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war was determined on, in quality of chaplain, and in obedience to the authoritative command and uniform injunctions of his canton. Twenty members of the council and fifteen ecclesiastics fell in the engagement of Cassel, in 1531. We are far from defending the practice to which Zuingle fell a sacrifice, so far as it involved the ministers of religion in actual conflict; but it is only justice to the memory of so great and good a man, to state the real circumstances of the case.
The faults of Zuingle's character, taken as a whole, are noted by our author as he proceeds. A somewhat too great acuteness in theology an occasional wandering into metaphysics beyond the clear line of Scripture a sarcastic turn in argument with his opponents, are the chief. A few extracts will enable our readers to judge of the general piety and talents of this distinguished person. Thus he writes to Ecolampadius, in 1523 :
My pious and learned friend, I am tossed about in various ways: yet I remain unmoved, not relying on my own strength, but on the rock Christ, through whom I can do all things; for it is he that strengthens and animates me. For, when I am cast down by sad tidings of the Gospel being oppressed in one quarter, I am raised again by good news from another. One threatens me with a thou
sand deaths: another cheers me by his Christian letters as you have now begun to do but you must repeat the service frequently in future, if you continue to love me. Not that I think myself worthy of the praises which you lavish upon me; but because I see in you that temper which we desire to possess. For, when we find good men, men thinking rightly of Christ, we overflow with joy, and are ready to overwhelm them with commendations, such as must even appear foolish to them, did they not look rather to the intentions of the writer than to their own deserts. In this way only can I excuse your language to me.' p. 129. Surely this marks the humble, experienced Christian.
On the origin of religion in the mind, read his beautiful disquisition.
"Here then religion took its rise, when God recalled despairing fugitive man to himself: like a kind father, who hates indeed his son's folly and wicked
ness, but cannot hate the son himself; but tenderly calls him to him, and bids Adam, where art thou? Oh unutterable him consider in what a situation he stands. mercy of our heavenly Father. He inquires where he is, without whom, as placing all things in the situations which they must respectively occupy, none of them could at all exist. He demands, Where art thou? not that he may be himself informed, but to make blind ignorant man sensible of his unhappy condition, is the very cradle of religion, of piety— and to convince him of his guilt..... This a word, we may observe, applied as well between parents and their children as between God and man. See then the piety he runs to him; he stops him in the midst of the father towards his impious child: of his rash and wayward purposes.-So also to this very day the beginning of piety is on God's part: and all for our benefit: for he can receive nothing from us. this piety on God's part is then made perfect, (or attains its end,) when we
are turned to Him who calleth us off from our own infatuated counsels.-Unhappy indeed is that earthly parent that pursues, with unwearied kindness, a son who as perseveringly rejects his calls: but this can never happen where Almighty God is concerned: for whom he calls he compels This to answer, whether he will or not. prevaricator, David the adulterer and is proved in the instances of Adam the murderer, and Paul the persecutor.-Such then is the origin and nature of religion. him his disobedience, treachery, misery God exposes a man to himself; shews But he at the same time discloses to him so that he may quite despair of himself. the amplitude of his own mercy and kindness such that he who had just despaired of himself sees that there remains for
him, in the bosom of his Creator and Father, such grace, so sure, so ready, so all-sufficient, that he can never be sepaAnd this adherence of the heart, by which rated from Him on whose grace he relies the only good-who alone can soothe his a man relies without wavering on God as sorrows, alone avert from him all evils or turn them to his good and thus regards him as a Father; this is piety; this is religion. For they who thus regard God as a Father will constantly and anxiously study to please him, and to do his will. And so full is the testimony of Holy Scripture to the purport of all which we have now taught, that the whole doctrine of both the Old Testament and the New, and the burden of the song of all the saints of God, is nothing else than this-that we are destitute of every thing-that God possesses all things and that he will deny us nothing.'
"In the midst of this noble and affect
ing passage, our author throws in the following sentences: And here I would ask a certain class of theologians, and
leave the question for their consideration, Do they think that Adam would ever of himself have returned to seek mercy? Is there any appearance, any likelihood of it? Why then will they not acknowledge that it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy? for no man can come to Christ except the Father draw him. Let God only leave Adam, and Adam, having once fled from him, will never return: let him but leave man, and man will never seek Him that made him. We make these
observations, to shew how far man departs from God, unless God interposes to arrest his flight; and also for the purpose of demonstrating how far those divines err from the right path, who discourse of faith as acquired by man, and of free-will, even more frigidly than the very heathens do.'"
"Man (as he came from his Creator's hand) is the most extraordinary and admirable of all creatures. An angel is a noble being, consisting of pure spirit but if you compare man with him, will you not be astonished? He is at once heavenly and earthly-a celestial animal. .... In so constituting him, the Creator seems to have afforded some shadow of that commerce which he would one day hold with this world in the person of his Son. For what could so plainly and naturally have prepared us for the incarnation of the Son of God, as seeing an intellectual spirit lodged in a sluggish earthly body?'
