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CONTRIBUTIONS TOWARDS THE EXPOSITION OF THE BOOK OF GENESIS. By ROBERT S. CANDLISH, D.D., Rector of St. George's, Edinburgh. 12mo. London: Groombridge. 1843.

Ir is very gratifying to see ministers of all the British Churches again returning to the plan of scriptural exposition, the original and the most important way of bringing forth things, new and old, out of our treasure in the Word of God.

Dr. Candlish has a clear and powerful intellect, with enlightened and decided piety, and he has applied his talents with patient industry and success to the interpretation of those great subjects contained in the book of Genesis, which are worthy of unceasing research. We can heartily recommend this work, as well adapted to cultivated and reflecting minds, and full of original and valuable thought. To give a just view of the whole is far beyond our limits. The work only carries us to the 17th chapter of Genesis, and we trust that there may be a continuance of these contributions. He closes his preface with stating, "It is hoped, by the blessing of God, the tendency of what follows is not to raise speculative questions, but to cherish a spiritual and practical frame of mind, in the devout study of the word of the living God." This hope has been abundantly realised in the work, which is eminently spiritual and practical.

We will give his account of the creation, explaining the difficulties of it connected with modern discoveries.

"The essential facts in this divine record are-the recent date assigned to the existence of man on the earth, the previous preparation of the earth for his habitation, the gradual nature of the work, and the distinction and succession of days during its progress. These are not, and cannot be, impugned by any scientific discoveries. What history of ages previous to that era this globe may have engraved in its rocky bosom, revealed or to be revealed, by the explosive force of its central fires, Scripture does not say. What countless generations of living monsters teemed in the chaotic waters, or brooded over the dark abyss, it is not within the scope of the inspiring Spirit to tell. There is room and space for whole volumes of such matter, before the Holy Ghost takes up the record. Nor is it necessary to suppose that all continuity of animal life, which had sprung into being, in or out of the waters, was broken at the time when the earth was fashioned for man's abode. It is enough that then, first, the animals of sea and air and land, with which man was to be conversant, were created for his use; the fish, the fowls, the beasts, which were to minister to his enjoyment and to own his dominion. The sacred narrative of the creation is evidently, in its highest character, moral, spiritual, and prophetical. The original relation of man, as a moral being, to his Maker, is directly taught. His restoration from moral chaos to spiritual beauty is figuratively represented.

"The creation of this world anew, after its final baptism of fire, will be

the best comment on the history of its creation at first, after the chaos of water; and the manner as well as the design of the earth's formation of old out of the water, will be understood at last, when it emerges once more from the wreck and ruin of the conflagration which yet awaits it-' a new earth, with new heavens, wherein righteousness is to dwell' (2 Pet. iii. 13)."

"There is a plain distinction between the first verse and the subsequent part of this passage. The first verse speaks of creation, strictly so called, and of the creation of all things-the formation of the substance, or matter, of the heavens and the earth, out of nothing. In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.' The rest of the passage speaks of creation in the less exact sense of the term; describing the changes wrought on matter previously existing; and it confines itself, apparently, to one part of the universe -our solar system, and especially to this one planet-our earth, concerning which, chiefly, God sees fit to inform us.'

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TRACTS FOR THE PEOPLE. A Course of Lectures on the general coincidence of the peculiar doctrines of the Tractarians with those of the Church. By the Rev. M. W. FoYE. 12mo. Ragg. 1842.

ON THE TRACTS FOR THE TIMES. By the Rev. JAMES BUCHANAN, one of the Ministers of the High Church, Edinburgh. 12mo. Johnstone. 1843.

THROUGH the goodness of God we now see rising up on all sides really able and Christian advocates for the great truths of the Reformation, against that most dangerous perversion of the Gospel, and return to Romanism, which has more and more distinctly marked the course of the Tractarians.

Mr. Foye's book is remarkable for research, and full of information respecting the Tractarian and Papal doctrines, and the full harmony between them. It is also of a popular character, and well calculated for instructing the middle and lower classes in the true nature of these heretical perversions of the Gospel. In answer to the objection that it would be well to keep the subject from our ordinary congregations, Mr. Foye says,


As to keeping the matter aloof from the ears of the multitude, this is idle talk, or worse; it is a subtle disguise of the arch-enemy. Would to heaven the thing were possible; but, alas! it is not so. The poison, if poison it be, is already flowing through the veins of the Church; it is a deeplyworking leaven within, and it has its fountain in the Church's core, as it were, even in that time-honoured and venerable sanctuary, where of all other places we should most deprecate its existence,-where the youth of the land are trained for the sacred office, and whence they are successively to issue for the instruction of the people. Nay more, the social atmosphere is already deeply impregnated with its moral infusion, whatever it be; a vast portion of the public mind has by this time yielded to its form and pressure; and while another vast portion is more or less tinged with its hue and colour, the rest are in danger of imbibing its spirit. Such indeed are their own boastings. MARCH, 1843.

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My brethren, they are popular tracts. They are made accessible to the multitude in the cheapest form; and the opinions and the practices which they recommend have found a too willing and able advocacy, not in the pulpit only, but also in the periodical and daily press,-yea, they are brought within the reach of the means and the capacities of rich and poor, young and old, by all those modern appliances, by which opinion is set afloat; thought originates, feelings are excited, and the popular mind moved. In fact, it is an avowed and well-organized system of religious agitation,-'a conspiracy' against all that is Protestant in our Church and nation.'

We regret to see so many mistakes in the printing of this volume, and proper names are frequently mis-spelt.

