῖόν ἐστιν ἀγαθῶν διδαγμάτων, τό ἑκάστῳ πρόσφορον κατὰ τὴν ἐπιμέλειαν ἐξευρίσκουσα. Basil. Hom. in Ps. 1.
Page 312.-A late most learned commentator, &c. Dr. Adam Clarke.
Page 313.-Consecrated to the public service, &c. There is reason to believe that, from a very early period, the Psalms of David were employed in public worship by the Jews. The Hallel, or Passover Hymn, which our blessed Lord is said to have sung with his disciples, consisted of the Psalms from cxiii. to exviii. inclusive; and they have been constantly used in the worship of the Christian Church.
Page 314.-Bishop Horseley. Horseley's Psalms. i. xiv. In that drama, &c. Vide Horseley's Psalms,
Page 316.-None of the sacred, &c. Matt. xxii. 55. and pp. loc.; Acts ii. 56. 1 Cor. xv. 25. Heb. i. v. vii. &c. The observations which occur in the note, page 152—157, to the present learned Bishop of Chester's "Dissertation on the Traditional Knowledge of a Promised Redeemer," are so satisfactory, that I shall satisfy myself with referring to them. They prove the general concurrence of our Lord's contemporaries as to the interpretation of the Psalm; the straits to
which the modern Jews are reduced by their application of it; and the false reasoning as well as loose religion which hangs upon the modern school of German divinity, in attempting to explain it otherwise than of Christ, and, if of Christ, as a prophecy. I shall only add, in proof the same opinion being held by the early Christian Church, a few authorities from the early Fathers: Clement in Epist. ad Cor. 36. applies it to Christ; Barnabas, in chap. xii. interprets it similarly; Justin Martyr, in Dial. cum. Tryph. and Tertull, advers. Mar. refute the Jews, who applied it to Hezekiah; Lactantius Jns. Div. iv. 12. not only follows their footsteps, but seems to point at its reference to the ascension of Christ; Origin, Eusebius, and Chrysostom, are of the same opinion, as to its direct application to the Redeemer. In the beginning of the last century, a controversy of some consequence was excited among the German Protestants, by Masson's applying the Psalm to David; he was refuted by Martin, Lampe, and others. Since that time many German Divines, following the footsteps of Mendelsohn, have attempted to apply it to David and others. Ilgenius supposes it to be a congratulatory ode on the taking of Rabba; Eckman supposes that it was written and addressed to David after the translation of the ark, and that the allegorical and typical meaning was never thought of until after the Babylonish captivity. Herder entirely applies it to David; Pfeiffer understands the first and second verses of the Philistines, and the last of the Israelites' passage of the Jordan; Borkh interprets it of Solomon; and De Wette going still farther, characterises the application of this Psalm to the Messiah, as absurd and impious, and supposes it to be an ode addressed to some Asmonæan Prince, probably to John Hyrcanus, who he thinks was in a peculiar sense a royal priest. Vide Bergman Comment. in Psal. cx. 12-20. Such interpretations disfiguring such learning as these critics generally possess, read an awful lesson to the students in theology.
Page 319.-The learned Venema. "Est oraculi divini partim ad Dominum Davidis, partem ad Davidem pertinentis
promulgatio, quâ Deus oratione primum ad Dominum Davidis versa, introducitur, eum ad summam dignitatem, regiam et sacerdotalem, in cœlis, ad exemplum Melchizedeci, evehere, cum promisso amplissimi et florentissimi regni, in Tsione fundandi, et inde sese quaquaversum dilatandi inter medios hostes, donec omnia inimica essent pedibus subjecta: deinde ad ipsum Davidem sermonem fleetens, ipsum illum dominum ad dextram ipsius fore, hostesque regni ejus, ut antea sic et in posterum prostraturum, eoque facto per multos labores et passiones sibi viam ad summam illam potestatem in cœlo paraturum esse, declarare sistitur."-H. Venema. Commentarius in Psalmos. vol. iv. 760.
Page 320.-He objects that. "Interpretes quidam et illam Psalmi partem posteriorem ad Messiam, hostes regni et ecclesiæ suæ prostraturum referre solent, licet sibi non constent, cum quod versum quintum de hostilibus regibus, sub V. T. a domino deletis, interpretentur nonnulli eorum, tum quod versum septimum de passionibus et eas secuta gloria capere soleant. Ex mea opinione de Domino illo, tanquam Davidis ejusque regni paterno, et viam ad regnum suum cœleste parante agitur, vers. 5-7." Venema, iv. 767.
"Dominus hic occurrit hostes sibi subjiciens, cum in priori pericopa ad dextram Dei sedeat, et Deus hostes ipse subjecturus dicatur.—Nec nullius est, phrases in hostiles et bellicas expeditiones rectius convenire quæ ad V. T. magis quam N. T. tempora sunt accommodatæ." Venema iv. 767.
Page 323.-In the fifth chapter, &c. "Nonnullia sese mihi obtulerunt criteria, quæ mentem eo inclinarunt, ut haud diu post arcam Tsionem translatam, et promissum de regno inter posteros Davidis perpetuo, ac Messia ex !umbis ejus nascituro, antequam regnum inter populos vicinos gentiles propagasset David, eum a spiritu correptum, et in hanc contemplationem Messiæ, ad dextram dei exaltandi, ductum fuisse, et hoc carmen pepigisse."-Venema, iv. 762.
Page 333.-Bishop Horseley's description, &c. Horseley's Psalms, i. xiv.
Page 335.-Such a notion is unfounded. See Archbishop
Magee on the Atonement, vol. 1. 301, 303—and the authors there quoted, particularly Cudworth's discourse on "the true nature of the Sacrament."
Page 337.-In perfect accordance, &c. Heb. v. 4, 5, 6, 7. vii. 16, 23, 24, 25, 26. Through the whole of this epistle Christ is never introduced as a priest, but subsequent to his having laid aside mortality, iv. 14. vi. 20. vii. 26. viii. 1—4, &c. The blood of the ram of consecration invested Aaron with his office (Lev. viii. 22, 25.); and hence Christ must have been consecrated to his priesthood by his blood, therefore must have suffered before that consecration. While writing this passage, I was not aware that the same opinion had been advocated by any Divine; but I find myself anticipated and supported by the learned Archibald M'Clean, in his Paraphrase and Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews, App. III. to which I refer the reader.
Page 340.-" The divine decree." The Fargum has it, "The Lord said in his word," or as Galatinus declares the true Targum of Jonathan, "The Lord says to his word," Gill. The learned reader is aware of the different opinions as to the pointing of the word ", which Rosenmuder would make similar to that in the 5th ver. The Jews of our Lord's time do not seem to have known the difference, as they recognised David's Lord in the first.
Page 342.-To the excellent and learned Vitringa. Ego vero existimo, tum ppárev hanc sedere ad dextram Dei, aptissimam esse ad clare et proprie representandum omne μυςήριον δωξασμε Filii Dei; tum eam prima sua in significatione non tam honorem, quam officium, et officio junctam dignitatem aliquam insignem denotare, ex qua honor et gloria mediatoris post ipsum in cœlos evectum orta sunt; hoc est communicationem Imperii, ejusdem et summi, quod habebat Pater: ita ut Sedere ad dextram Patris proprie et directe sit participem esse Regni Patris."-Vitringa Observ. Sacræ. lib. ii. 303. Vitringa supports this opinion with his usual learning and ingenuity, particularly from 1 Cor. xv. 25; Heb. i. 13; and Acts ii. 54-in which the session at the right