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from the other; for the literal and temporal covenant not only prefigured, but also incorporated, the spiritual and eternal covenant; it was the sign, the envelope, and the instrument of it. Bishop Sherlock, therefore, and Lord Barrington, waste much time and labour in pointing out what part of the text was restricted to the literal covenant, and what part of it contained the spiritual covenant; for both are united, and run parallel to each other, and, like the husk and the fruit, the one encloses and contains the other, and is the emblem and the harbinger of it, almost throughout the entire of the Mosaic account of them. And this holds in some degree with regard to his writings in general. "For as the righteousness was twofold, (for he says, as touching the righteousness of the law blameless) and the faith two-fold, (for he says, from faith to faith) and the adoption two-fold, (whose is the adoption, he says) and the glory two-fold, (for if that which is done away was glorious, much more that which remaineth is glorious) and the law twofold, for he says, the law of the spirit of life hath made me free, and the service twofold, (whose is the service, he says, and serving God in the spirit) and the covenant twofold, (for I will make a new covenant with you) and the holiness twofold, and the baptism twofold, and the sacrifice twofold, and the temple twofold, and the circumcision twofold; so also the grace was twofold; but the first were the types, and the others the
truth." He might have added so also prophecy was twofold. And many prophecies are rendered extremely intricate and obscure by writers and commentators not sufficiently adverting to these circumstances, as will be shewn more particularly in respect of our Lord's prophecy concerning Jerusalem.
The promise and oath unto David," of the seed of thy body will I set on thy throne," furnishes another remarkable instance and proof of prefiguration. David could not have limited, with any ground or even semblance of reason, the entire end and meaning of God's solemn oath and promise to the no very uncommon nor unlikely event of being succeeded by his son. And Solomon was necessarily in his estimation, as in that of subsequent prophets, and of the church in all ages, the pledge and the precursor of the true Son of David, and the true and mystical King of Israel," of whose kingdom there shall be no end."
* ώσπερ γαρ ην δικαιοσυνη, και δικαιοσυνη (κατα δικαιοσυνην γαρ, φησι, την εν νομῳ γενομενος αμεμπτος) και πιστις και πιστις (εκ πιστεως γαρ, φησιν, εις πιστιν) και υἱοθεσια, και υἱοθεσια (ὧν ἡ υἱοθεσια, φησι) και δοξα, και δοξα (ει γαρ το καταργουμενον δια δοξης, πολλῷ μαλλον το μενον εν δόξῃ) και νομος, και νομος (ὁ νομος γαρ, φησι, του πνεύματος της ζωης ηλευθερωσε με) και λατρεια, και λατρεια (ὧν ἡ λατρεια, φησι' και παλιν, πνευματι θεῷ λατρευοντες) και διαθηκη, και διαθηκη (διαθησομαι γαρ υμιν διαθηκην καινην) και άγιασμος και άγιασμος, και βαπτισμα και βαπτισμα—και θυσια και θυσια, και ναος και ναος, και περιτομη και περιτομη, ούτω και χαρις και χαρις' αλλα εκείνα μεν ὡς τυποι, ταυτα δε ὡς αλήθεια. CiRYSOSTOM. Homil. 14. in Johannem.
Abraham and David are intimately and deeply related to, and associated with, the Gospel, and their sons were early and well known adumbrations and foretokens of the Son of God. But, what is most to our present purpose, their covenants lay the foundation, and supply the models, of the system adopted by the inspired seers, and are the authentic proofs, and the accredited standards of emblematic designation, and of typical and visible prophecy. For the prophets having always before them these solemn oaths and these important and distinguished covenants which were among the grand doctrines of their church, the chief articles of their faith, and objects of their hope, and also the principal end and aim of the Spirit of prophecy himself, who inspired them; conformed to their art and method of foresignifying one character by another, and of figuring some remarkable future event by one which had preceded it, and somehow resembled it. And as the Messiah had been represented by David, and Solomon, and his reign and church had in like manner been foretokened by their throne and kingdom, or, in general, by the Jewish church and people, various circumstances and enemies of the former are foreshewed by corresponding circumstances and enemies of the latter; and hence the prophetic writings often require a like literal and spiritual interpretation, and involve a corresponding double sense and completion.
THAT Moses and the prophets had been sent before to announce the coming of the Messiah, to prepare the ground, and lay the foundation of his truth and of his church, and to afford some feeble and precursive glimpses of the Son of righteousness, is the drift and tenour of the New Testament; they did not, therefore, teach one system of religion, and Christ and his Apostles another; the Gospel is not at variance with the Law, nor is the church of Christ different from and opposed to that of the Jews. Our Lord himself had, at an early period of his ministry, given the most public notice and positive assurance that he was not come to destroy the Law, but to fulfil it; his apostle likewise asserted of himself, and of his brethren, that, instead of subverting the Law, they established it: hence the New Testament is the Old fulfilled, the Gospel is the Law established; and Messiah's church is that of Moses purified and perfected, so far as the state of the world and the condition of human nature will admit. Whilst the Jews had, therefore, only the letter, we have the spirit; whilst they had the emblem, we have
the object; and their church was the rude mass and the rough block, whilst ours is the perfect image and the finished statue, set out to the utmost pitch of symmetry, beauty, and adornment, that the materials will admit, or that art can bestow. It was necessary, however, that the inspired presages of the future and better religion of the Gospel should be signified in terms of the Law, and should not undermine the popular attachment to the existing religion, nor supplant their justly founded veneration for the various sacrifices and solemnities of the legal economy. Moses had been selected from amongst his brethren, in order to be elevated to the loftiest pre-eminence that had ever been enjoyed by man over his fellow; at once the prophet, high priest, and king of the chosen people; admitted into the immediate presence of God, to behold his glory, to speak to him face to face never was a prophet so clearly instructed, and so brightly illuminated; never was priest so distinctly and unequivocally acknowledged; never was king so highly honoured. A God to Pharaoh, the Lawgiver of Israel, and the Mediator of the first Covenant; the temporary type and representative of Messiah himself!! Dare any subsequent prophet violate what he had enjoined, or repeal what he had sanctioned, with such marked superiority and such unrivalled credibility? The Law must, therefore, remain unchanged, and undisturbed, until a greater than