« السابقةمتابعة »
1 Cor. xv. 5, may have happened as he was returning from the sepulchre this second time; for we are certain that the favour was vouchsafed to him on the day of the resurrection. See Luke xxiv, 33, 34.
"The same day on which Jesus arose, one of his disciples, named Cleophas, or Alpheus, the husband of Mary who was sister to our Lord's mother, and who, in the history of his resurrection, is called Mary the mother of James, was travelling to Emmaus, a village about seven miles distant from Jerusalem, in company with another disciple, whose name is not mentioned; and whe, for that reason, is, by some, supposed to have been Luke himself. The two were in the utmost dejection on account of their Master's death, insomuch that their grief appeared visible in their countenances. [Luke xxiv. 17.] Moreover, as they went along, they talked of the things that sat heaviest on their spirits. [Luke xxiv. 13, 14, 15.] And, behold, two of them went that same day to a village called Emmaus, which was from Jerusalem about threescore furlongs. And they talked together of all these things which had happened. And it came to pass, that while they communed together, and reasoned, Jesus himself drew near, and went with them. He overtook them as coming himself from Jerusalem, see verse 18. Probably, the disciples had just left the city when Jesus came up with them; for, on any other supposition, he could not have had time to deliver all the things which the evangelist tells us he spake to them, see verse 27. It seems, he shewed to them himself immediately after he left the company of women. 16.] But their eyes were holden that they should not know him. They were held by his miraculous power; or they mistook him by reason of his appearing to them in an unusual dress. Mark seems to intimate this circumstance in the account which he gives of the matter. [Mark xvi. 12.] After that he appeared in another form unto two of them as they walked and went into the country Or the phrase in Luke, according to the force of the Hebrew idiom, may denote the effect without any intimation of the cause at all. By the alteration which Jesus could easily make in the tone of his voice while speaking; and, by his new dress, he might be concealed from them, especially as they still believed he was dead, and had no expectation of his resurrection. Besides, their thoughts were so swallowed up in the depth of their grief, that as they took little notice of any thing without them, so they did not narrowly examine the features of their fellow traveller. Jesus, therefore, spake to them in the character of a stranger, making free, as travellers might do with one another, to ask what the subject of their conversation was, and why they looked so sad. [Luke xxiv. 17.] And he said unto them, what manner of communications are these that ye have to one another as ye walk, and are sad? [18.] And one of them, whose name was Cleophas, answering, said unto him, art thou only a stranger in Jerusalem,3· and hast thou not known the things which are come to pass there in these days? Cleophas was surprized that any one who had come from Jerusalem should have been ignorant of the extraordinary things which had lately happened there. [19.] And he said unto them, what things? And they said unto him, concerning Jesus of Nazareth, which was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people. [20.] And how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him to be condemned to death, and have crucified him. Having thus given an account of Christ's character, miracles, and sufferings, Cleophas was so ingenuous as to acknowledge they once believed him to be the deliverer of Israel, and, in that faith, had been his disciples; but that they began now to think themselves mistaken, because he had been dead three days. [21.1 But we trusted that it had been he which should have redeemed Israel; and beside all this, to-day is the third day since these things were done. Cleophas added, that some women of their acquaintance, who had been that morning at the sepulchre, astonished
them with the news of his resurrection, affirming that they had seen a vision of angels, which told them he was alive. It seems, his companion and he had left the city before any of the women came with the news of Christ's personal appearance.
