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as it were from house to house, and parish to parish, but with none of those signs and wonders which have often characterised remarkable revivals of religion. The instruments made use of by the Divine Agent to effect this great spiritual and national blessing have not been two or three remarkable men, who seemed whereever they went to excite a general shaking among the dry bones, while all around was the silence of death; but the benefit has been gradual, and progressive; a salutary dew of the Divine blessing on a wide-spread thirsty land, rather than a few copious showers, followed by exuberant fertilization on here and there an oasis, surrounded by drought and sterility. It has grown, like the natural frame, steadily but imperceptibly. In places wholly detached from each other, clergymen of faithfulness and zeal have been simultaneously raised up; the leaven is leavening the mass; the ordinary means of grace are rendered effectual to the ends for which they were appointed; scriptural education, and the circulation of the word of God are every where producing solid fruits; our Universities send out many faithful labourers into the harvest: and thus, while no one man or body of men can claim the honour, God himself, in the unseen ordering of his divine providence, is consummating the benefit. Whom could we make our pope, if we wished to choose one? Who is our Whitfield, or Wesley, or Brainerd, or Elliot? We have no apostles, no remarkable or extraordinary men on whom all eyes are fixed as the authors of this widely-spread revival of religion. There are indeed many who are highly and justly beloved and venerated; there are also a few who have been eminent instruments of spiritual blessing to their countrymen; but there is no one who can claim to be the acknowledged, father of the church. The body of truly religious persons among us is not a sect under a recognized leader; -no," it is the Lord's doing; and" in
Our readers cannot but have remarked in the preceding extracts, what appears still more conspicuously in the discourses themselves, the general unity of sentiment of the various writers in the great points of Christian faith and practice. We hear it objected, often and often, that the religious part of the community are rent into factions; that there is no brotherhood of affection or approximation of sentiment. But when we take up, as we have done casually, a pile of visitation charges and sermons, all so nearly concurring in the great matters of Christian doctrine; all so earnest for the glory of God and the salvation of the souls of men; we feel assured that the alleged discrepancies are much less serious, and confined to much fewer individuals, than is currently supposed. There are indeed those who would sow strife among brethren ; and in certain quarters of what is called the religious world, there are strange notions and dangerous errors afloat; and much we lament these things: but the great mass, we feel assured, are sound: the novelties, much as they are to be lamented, are not by any means co-extensive with the tumult which they excite. In not one of the discourses before us do we trace a symptom of dangerous flights and fancies. They differ in style and talent; we might not concur in every syllable in all of them: but they all inculcate the same great principles; and they are all, we might add, business-like sermons, not for display, or eloquence, or curiosity, but for the use of edifying. We may be told, as we have been on former occasions, that this only proves sameness, common-place, and "the dull monotony of the Evangelicals; always harping upon the fall and the atonement, repentance and faith, love and holiness, and some half dozen other favourite topics: but to our minds it is a hopeful feature; and though we
can well appreciate a novel and ingenious disquisition, at whatever it may be intrinsically worth; yet to repeat the great truths which form the staple of these discourses, even were it with some degree of triteness, is far the safer side. Several of these discourses indeed display considerable talent, as well as piety, and are by no means vapid, as we are told that the sermons of what are called the Evangelical clergy usually are; but take the most commonplace among them, or one ten times more common-place, down to a village evangelical sermon, and much more is it for the benefit of the souls of men, than the most ingenious of that extraordinary species of discourses which has of late prevailed in some quarters, and for which, in virtue of their being speculative, is claimed a far higher rank of scriptural discussion, than for those which are sneered at under the name of "practical."