"Again: Take away man out of this lower world, and all is bereaved, sunk, and degraded. Who is there then of all visible creatures, to know God, to hold intercourse with him, to enjoy him? Man is to the world what God is to man. Remove him, and all is widowed and destitute. Who is there then any more for the sun to warm, or the zephyrs to fan, or for whom the earth may bring forth her fruits? Will you say, There are the lower animals? But for whom would they exist, when no one remained that understood the use of any thing? It was necessary then that he, who was to be the master, the lord, and I may say the husband of the world, should have something
in common with the creatures over which he was to preside. At the same time he must possess some superior endowment, by which he should be enabled to govern them. A body therefore was given to
him who was to be the head of all cor
poreal things: and a soul to him, who alone among corporeal beings should hold kindred and communication with God and spiritual subsistences..... But now observe the body assigned to man, and compare it with those of the animals around him. The lion is covered with hair, and has
formidable teeth and claws. The bear, the stag, and every lower creature, has his weapons of offence or defence. But the human body is produced smooth, tender, and unarmed. Some have adduced this as a proof of the weakness and misery of man: we think it a token and omen of his superiority and happiness. Formed as he was to enjoy God and all the creatures of God, a body adapted for gentleness, peace, and friendship became him.'" pp. 220, 221.
One brief extract more: The writer, in answering those who speak disadvantageously of the holy law of God, after describing it as the discovery of the Divine mind and will, says,
"Hence it appears that some persons of great name, in our own times, have spoken too incautiously of the law, as if it did nothing else than terrify, condemn, and deliver over to the curse. The law is not the author of these evils. On the contrary, it is the revelation of the mind and will of God: than which nothing can be more excellent. St. Paul is more clear and more modest in his use of such modes of speaking..... His discourse all tends to extol the sanctity of the law, which he styles spiritual and good. Was then that which is good made death to me? he asks: and he answers, God forbid ! but sin that it might appear sin, worketh death in me by that which is good-namely, the law. Observe how carefully he avoids casting odium upon the law, by attributing death and damnation to it. Not that I would proscribe the use, in their proper place, of such enallages as that which makes the law to condemn and doom to death, but that I would have modesty and caution observed in the use of them..... That the law condemns and makes men guilty is no otherwise true, than it is true that the introduction of a light among a company of deformed men disfigures them. It is the detector of their deformity, not the author of it.'" pp. 221, 222.
The character of Ecolampadius is one of the fairest in the Reformed annals; so able, so mild, so firm, so prudent, so consistent, so humble : it is a lovely specimen of eminent abilities, controlled and animated with equal piety, and employed by the good providence of God in introducing and completing a great work of religious reformation. Take a few specimens.
"Your defence would have conduced to my honour for our cases are similar, except that I am placed among a people perhaps still more addicted to superstition, still more impatient of the truth, and
still more neglectful of charity. But far be it from me on such grounds to overlook the real interests of a friend who reposes confidence in me. I think you will not disapprove my advice. Very wise men have given me the like, fearing lest I should publish, against those among whom I live, an apology resembling yours.' After this introduction he proceeds as follows. After deeply considering the question on all sides, I am of opinion that it will not be for your advantage to publish what you have written. In the first place, you will not attain your object of clearing yourself from reproach. The judgments of mankind are various and perverse. Often when they see us anxious to vindicate ourselves, without some special call for it, they only suspect us the more. Moreover, the world is weary of personal apologies and vindications. Your reputation is safe while the senate of your country justifies you. The reproaches of the Pharisees can never be all silenced. For His sake who was numbered with the transgressors, we must bear it, that there should
be those who hate and revile and curse us. But we must strive to order our lives so blamelessly that the slander may refute itself, and that they may be confounded who wish us evil, and daily cry over us, There, There." " pp. 156, 157.
On simplicity of view in the ministers of religion, nothing can well exceed the following passage.
"How faithfully you labour in the Lord's vineyard all good men testify. Go on, and never expect to find your labours less or lighter than they are. Grow not weary of your work; nor look to have the triumph over a conquered world, and eternal glory awarded you, without your having here striven lawfully. The consciousness of having done all for the honour and glory of the universal Sovereign Lord is a mighty stay to the mind, to support its constancy. On the contrary, nothing so much converts the pillars of the church into reeds shaken with the wind, as the desire of their own glory. I need not mention examples: you have them near you. May a merciful God grant to such that they may not always dissemble known truth!'-Oh let no minister of Christ-none that would aspire to be such -overlook the remark here made on the 'desire of vain-glory,' a restless and ever-working principle,' wherever it finds admission, at constant war with all our Christian graces.'" pp. 162, 163.
