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Moses, and to the visions and models of the prophets, and particularly to those of Ezeziel. And as Zerubbabel was a chosen type of Christ, so much so indeed that his name is one of the names of the Messiah, so Zerubbabel's temple was a special and distinguished type of Messiah's temple or church; which is also ultimately and spiritually that of Ezekiel ; for that prophet adds to his temple and to its forms and services, the primeval and patriarchal symbols and sacraments of grace and of immortality; the tree of life, with its leaves and fruits, and the river of Paradise, in order to combine together the paradisiacal and the Mosaic types and elements of life and immortality, and the earliest and latest signs and emblems of grace and glory; and thereby to furnish the most finished draught and perfect resemblance of the true house and temple of God, which had been prepared from the beginning, and which is Messiah's church, visible and invisible, militant and triumphant, in earth and in heaven.

It is said to have been first observed by Bochart, that the temple of Jerusalem is never called the temple or house of God in the Scriptures, after the death of Christ. He himself, indeed, before his passion, had distinctly intimated, that it was no longer peculiarly and emphatically his house: "Your house is left unto you desolate." It had, therefore, ceased to be his house, and was now deserted by him and devoted to destruction: the

barren fig-tree was now cursed, and no more fruit was to grow on it for ever. The temple was, notwithstanding, suffered to continue some time longer, together with its worship and sacrifices, though not of the same use or value as before; for why should they regard the sign as formerly, when they had now the thing signified; or why attach the same value to the shadow, when they had the body and the substance? But it still, however, served the important purpose of being the source and centre of attraction and of rendezvous for the Jews, in order to their hearing the preaching of the Apostles, and coming to the knowledge of the truth. And when this object had been attained, so far as infinite wisdom and mercy judged suitable and expedient, the awful notice of absolute and irrecoverable desolation was given, as recorded by Josephus. The brazen door of the temple, which thirty men could hardly move, opened of itself, and a voice more than human was heard to say, "Let us depart from hence *." In and by the death of Christ, the foundation of the true temple of God was laid in Zion, and the stone which the builders had rejected became the head-stone of the corner. The allwise and almighty Architect began then openly and visibly to build Ezekiel's temple, which is infinitely superior to that of Solomon, or of Zerub

* μεταβαίνωμεν εντεύθεν.

babel, "upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone, to be an habitation of God through the Spirit." The true sacrifice was not offered in the Jewish temple, nor even in the Jewish city; Christ suffered not only without the temple, but also without the gate. The altar, consequently, on which the LAMB of God was sacrificed was not that of the Jewish church and nation, but of the universal church, and of the world, of which they were the adumbrations and the precursors. In future, therefore, all the peculiar and superior local sanctity of the temple was forfeited, and for ever abolished. And as the Lamb had been slain before the foundation of the world, so had his temple been planned and his kingdom been founded and prepared from the beginning. Messiah's church or kingdom is the kingdom of God, and of heaven, so often mentioned in the Gospels; and it is sometimes called heaven itself; and, indeed, justly; for, as God dwells in his temple or church, it must be heaven, as the residence of the prince constitutes the court and fixes the palace. The general design and use of the tabernacle or temple to be a resemblance and adumbration of this greater and better tabernacle, and of this future and heavenly temple, was not altogether unknown to the Jews, who had also some imperfect conception of the peculiar signification, and distinct intendment of the outward and of the

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inward sanctuary, which composed it. According to Josephus the first tabernacle, or the outward sanctuary, signifies the earth and the sea*, or the material world. Whilst the second tabernacle, or the inward sanctuary, " was as heaven to God," and Philo observed, that it was symbolically things spiritual," and therefore in the Epistle to the Hebrews, their design and signification are not so much explained, as supposed already known, and the outward or first tabernacle is called "the worldly sanctuary §," that is, which betokened the church of this world, or Messiah's church on earth; and the second tabernacle, or the inward sanctuary, or holy of holies, is called " the figure of the true sanctuary ||," or holy of holies, that is, of heaven itself. And from thence the vast superiority of the great Christian High Priest, over the Jewish high priest, is clearly and abundantly evinced the one passed only once a year through the outward into the inward or inner sanctuary, which were but shadows; whilst the true High Priest passed once for all through that which the first sanctuary had shadowed—that is, the church of this world, on whose altar he had been offered, and for which he had suffered, and of which he is

*

την γην και την θαλασσην αποσημαινει.

† ως ουρανος ειη τῷ θεῷ.

† τα αδυτα ἅπερ εστι συμβολικώς νοητα.

§ το άγιον κοσμικόν.

|| αντίτυπα των αληθινων. scil. ἁγιων.

at once the High Priest and the Sacrifice-into the true sanctuary, or the church in heaven itself, of which two sanctuaries, or churches, his flesh was the veil of separation: because, when the veil was lifted up, the inner sanctuary or the holy of holies was seen, and when Christ was lifted up the kingdom of heaven was opened to all believers, and became in some degree visible and accessible to them.

It is observed by St. Gregory Nazianzen, that the Mosaic tabernacle was the figure of the whole world, and St. Chrysostom says of Solomon, "he constructs the temple to be a resemblance of the whole world, both sensible or material, and spiritual or intellectual." Both those fathers would have been, perhaps, more correct if they had said, of the whole church, instead of the whole world. Jerusalem had been, in like manner, the constant and sacred adumbration of the same holy and universal church in heaven and earth, which is therefore called "the Jerusalem which is above," "the heavenly Jerusalem," and "the new Jerusalem ;" and which is also the city so long before promised and pledged to Abraham, who, we are assured, had looked for this city of the apostles and prophets both on earth and in heaven, whose builder and maker is God. That

* κοσμου παντος αντίτυπον την Μωσεως σκηνην.

† ποιείται τον ναον προς την εικόνα του κόσμου παντος, του τε αισθητου και νοητου.

M

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