There was a time, we are gravely told, when such discourses as these sermons recommend and exemplify were necessary, but that now other topics are much more seasonable and important. At the period of the Reformation, certain writers on prophecy tell us, the article of justification by faith was most necessary to be insisted upon, because the Papists had corrupted and concealed it; but that the world has outgrown that era, and that now, not the doctrine of justification by faith, but the doctrine of the quickly approaching personal advent of Christ before the Millennium, is the true mark of the
faithful and the " articulus stantis vel cadentis ecclesiæ." From such a notion we must utterly dissent; for never assuredly was there more need than at the present moment of preaching in all its plenitude that fundamental scriptural doctrine of justification through faith: nor do those who preach it, and the other doctrines connected with it, fail constantly to bring forward, both for warning and for consolation, the second advent of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ; not indeed encumbered with nice speculations, be they correct or otherwise, of time and locality, but in the simplicity of plainly revealed truth; ever connecting with his first coming in his humiliation to atone for sin, his second coming in glory to receive to himself the church which he had purchased with his most precious blood. Christ crucified, and Christ glorified,—the former in his atonement and example, the latter in his life-giving presence and behests, with all the blessed doctrines and precepts connected with and flowing from this two-fold view of our Almighty Redeemer and all-prevailing Advocate, are infinitely interesting subjects for the Chris tian's meditation, and of every really Evangelical minister's preaching. Neither must the cross of Calvary nor the crown of glory be forgotten; and most defective and erroneous is any system of doctrine that omits or misplaces either. Curious disquisitions may amuse or puzzle the understanding; but the main fabric of scriptural instruction is faith, hope, and charity.
LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE.
LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
Remarks on the general Tenor of the New Testament; addressed to Mrs. J. Baillie. By the Bishop of Salisbury.
Reasons for Attachment and Conformity to the Church of England. By the Rev. R. Meek. 4s. 6d.
Clerical Education. By the Rev. H. Raikes. 5s.
"Balm of Gilead, or useful Instructions for evil Times." By the Rev. N. Lockyer. 1644. Republished by the Religious Tract Society.
MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE-BRITISH AND FOREIGN.
MISS Baillie's Arian publication has been replied to by the learned and venerable Bishop of Salisbury, in a letter which is a model for theological controversy, from the Christian and courteous spirit which it breathes, and which cannot but attract a candid opponent to weigh with care its brief but irrefragable arguments. The Bishop devotes a portion of his letter to a defence of the text on the Heavenly Witnesses; in which the unlearned reader is presented with a popular survey of the chief arguments in favour of the authenticity of that litigated passage. Miss Baillie is happy in falling into the hands of so lenient a correspondent; for, besides her rashness in entering into a controversy on so solemn a subject, which by her own confession she had not carefully studied; and this also avowedly without the requisite literary apparatus for determining points of biblical criticism; she has exposed herself to serious remark on account of some of the opinions expressed in her volume, and the disrepect shewn to the Word of God in rejecting from her proofs the evidence of the Old Testament, as well as the Book of the Revelation and other portions of the New. The learned and indefatigable prelate's tractate does not profess to be a survey of the whole question relative to the person of Christ but it is perfectly satisfactory as a reply to the Arian remarks of Miss Baillie.
We take the opportunity of our allusion to the Bishop of Salisbury, to mention that his lordship's last published discourse before the Society of Literature contains, what the title does not promise, a learned and interesting digest of the evidence to prove that St. Paul first planted the Gospel in Great Britain. We purpose, in some future Number, extracting the substance of the argument for the consideration of our readers.
It is grievous that such writers as the Edinburgh Reviewers should allow themselves to touch upon matters of theology
or Christian morals. There are various topics which they understand and write upon with ability, though not always wisely;-but Christianity, either in its doctrines or its duties, is a subject which they never attempt to treat of without proving their ignorance and prejudice. There are some papers of this sort in the last Number, on which we may perhaps find opportunity to remark hereafter; especially one, entitled "The Pretensions of the Evangelical Class." The strain of this paper is to shew that what the reviewer calls "the Evangelical Class," act absurdly and inconsistently in discountenancing various "worldly amusements," which the reviewer considers innocent, nay, laudable; while they indulge, he says, in other vices, particularly the love of money and money's worth. We have here an alleged fact, and an inference derived from it. The alleged fact is, that the so-called " Evangelical Class," though they frequent neither ball-rooms nor theatres, are as covetous, ambitious, and ostentatious, as their neigbours. Now,even supposing this were true to the letter, it would not carry the intended inference; for the wickedness of doing one thing that was wrong would not prove that another which they abstained from was right; or that their arguments were not solid, though their practice was corrupt. The abstinence from worldliness of spirit which the reviewer says "the Evangelical Class' inculcate, is a scriptural duty, however little some of the inculcators may follow up their own lessons. We are not to bend God's word to man's conduct. Then, as to the fact itself; under the vague name of "the Evangelical Class," are comprised by the reviewer persons of numerous sects and parties; many of no religion, and some with scarcely so much as a semblance of it. What such individuals may say or do, matters nothing in determining a question of Christian morals; nay, not even though they should