What a solemn sentiment is the following!
"Nothing is more fatal to the church of God than lukewarm ministers." p. 164. And this:
"Hitherto the Lord has heard my prayers, and given me neither poverty nor riches....I have never yet been so poor,
that, if death had come, I should not have wished myself poorer."" p. 165. We conclude with his testimony to fundamental truth.—
"The next thing will be, that with unforth the Gospel-the mystery hidden failing faithfulness and constancy we sound from ages: namely, that by Jesus Christ of sins has been procured for the world. the Son of God dying for us, remission crucified. To this point let all our disBe this our wisdom, to preach Christ and this glory of the love of God towards courses tend; to set forth these riches us. For what more could the Father of begotten Son for our salvation? What has mercies do for us, than to give his only he not with him freely given us? What What forbearance and forgiveness will he shall we not obtain through his Son? not exercise towards us? With the net of
this doctrine we shall become fishers of to Christ: for the hearts of sinners, burmen; and draw them as willing servants dened with the chains of their sins, and harassed by cruel tyrants, gasp after peace and liberty. Thus shall we implant in them faith, which worketh by love to produce really good works. For we do not preach Christ as having so died for our sins, as to leave us at liberty to live in them; but on the contrary, as having so redeemed us that we should no more yield ourselves to bondage; but rather die to sin, and putting on the new man live not like the first Adam, who by his disobedience forfeited life and brought in death both to himself and to us, but like Christ, the Second Adam, who by his obedience unto death restored us to life, and, becoming the first-begotten from the dead, gave to us the assured hope of the resurrection, and of future glory and imberty of spirit by which we recognise God mortality. Hence comes that blessed lias our Father, love him whom we thus recognise, confide in him whom we thus love, and call on him in whom we thus confide, boldly crying, Abba, Father." PP. 177, 178.
We proceed to Farel, whose history is curious and affecting.
"Farel was born of a wealthy and noble family at Gap, in Dauphine, in the year 1489. By the advice of Faber Stapulensis, and other learned men who perceived his promising talents, he diligently applied himself to the study of philosophy and polite literature, and subsequently to that of the Latin and Greek languages, at Paris; where he for some time held a situation in the Cardinal's College,' and was one of the first persons who professed the Reformed religion in France. He himself states, that from the time he first heard of the evangelical doctrine he felt great anxiety about it. A preparation of mind had no doubt been taking place for his receiving it. He
passed, according to his own relation, more than three years in earnest prayers to God to guide him into the right way; frequently reading the New Testament on his knees; comparing the Greek text with the Vulgate version; and consulting persons of almost all descriptions, in the hope of eliciting from them some elucidation of the truth and will of God." pp. 71, 72.
"In the year 1521, Farel was called by William Briçonnet, or Brisonnet, bishop of Meaux, who favoured the Reformation, to preach in that city: but two years afterwards, the parliament of Paris having begun cruelly to persecute the professors of the Reformed faith, Brisonnet lost his courage, and Farel was compelled to leave France. He retired to Strasburg, where he formed an intimate friendship with Bucer and Capito, which was not interrupted but by death. Leaving Strasburg, he visited Basle, and his proceedings in that city have been noticed. As the hostility of the Roman-Catholic clergy did not permit him to continue at Basle, he removed, by the recommendation of Ecolampadius and other friends, to the neighbouring principality of Montbelliard, which, though insulated in France, belonged to the duke of Wurtemburg. Here he laboured with so much zeal and success, under the protection of the duke Ulric, that within two years the whole principality became reformed: and to this day the inhabitants in general are Protestpp. 72, 73.
"He returned in 1526 to Strasburg,
and thence removed to Neuchâtel. Here
he appeared habited as a priest, that he might gain access to preach the Gospel; but he was recognized as he was about to mount the pulpit, and was compelled to leave the town. He in consequence went
to Berne, and formed the acquaintance of
council of Berne, informed of his zeal and usefulness, sent him a patent, constituting him pastor of Aigle. He hereupon resumed his proper name, and commenced preaching. He encountered however great opposition both from the inhabitants and from persons in power, particularly the syndic of Aigle and the Bernese governor. The latter was on the point of prohibiting his preaching, when the council of Berne again interfered, censured the governor's conduct, and ordered him, so far from obstructing Farel in preaching the Gospel, to give him his countenance and support." pp. 77, 78.
"Farel, in no wise disconcerted by opposition, went on with his work, and laboured indefatigably for the good of such as would listen to him. He extended his services also to Bex, Olon, and other places within the government of Aigle. He wrote earnest and able letters to the domestic chaplain of the bishop of Lausanne, and other ecclesiastics, in the hope of softening their prejudices, and opening their minds to the admission of the truth: but, as far as appears, the only consequences were further insults and injuries to himself. He addressed also a brief but forcible exposition of the Christian doctrine to the nuns of the order of St. Claire, at Vevay." pp. 79, 80.