The smallest attention will shew that Cleophas and his companion do not here speak of Mary Magdalene's second information given after she had seen the angels; because Jesus himself having appeared to her before she stirred from the spot, it is by no means probable that she would tell the lesser, and omit the greater event. Neither do. they speak of the information which the company of women, Mary Magdalene's companions, gave the apostles after they had seen Jesus; because, they, in like manner, must have related that much rather than any thing else. But the report of which they speak was either made by a company of women different from that in which Mary the mother of James and Salome were, who saw Jesus as they went to tell his disciples concerning the vision of angels, or it was made by that company before they saw the Lord. That it was not made by any company different from that in which Mary and Salome were, is certain; because Luke says expressly, that Mary, Salome, Mary. Magdalene, Joanna, and the rest, concurred in giving it. [chap. xxiv. 10.] Wherefore, it must have been the report which Mary Magdalene made alone, after having been with the women at the sepulchre the first time, and which they confirmed before they saw the Lord. According to this account of the matter, indeed, the report which Mary Magdalene made alone is not distinguished from that of her companions, Mary,. Salome, and Joanna: yet there seems to be a hint given of it in the first clause of the verse under consideration for the words, and when they found not his body, may refer to Mary Magdalene's first information, as the subsequent words, they came, saying that they had also seen a vision of angels, describe the information given by her companions. In the mean time, though it should be allowed that Mary Magdalene's report is not distinguished from that of her companions, either by Luke, in his history of the resurrection, or by the disciples going to Emmaus, it will not follow that her report was made at the same time with theirs, or that the evangelist meant to say so: for though they were distinct in point of time, they might fitly be joined together for four reasons: . Because the persons who made them had gone out in one company to the sepulchre. 2. Because they were made soon after each other. 3. Because the subject of both was the same. Mary Magdalene first brought word that the stone was rolled back, that the door was open, and the body gone. The other women came immediately after her, and told the same things; adding, that they had seen a vision of angels, which affirmed that Jesus was alive. 4. In telling their story to this supposed stranger, the two disciples would think it needless to make the distinction. more particularly. But if the disciples, in their accounts of these reports, joined them together for the reasons mentioned, the evangelist Luke might, for the same reasons, speak of them as one, in his history of Christ's resurrection, agreeably to the brevity which he has studied throughout the whole of his work.
[Luke xxiv. 24.] And certain of them which were with us, went to the sepulchre, and found it even so as the women had said; but him they saw not. When the women who had been at the sepulchre told us that they had seen angels, who assured them, that Jesus was risen, some of our number went thither in great haste, hoping to see these angels, as the women told them they were in the sepulchre when they came away. On their arrival, they found it even as the women had said; for they were favoured with a sight of the angels, but had not the pleasure of seeing Jesus."
This is generally understood of the journey which Peter and John made to the sepulchre immediately after Mary Magdalene's first report; but with what truth may be questioned. The reason is, at that journey, Peter and John had heard nothing
of the vision of angels, which the disciples here mentioned are said expressly to have been informed of. Luke, indeed, tells us of a second journey which Peter made to the repulchre; and this some have supposed to be the journey which the disciples going to Emmaus had in their eye, because it is related immediately after the report of the women concerning the angels, as if it had happened in consequence of that report. Nevertheless, the series of the history discovers the fallacy of this supposition: for when the women came into the city after having seen the angels, both Peter and John were at the sepulchre, and did not return before the women set out the second time. If so, neither Peter nor John had any opportunity of hearing from the women's own mouth what they had to say concerning the vision, till the latter were able to add the still more welcome news of their having seen the Lord. Wherefore, since the disciples, of whom Cleophas and his companion speak, had heard nothing of Christ's appearing to the women, Peter could not be one of them. It may be said, indeed, that immediately on his return from the sepulchre, he went back again with John, or some other of the disciples, in consequence of the women's report delivered to him at second hand by his brethren. Yet this is not very probable; because the disciples in question must have ran so fast, as to return from the sepulchre and make their report, before either Mary Magdalene or the company of women came from their several interviews with Jesus. Of this, no doubt can be made, since Cleophas, who left the city before the women arrived, tells us be had heard that report.