profess themselves active partizans of religious institutions, and contend for the faithful preaching of the Gospel. We concede to the reviewer whatever truth and charity demand; for though we believe that among the body of persons whom he reproaches are to be found the excellent of the earth, and shall not shrink from defending them from the unjust and flippant charges so often urged against them, we yet deeply lament that among those who profess and call themselves Christians, there is much that comports not with their holy profession. We mourn and weep over the sins and inconsistencies by which the Redeemer is wounded in the house of his professed friends; for too true is it at all times that pride, ambition, selfishness, the love of money, and the love of ease, deform the character of too many who" name the name of Christ;" and not least do we lament the evil, from the pretext which it furnishes to sceptics and scoffers to set at nought true religion as well as the pretence to it. But to the individual belongs the guilt; for the word of God is not weakened, nor the power of true religion disproved, because of his inconsistency; and the Edinburgh Reviewer ought in fairness to have made this distinction. Not, however, that we admit the alleged fact of the reviewer in the sweeping manner in which he urges it; for whatever of "pretension" there may be among individuals of what he calls "the Evangelical Class," all who are truly faithful servants of Christ, by whatever name designated for names are of little account-endeavour to shun the practices which he exposes as well as those which he vindicates; and they certainly would not think it" Evangelical" to cherish selfishness or avarice under the cloke of abstinence from worldly pleasure. The reviewer needs not go far to discover among those whose proceedings he reprobates, not a few whose conduct, without any "pretension," eminently adorns the doctrine of God their Saviour; and, though tares are found among the wheat, this does not prove that wheat does not exist, or is of no value. It is an evil practice, whether in Edinburgh Reviewers, or in any other quarter, to ground on the unworthy conduct of some persons professing religion such remarks as tend to injure religion itself, or religious institutions, or the great body of religious persons. Let those who are blameworthy be blamed; but most unjust and injurious is it on their account to cast a reproach on others, or on the doctrines so inconsistently advocated. Did the Edinburgh Reviewer ever calculate the amount of the sums collected in charitable contributions, and attempt to estimate the far larger sums disbursed in private benevolence, by the class of per
sons whom he indiscriminately reprobates? If he had done this, we think he would have seen reason to dilute his censures; especially as regards the poorer and middle classes of this despised body of persons.
King's College, London, has opened in its various classes. For the list of officers and studies we must refer to the advertisements. Such an institution was much wanted; and we trust and earnestly pray that for ages to come it may prove a seminary for true religion and useful learning, in connexion with the Established Church of England. We repeat what we said in our volume for 1825, in speaking of the London University: "Let literature and science have free scope; but it is on the basis of A SCRIPTURAL EDUCATION ALONE, that the manly, solid, and spiritual graces of the human character can securely rest; it is not enough that we render men literates and mechanics, if they fail to become Christians, and if they do not carry into the intercourse of life the just, the moral, the social, the beatifying virtues of true and undefiled religion." We have so often urged this important point, so frequently dwelt upon the necessity of SCRIPTURAL EDUCATION as, under the blessing of God, and in connexion with the faithful preaching of the Gospel, the very panacea for the evils of England and Ireland, and the whole world, that we might perhaps be expected to apologize for our wearisome tautology. Often, however, as we have uttered this sentiment, we have not, it seems, uttered it often enough, since a contemporary journalist has so misread our pages as actually to tell his readers that the Christian Observer is the most active of all the advocates for "a system of education from which God is professedly and explicitly rejected.' If we could raise our voice and be heard in every school, and college, and every house and hovel throughout the land, scriptural education would be our most earnest exhortation. In proportion as our schools, whether for rich or poor, approach this standard, will they prove a blessing to the country; and most feelingly do we hope that the new college will become a seminary of truly religious instruction, not in the mere technicalities of formal routine and decent observance, but in the spirit of the Christian's holy profession and baptismal vow. It is lamentable to see how far short of this elevated standard fall no small number of our schools, even of those which profess to pay attention to religious culture; and to this we mainly attribute it that more good has not been effected by their agency. To all teachers of schools for the poor, whether National, Lancasterian, Infant, Daily, or Sunday, and not less to all conductors of those of a higher class, including our public schools and Universities, would we solemnly put
the question, "Is your establishment, besides its literary merits, to the best of your ability, God being your helper, a nursery for the Christian church, and a preparative for the kingdom of heaven? If it be not, you are neglecting the first and highest duty of an instructor of youth, and it will not avail for the absence of this heartfelt serious concern for the spiritual welfare of your pupils, that you summon them to muster-roll prayers and exact a few perfunctory observances. The Morning Watch may make what use it pleases of our declaration, but we scruple not to repeat our painful conviction, that, as to any salutary recognition, God is as much rejected in a large portion of our schools for the middle and higher classes of British society as under the reprobated system of Mechanics' Institutes, or the London University.