But we cannot afford room to
pursue our extracts, especially as we shall meet this noble reformer again, when we proceed, as we shall do in our Appendix, with the Geneva portion of the volume before us.
We cannot, however, close this division of the work, without a specimen or two of the prominence justly assigned to the Holy Scrip
tures, in the whole contest with the Church of Rome, and of the ignorance and profligacy of that church at the period of the Reformation. These extracts will shew that at that period the Bible and holiness were the cause of Protestantism; and human tradition and vice the cause of Popery.
Haller; who, finding his strong desire to advance the kingdom of Christ in those parts where the French language was spoken, advised him to go to Aigle, the only place of that description then subject exclusively to the government of Berne. He complied with the advice; screened himself from the odium under which he lay on account of his religion, by assuming the name of Ursinus, and for the present was contented to support himself, and quietly introduce his doctrine, by At the disputation at Berne in teaching a school. Whether or not we can approve even these slight instances of 1528, one rule laid down by the Re
disguise, we must admire the man of family, of learning, of eloquence, and originally of fortune also, who would expose himself to insult, if not to danger, and submit to the drudgery of a humble and laborious employment, simply in order to bring the knowledge of Christ to those who were prejudiced against it. Labouring in this unostentatious manner, Farel, we are told, had much success; when, in the early part of the year following, the
"That no proof should be admitted but from Scripture, nor any explanation of the proofs, which was not also supported by Scripture-no judge being allowed but Scripture explained by itself, that is, by the comparison of more obscure parts with those which are more clear.'" p. 4.
"And, if they attempt to oppose us by the Scriptures, their hands hang down,
and they lose all energy, from conscious-
The cautious interpretation of the
"But you know, my brother, that all the discords which have existed have had their origin in a corruption of the Divine word. What separated the Pharisees from the Apostles? Was it not the authority they assigned to the traditions of the elders, and their deserting the righteousness of God to establish the righteousnesses of men? What introduced so many heresies, and so many false teachers? Was it not that the inventions of the philosophers were found captivating, while the doctrine of the Cross appeared contemptible? We are still exposed to the same danger, if we depart a hair's breadth from the prescribed rule. We shall easily agree, if with one mind, taking Christ for our guide, we seek the glory of God-which is the scope and design of Scripture: but no peace, no profit, no commendation in Christ must be hoped for, if we once begin to mingle human inventions with Divine revelations. I exhort you therefore, my brother, who are forward of your own accord, evermore to give this honour to God to prefer nothing before his word; nay, to admit nothing beside it. man speak, let him speak as the oracles If any of God."" pp. 158, 159.
"But let us by all means beware of adulterating the word of God. Let us religiously abstain from adding to it or subtracting any thing from it. Let it be to us a light in a dark place: and according to it let us teach and judge. If difficulties occur, let us not deviate a hair's breadth from the rule of faith and charity." p. 179.
In this blaze of Scriptural light, how must the deformities, and ignorance, and vice of Popery appear!
"Alexius Gratt, a Dominican of Berne, undertook to maintain the supremacy of St. Peter, and through him of the pope : for which one of his arguments was our Lord's having given to Peter the name of Cephas, which, said Gratt, is a Greek word signifying a head, or chief.' Haller informed him that the word was Syriac,
explained to mean a rock or stone. Gratt and in the very passage referred to was alleged that he had read what he stated concerning the name Cephas in the vocabularies and we may observe, that gethe original Scriptures were to be referred nerally throughout the disputation, when to, the Roman-Catholic advocates had to rely upon, and even to solicit the assistance of their opponents!" pp. 7, 8. Traigeur, a Popish advocate, mentioned,
"That in order to be saved it was 'nelieves,' but, not necessary to understand cessary to believe all that the church beall the articles of faith, or believe them explicitly: it was enough to believe with the universal church, to which the Saviwould seem, both from this explanation our has promised his Spirit.' In short it and from the practice of the Romish church, that we must declare our assent to whatever the church teaches, but that, provided we constantly do so, we may in reality believe almost as we please. Such is the amount of Roman-Catholic unity!" p. 9.
"The canons of Basle (among whom
The contempt inspired by their idolatry is thus incidentally set forth :
Schweitz, some boys were allowed to "In the presence of the deputy of place where several ways met, and there, carry out the images from the church to a them thus: This way leads to Schweitz, placing them on the ground, to address that to Glaris; this to Zuric, and that to depart in peace: but if you do not move Coire choose which you will take, and along one or other of them we will burn you. As the idols shewed no disposition sumed." p. 50. to move, they were set on fire and con
division of the volume with the folWe conclude the notice of this lowing delightful trait.
the son of Jona: thou shalt be called