[Luke xxiv. 25.] Then he said unto them, O fools, and slow of heart, to believe all that the prophets have spoken! [26.] Ought not Christ to have suffered these hings, and to enter into his glory? From this reproof, it would appear, that Cleophas and his companion were of the number of those who gave little credit to the tidings which the women had brought of their Master's resurrection. His crucifixion and death, as they themselves acknowledged, having almost convinced them that he was not the Messiah, they had little faith in his resurrection. Wherefore, to shew them their error, Jesus reproved them sharply for not understanding and believing the prophecies which, said he, declare it to be the decree of heaven, that before Messiah enters into his glory, that is, before he receives his kingdom, he must suffer such things as you say your Master has suffered.
Moreover, that his reproof might appear well founded, that their drooping spirits might be supported, and that they might be prepared for the discovery he was about to make of himself, he explained the whole types and prophecies of the Old Testament which relate to Messiah's sufferings, such as the Mosaical sacrifices, the lifting up of the brazen serpent, the twenty-second Psalm, the fifty-third of Isaiah, &c. [27.] And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself. Thus did Jesus demonstrate to his desponding disciples, from the scriptures, that their despair was without cause, and the suspicion without foundation, which they had taken up of his being a deceiver, because the priests had put him to death. His discourse made a deep impression on them, [32.] and engrossed their attention to such a degree, that they neither thought of the length of their journey, nor considered the countenance of him who spake to them; so that ere they were aware, they arrived at the village whither they went. And now the disciples turned aside from the road to go to their lodging, Jesus, in the mean time, travelling on. But they, loth to part with a person whose conversation charmed them so much, begged him to go no further, but to ahide with them, because the day was far spent. [Luke xxiv. 28.] And they drew nigh unto the village whither they went, and he made as though he would have gone further. [29.] But they constrainea him, saying, abide with us; for it is toward evening, and the day is far spent. And
he went in to tarry with them. By their hearty invitations, the disciples prevailed with their fellow-traveller to tura in with them; and their humanity met with an abundant recompence; for Jesus made himself known to them at table, in the action of giving God thanks for their food. [39.] And it came to pass as he sat at meat with them, he took-bread, and blessed it, and brake, and gave to them. Because it is said, that as he sat at meat, he took bread, and blessed it," &c. some have thought that our Lord gave his two disciples the sacrament on this occasion, adding it to the ordinary meal they were eating, as at the first institution of the rite, and that they knew him thereby to be Jesus. But in the greck there is no foundation for the conjecture, the words signifying properly, and it came to pass, that when he sat down to table with them, he took bread, and blessed it, &c. Among the Jews, the giving thanks at table for their food, and the distributing of it to the guests, was the head of the family's office; but in mixed companies, he whose rank and character rendered him most worthy of the honours of the table, obtained them. The actions, therefore, of blessing, breaking, and dividing the meat, happened, of course, at every meal; and at this, were fitly yielded to their Master by the disciples, although they did not know him; because the singular skill in sacred writings, which he had discovered on the road, made them conceive a very high opinion of his piety and learning. Jesus, being thus desired by his disciples to address God in their behalf, he discovered himself, either by pronouncing a form of prayer which they had often heard him use, and which, when repeated by this stranger, awakened their attention; so that, considering his features more narrowly, they knew him to be the Lord. This is Calvin's account. Or they might be led to the discovery, if, in his prayer, Jesus uttered such things as made him known.  And their eyes were opened, and they knew him; and he vanished out of their sight. Though our Lord's departure is mentioned immediately after we are told how he discovered himself, it does not follow that he went away immediately upon the discovery. This is the manner of the sacred historians. We may therefore suppose that he staid some time conversing with the two disciples, and proving to them the reality of his resurrection.
The reflection which the disciples made on this affair is natural and beautiful. [Luke xxiv. 32.] And they said one to another, did not our heart burn within us while he talked with us by the way, and while he opened to us the scriptures? We were extremely stupid not to know him, when we found his discourses have that effect upon us, which was peculiar to his teaching.