In the granite quarries near Seringapatam enormous blocks are separated from the solid rock by the following simple process. The workman having found a portion of the rock sufficiently extensive, and situated near the edge of the part already quarried, lays bare the upper surface, and marks on it a line in the direction of the intended separation, along which a groove is cut with a chisel about two inches in depth. Above this groove a narrow line of fire is kindled, and maintained till the rock below is thoroughly heated, immediately on which a line of men and women, each provided with a pot full of cold water, suddenly sweep off the ashes, and pour the water into the heated groove, when the rock at once splits with a clean fracture. Square blocks of six feet in the side, and upwards of eighty feet in length, are sometimes detached by this method. Such a block would weigh nearly 500,000 pounds. -Herschel's Philosophy, in Lardner's Cyc. "A bushel of coals properly consumed will raise seventy millions of pounds' weight a foot high. This is the average effect of a steam engine now working in Cornwall. The ascent of Mont Blanc from the valley of Chamouni is considered as the most toilsome feat that a strong man can execute in two days. The combustion of two pounds of coal would place him on the summit. The Menai Bridge consists of a mass of iron, not less than four millions of pounds in weight, suspended at a medium height of 120 feet above the sea. The consumption of seven hanhels of coal would suffice to raise it to the place where it hangs. The great pyramid of Egypt is composed of granite. It is 700 feet in the side of its base, and 500 in perpendicular height, and stands on eleven acres of ground. Its weight is, therefore, 12,760 millions of pounds, at a medium height of 125 feet; consequently it would be raised by the effort of about 630 chaldrons of coal, a quantity consumed in some foundaries in a week. The annual
Wonderful Effects of Chemistry." Who would have conceived that linen rags were capable of producing more than their own weight of sugar, by the simple agency of one of the cheapest and most abundant acids?that dry bones could be a magazine of nutriment, capable of preservation for years, and ready to yield up their sustenance in the form best adapted to the support of life, on the application of that powerful agent, steam, or of an acid at once cheap and durable?—that sawdust itself is susceptible of conversion into a substance bearing no remote analogy to bread?"— Ibid.
The mutual good Offices of Art and Science." A soap-manufacturer remarks, that the residuum of his ley, when exhausted of the alkali for which he employs it, produces a corrosion of his copperboiler. He puts it into the hands of a scientific chemist for analysis, and the result is the discovery of one of the most singular and important chemical elements, iodine. Curiosity is excited: the origin of the new substance is traced to the seaplants from whose ashes the principal ingredient of soap is obtained, and ultimately to the sea-water itself. It is thence hunted through nature, discovered in salt mines and springs, and pursued into all bodies which have a marine origin; among the rest, into sponge. A medical practitioner (Dr. Coindet, of Geneva,) then calls to mind a reputed remedy for the cure of one of the most grievous and unsightly disorders to which the human species is subject the goitre-which infests the inhabitants of mountainous districts to an extent that in this favoured land we have happily no experience of, and which was said to have been originally cured by the ashes of burnt spunge. by this indication, he tries the effect of iodine on that complaint, and the result establishes the extraordinary fact that this singular substance, taken as a medicine, acts with the utmost promptitude and energy on the goitre, (and all glandular tumours,) dissipating the largest and most inveterate in a short time. It is thus that any accession to our knowledge of nature is sure, sooner or later, to make itself felt in some practical application."—Ibid.
Some of the London magistrates have adopted the excellent resolution of binding no child, brought by the parish officers as an apprentice, who has not learned to read and write. We trust that this will