Mr. Buchanan, with that mature Christian wisdom and piety, which his work on the Holy Spirit would lead us to expect, gives us the sentiments of a Scotch Presbyterian minister on the Tracts for the Times. We should attribute more to the scriptural and divinely-ordained character of Episcopacy than he does, but his work in general is very useful and interesting and edifying. We give the close of his introductory letter:

"This is not the first time that these views have been promulgated. They have been repeatedly put forth by a party within the English Church in seasons of apprehended danger; but never without frustrating their object, and entailing calamities on the country. In the reign of Charles I. they were put forth by Laud, a man 'virtuous, if severity of manners alone, and abstinence from pleasure, could deserve that name; learned, if polemical knowledge could entitle him to that praise; and disinterested: but with unceasing industry he studied to exalt the priestly and prelatical character, which was his own;' but instead of averting, they increased the danger of the Church, and were followed in quick succession by the abolition of Episcopacy in Scotland, the impeachment of the bishops in England, the execution of Laud, the bloody death of the King, and the Protectorate of Cromwell. After the Restoration they were revived, and most relentlessly applied, against the Non-conformists; when in Scotland more than three hundred, and in England about two thousand, faithful ministers were ejected for nonconformity; but these apparent triumphs were of short continuance, and after a season of feverish discontent and grinding tyranny, the royal family was exiled, and the nation's peace secured by a revolution. Again, in the earlier part of the last century, the same views reappeared; and after setting the Church and country on a flame, during the Bangorian Controversy, they issued in the Church of England being deprived of her Convocation-the name and the form remained, but the substance was gone. What effects may follow from the revival of the same pretensions at the present time, no one may foretell; but already we seem to discern, among the signs of the times, the little cloud like a man's-hand, which may suddenly, spread till the whole sky is overcast, and break not in refreshing showers, but in a wild ungovernable tempest."

AN APOLOGY FOR MILLENARIANISM, to which are added copious replies to Modern Objections, including those advanced by the Authors of the Prize Essays on Missions. By JOHN GRIFFITH MANSFORD. Second Edition.

Nisbet. 1843.



THIS work was first published anonymously in 1836. It is now considerably enlarged-with a fresh chapter, on Antichrist, and with a second part, containing objections and replies. We have read it with much interest. It is written throughout with much good sense and in an excellent spirit, and is calculated to lead all its readers to much fuller views of a subject that has suffered extensively from injudicious advocates and the extravagances of some of its professed friends. Those who have conceived strong prejudices against the whole subject will do well to read this work. It is the more acceptable as coming from a member of a Christian communion generally adverse to the Author's views.

We do not think that Mr. Mansford always does justice to the strength of his cause. Though he maintains the year-day, his case might be much strengthened from a fuller statement of the argument, as brought out in Faber's Provincial Letters and other works. His view of the harmony of the last judgment with his subject, as given in Matthew xxv. might be much enlarged and confirmed.

We are glad to see a decided application of the prophecies of Revelation to Rome. Mr. Mansford observes, "It is not a mere question in theology, whether the 13th, 14th, 17th and 18th chapters of the Apocalypse relate to Papal Rome or not. If it be made a question by any, no Protestant can admit it to be such without virtually renouncing his Protestantism."

After then shewing the way in which four different parties set aside the Protestant application, he observes :

"Thus all, under different names and for different purposes, are associated in aiding the machinations of the great enemy of men. It would seem as though the powers of darkness had, from the beginning, planned a conspiracy against the prophecy which, in the fulness of time, they have been permitted to carry into complete and deadly effect; and parties, with opposing views and undesigned co-operation, are united in helping forward that infatuation of the people and revival of the beast and the false prophet which shall advance together, till the first shall be found swelling the hosts of his enemies at the coming of the Son of Man, and the two last shall be cast into the lake of fire."

We can heartily commend this work to our readers. Whether they agree or not with the author's general conclusion, they will find it full of Christian thought and good feeling.

MEMOIRS OF THE LIFE OF THE REV. JOHN WILLIAMS, Missionary to Polynesia. By EBENEZER PROUT. Second Thousand. 8vo. London: Snow. 1843.

THE name of Williams will long be dear to British Christians. His remarkable adaptation of character to his situation, his qualifications for the work which he was called to fill, the power he gained over the native mind, the simplicity with which he declared the truths of the Gospel, the success which God gave to him, and the sacrifice of his life in his work, have embalmed his memory in the grateful recollection of his fellow-Christians.

In such a memoir, we lose sight almost (we would that this work enabled us to say altogether) of the petty distinctions which divide Christians who hold the Head, and can cordially rejoice in the labours among the Heathen, of one who walked not with us in the outward discipline which we justly think the spirit of unity and order requires in our own country.

Such a work is calculated to have a most beneficial reflex good in this very view. Here is one having none of those peculiarities of our Church in which so many glory, as the Romanist does on similar grounds in his peculiarities, and yet the Dissenter is prospered of God to the conversion of many a heathen from dumb idols to the living God, and from idolatry to the faith, hope and love that is in Christ Jesus. He is honoured of God in changing the whole religion of considerable islands, and bringing them to a consistent profession of Christianity. Surely there is great danger lest if we go on boasting in our external privileges we shall be deservedly left in the curse of barrenness; there is great danger lest while we are exalting ourselves, God will abase us before his whole Church.

Mr. Prout's life is full of interesting facts and written generally in a good spirit. The work cannot fail of doing much good at home; and from our heart we say, Glory be to God for such faithful labourers as the Missionary Williams, who have gone forth from us to bless the heathen world and to be an honour to our beloved country.

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