As soon as Jesus departed, the two disciples made all the haste they could to Jerusalem, that they might have the pleasure of acquainting their brethren with the agreeable news. But they were in some measure prevented. For immediately on their arrival, the eleven, with the women, accosted them, giving them the news of their Master's resurrection. [33.] And they rose up the same hour, and returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and them that were with them,  Saying, the Lord is risen indeed, and hath appeared to Simon. The apostles had given little credit to the reports of the women, supposing they were occasioned more by imagination than reality: but when a person of Simon's capacity and gravity declared that he had seen the Lord, they began to think that he was risen indeed. Their belief, therefore, was not a little confirmed by the arrival of the disciples, who declared that the Lord had appeared to them also. [35.] And they told what things were done in the way, and how he was known of them in breaking, of bread; that is, by his prayer before meat. Mark, however, represents the reception which their report met with somewhat differently. [xvi. 12] After that he appeared in another form, i. e. in another dress, the dress of a traveller, unto two of them, as they
walked and went into the country. [13.] And they went and told it unto the residue, neither believed they them. But there is no inconsistency between the evangelists; for though the greatest part of the apostles believed that Jesus was arisen, as Luke affirms, some, who had not given credit either to the women or to Simon, continued obstinately to disbelieve, in spite of all that the two disciples or the rest could say. This seems to be a better method of reconciling Mark and Luke, than to suppose that, on Peter's information, the apostles believed that Jesus was risen, but did not believe that he had appeared to the two disciples; because, according to their own account of the matter, they did not know him at first, and because, at parting, he had vanished out of their sight: for I ask the reader whether it is not natural to think that the disciples, who, on this occasion, were more than twenty in number, would not divide in their opinions upon such a subject as the resurrection of their Master from the dead; some believing it; others rejecting it. We know from Luke himself, that a few did not believe, even after they had seen Jesus with their own eyes. [chap. xxiv. 41. See also Mat. xxviii. 17.] It is therefore no straining of the text to suppose, that by the eleven saying, the Lord is risen indeed, and hath appeared to Peter, Luke means only some of the eleven, perhaps, the greatest part of them said so. Besides, we must understand the evangelist's words in a limited sense, because Peter, of whom he speaks, was himself one of the eleven."
"While the disciples from Emmaus were giving their brethren an account of the Lord's appearing to them, and offering as guments to convince those who doubted the truth of it, Jesus himself came in, and put an end to their debate, by shewing them his hands and his feet. [Luke xxiv. 36.] And as they thus spake, Jesus himself stood in the midst of them. The expression, stood in the midst of them, signifies that he stood among them, without intimating whether they saw him come forward, or did not observe him till he was near them. John, however, mentions a circumstance, which, compared with Luke's account, seems to prove that they saw him enter the room, and come forward. [John xx. 19.] Then the same day at evening, being the first day of the week, when the doors were shut where the disciples were assembled for fear of the Jews, came Jesus, and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, peace be unto you. Luke xxiv. 37.] But they were terrified and affrighted, and supposed that they had seen a spirit. The disciples had secured the doors of the house by locks and bolts, as well as they could, for fear of the Jews, But Jesus, before he entered, opened the locks and drew the bolts by his miraculous power, without the knowledge of any in the house. Wherefore, as the whole company knew that the doors had been secured, it is no wonder that they supposed they saw a spectre; and were exceedingly affrighted, when something in a human form, whose features they could not easily discern by the evening light, entered the room. Thus the circumstance of the doors being shut is very happily mentioned by John, because it suggests the reason why the disciples took Jesus for a spirit, as Luke tells us, notwithstanding the greatest part of them believed that he was risen, and were conversing about his resurrection at that very instant. To dispel their fears and doubts, Jesus came forward and spake to them, and shewed them his hands and feet, desiring them to handle him, and be convinced by the united report of their senses, that it was he. [38.] And he said unto them, why are ye troubled, and why do thoughts arise in your hearts? [39.] Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have. [40.] And when he had thus spoken, he shewed them his hands and his feet. (John, and his side.) The disciples beholding these infallible proofs of their Master's resurrection, received him with exultation and rapture. But their joy and wonder so wrought upon their minds, that some of them seusible of the commotion